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PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264179, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736506


As of March 2021, three COVID-19 vaccines had been authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States. Each has substantial efficacy in preventing COVID-19. However, as efficacy from trials was <100% for all three vaccines, disease in vaccinated people is expected to occur. We created a spreadsheet-based tool to estimate the number of symptomatic COVID-19 cases among vaccinated people (vaccine breakthrough infections) based on published vaccine efficacy (VE) data, percent of the population that has been fully vaccinated, and average number of COVID-19 cases reported per day. We estimate that approximately 199,000 symptomatic vaccine breakthrough infections (95% CI: ~183,000-214,000 cases) occurred in the United States during January-July 2021 among >156 million fully vaccinated people. With high SARS-CoV-2 transmission and increasing numbers of people vaccinated in the United States, vaccine breakthrough infections will continue to accumulate. Understanding expectations regarding number of vaccine breakthrough infections enables accurate public health messaging to help ensure that the occurrence of such cases does not negatively affect vaccine perceptions, confidence, and uptake.

COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722274


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccines are highly efficacious, but SARS-CoV-2 infections post-vaccination occur. We characterized COVID-19 cases among fully vaccinated persons with an outcome of death. METHODS: We analyzed COVID-19 cases voluntarily reported to CDC by US health departments during January 1, 2021-April 30, 2021. We included cases among U.S. residents with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test ≥14 days after completion of an authorized primary vaccine series and who had a known outcome (alive or death) as of May 31, 2021. When available, specimens were sequenced for viral lineage and death certificates were reviewed for cause(s) of death. RESULTS: Of 8,084 reported COVID-19 cases among fully vaccinated persons during the surveillance period, 245 (3.0%) died. Compared with patients who remained alive, those who died were older (median age 82 years vs. 57 years, P <0.01), more likely to reside in a long-term care facility (51% vs. 18%, P <0.01), and more likely to have at least one underlying health condition associated with risk for severe disease (64% vs. 24%, P <0.01). Among 245 deaths, 191 (78%) were classified as COVID-19-related. Of 106 deaths with available death certificates, COVID-19 was listed on 81 (77%). There were no differences in the type of vaccine administered or the most common viral lineage (B.1.1.7). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 deaths are rare in fully vaccinated persons, occurring most commonly in those with risk factors for severe disease, including older age and underlying health conditions. All eligible persons should be fully vaccinated against COVID-19 and follow other prevention measures to mitigate exposure risk.

Public Health Rep ; 137(1): 128-136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506259


OBJECTIVES: The number of SARS-CoV-2 infections is underestimated in surveillance data. Various approaches to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 have different resource requirements and generalizability. We estimated the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in Denver County, Colorado, via a cluster-sampled community survey. METHODS: We estimated the overall seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 via a community seroprevalence survey in Denver County in July 2020, described patterns associated with seroprevalence, and compared results with cumulative COVID-19 incidence as reported to the health department during the same period. In addition, we compared seroprevalence as assessed with a temporally and geographically concordant convenience sample of residual clinical specimens from a commercial laboratory. RESULTS: Based on 404 specimens collected through the community survey, 8.0% (95% CI, 3.9%-15.7%) of Denver County residents had antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, an infection rate of about 7 times that of the 1.1% cumulative reported COVID-19 incidence during this period. The estimated infection-to-reported case ratio was highest among children (34.7; 95% CI, 11.1-91.2) and males (10.8; 95% CI, 5.7-19.3). Seroprevalence was highest among males of Black race or Hispanic ethnicity and was associated with previous COVID-19-compatible illness, a previous positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and close contact with someone who had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Testing of 1598 residual clinical specimens yielded a seroprevalence of 6.8% (95% CI, 5.0%-9.2%); the difference between the 2 estimates was 1.2 percentage points (95% CI, -3.6 to 12.2 percentage points). CONCLUSIONS: Testing residual clinical specimens provided a similar seroprevalence estimate yet yielded limited insight into the local epidemiology of COVID-19 and might be less representative of the source population than a cluster-sampled community survey. Awareness of the limitations of various sampling strategies is necessary when interpreting findings from seroprevalence assessments.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Colorado/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Factors , Young Adult
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2715-2717, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486734


Surveys indicate US residents spent more time outdoors in 2020 than in 2019, but fewer tick bite-related emergency department visits and Lyme disease laboratory tests were reported. Despite ongoing exposure, Lyme disease case reporting for 2020 might be artificially reduced due to coronavirus disease-associated changes in healthcare-seeking behavior.

COVID-19 , Lyme Disease , Tick Bites , Humans , Lyme Disease/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology