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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533803

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the leading cause of liver morbidity worldwide and, as such, represents the pathogenic background for the increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The annual incidence of NAFLD-related HCC is expected to increase by 45-130% by 2030. Diabetes mellitus is the most important risk factor for HCC development in NAFLD, with the risk further increased when associated with other metabolic traits, such as obesity, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia. The highest risk of HCC exists in patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis, although 20-50% of HCC cases arise in NAFLD patients with an absence of cirrhosis. This calls for further investigation of the pathogenic mechanisms that are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, including genetics, metabolomics, the influence of the gut microbiota and immunological responses. Early identification of patients with or at risk of NAFLD is of utmost importance to improve outcomes. As NAFLD is highly prevalent in the community, the identification of cases should rely upon simple demographic and clinical characteristics. Once identified, these patients should then be evaluated for the presence of advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis and subsequently enter HCC surveillance programs if appropriate. A significant problem is the early recognition of non-cirrhotic NAFLD patients who will develop HCC, where new biomarkers and scores are potential solutions to tackle this issue.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21514, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500512

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with systemic inflammation. A wide range of adipokines activities suggests they influence pathogenesis and infection course. The aim was to assess concentrations of chemerin, omentin, and vaspin among COVID-19 patients with an emphasis on adipokines relationship with COVID-19 severity, concomitant metabolic abnormalities and liver dysfunction. Serum chemerin, omentin and vaspin concentrations were measured in serum collected from 70 COVID-19 patients at the moment of admission to hospital, before any treatment was applied and 20 healthy controls. Serum chemerin and omentin concentrations were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy volunteers (271.0 vs. 373.0 ng/ml; p < 0.001 and 482.1 vs. 814.3 ng/ml; p = 0.01, respectively). There were no correlations of analyzed adipokines with COVID-19 severity based on the presence of pneumonia, dyspnea, or necessity of Intensive Care Unit hospitalization (ICU). Liver test abnormalities did not influence adipokines levels. Elevated GGT activity was associated with ICU admission, presence of pneumonia and elevated concentrations of CRP, ferritin and interleukin 6. Chemerin and omentin depletion in COVID-19 patients suggests that this adipokines deficiency play influential role in disease pathogenesis. However, there was no relationship between lower adipokines level and frequency of COVID-19 symptoms as well as disease severity. The only predictive factor which could predispose to a more severe COVID-19 course, including the presence of pneumonia and ICU hospitalization, was GGT activity.


Subject(s)
Adipokines/blood , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Lectins/blood , Serpins/blood , Aged , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/metabolism
3.
Biomolecules ; 11(10)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444095

ABSTRACT

Analysis of liver biopsy specimens showed that SARS-CoV-2 might have led to liver damage. This study aimed to evaluate the role of selected hepatokines and myokines in the development and progression of COVID-19. Seventy patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Irisin, pentraxin 3, fetuin-A, and FGF-21 serum concentrations and biochemical parameters were assessed using an immunoenzymatic method with commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Serum fetuin-A concentrations were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy volunteers. The serum concentration of FGF-21 was significantly increased in obese COVID-19 patients compared to overweight ones. Moreover, the FGF-21 level was higher in COVID-19 patients diagnosed with metabolic syndrome than in patients without metabolic syndrome. PTX3 concentration was higher in COVID-19 patients with higher HOMA-IR values than those with lower HOMA-IR values. COVID-19 patients with HOMA-IR ≤ 3 and >3 had significantly lower fetuin-A levels than the control group. Irisin concentration was significantly decreased in the HOMA-IR ≤ 3 COVID-19 subgroup when comparing with the control group. Lower levels of fetuin-A observed in COVID-19 patients despite higher HOMA-IR, CRP, and ferritin levels, pneumonia, patients requiring ICU care suggests that fetuin-A deficiency predisposes to more severe COVID-19 course. Upregulated pentraxin 3 may be used as a potential predictor of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein/deficiency
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver involvement in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been recognised. We aimed to investigate the correlation of non-invasive surrogates of liver steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation using transient elastography (TE) and FibroScan-AST (FAST) score with (a) clinical severity and (b) 30-day composite outcome of mechanical ventilation (MV) or death among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. METHOD: Patients with non-critical COVID-19 at admission were included. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) were assessed by TE. Clinical severity of COVID-19 was assessed by 4C Mortality Score (4CMS) and need for high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen supplementation. RESULTS: 217 patients were included (66.5% males, median age 65 years, 4.6% with history of chronic liver disease). Twenty-four (11.1%) patients met the 30-day composite outcome. Median LSM, CAP and FAST score were 5.2 kPa, 274 dB/m and 0.31, respectively, and neither was associated with clinical severity of COVID-19 at admission. In multivariate analysis FAST > 0.36 (OR 3.19, p = 0.036), 4CMS (OR 1.68, p = 0.002) and HFNC (OR 7.03, p = 0.001) were independent predictors of adverse composite outcome. CONCLUSION: Whereas LSM and CAP failed to show correlation with COVID-19 severity and outcomes, FAST score was an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality or need for MV.

5.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334994

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hyperinflammation leading to organ injury, including respiratory failure. Galectin-3 was implicated in innate immunological response to infections and in chronic fibrosis. The aim of our preliminary study was the assessment of the diagnostic utility of serum galectin-3 in patients with COVID-19. The prospective observational study included adult patients admitted with active COVID-19 and treated in tertiary hospital between June and July 2020. The diagnosis was confirmed by the quantitative detection of nucleic acid of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in nasopharyngeal swabs. Galectin-3 was measured by enzyme immunoassay in serum samples obtained during the first five days of hospital stay. We included 70 patients aged 25 to 73 years; 90% had at least one comorbidity. During the hospital stay, 32.9% were diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and 12.9% required treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU). Serum galectin-3 was significantly increased in patients who developed pneumonia, particularly those who required ICU admission. Positive correlations were found between galectin-3 and inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, ferritin, pentraxin-3), a marker of endothelial injury (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1), and a range of tissue injury markers. Serum galectin-3 enabled the diagnosis of pneumonia with moderate diagnostic accuracy and the need for ICU treatment with high diagnostic accuracy. Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that galectin-3 may be involved in severe COVID-19. Further studies are planned to confirm the preliminary results and to verify possible associations of galectin-3 with long-term consequences of COVID-19, including pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Galectin 3/blood , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Serum Amyloid P-Component/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/blood
6.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232697

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection has been predominantly linked to respiratory distress syndrome, but gastrointestinal symptoms and hepatic injury have also been reported. The mechanism of liver injury is poorly understood and may result as a consequence of viral hepatitis, systemic inflammatory response, gut barrier and microbiome alterations, intensive care treatment or drug toxicity. The incidence of hepatopathy among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear, but studies have reported liver injury in patients with SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). We aimed to systematically review data on the prevalence of hepatic impairments and their clinical course in SARS and MERS Coronaviridae infections. A systematic literature search (PubMed/Embase/Cinahl/Web of Science) according to preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA) was conducted from database inception until 17/03/2020 for studies that evaluated the incidence of hepatic abnormalities in SARS CoV-1, SARS CoV-2 and MERS infected patients with reported liver-related parameters. A total of forty-three studies were included. Liver anomalies were predominantly mild to moderately elevated transaminases, hypoalbuminemia and prolongation of prothrombin time. Histopathology varied between non-specific inflammation, mild steatosis, congestion and massive necrosis. More studies to elucidate the mechanism and importance of liver injury on the clinical course and prognosis in patients with novel SARS-CoV-2 infection are warranted.

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