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JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e220130, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700096


Importance: Large cohorts of patients with active cancers and COVID-19 infection are needed to provide evidence of the association of recent cancer treatment and cancer type with COVID-19 mortality. Objective: To evaluate whether systemic anticancer treatments (SACTs), tumor subtypes, patient demographic characteristics (age and sex), and comorbidities are associated with COVID-19 mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: The UK Coronavirus Cancer Monitoring Project (UKCCMP) is a prospective cohort study conducted at 69 UK cancer hospitals among adult patients (≥18 years) with an active cancer and a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients registered from March 18 to August 1, 2020, were included in this analysis. Exposures: SACT, tumor subtype, patient demographic characteristics (eg, age, sex, body mass index, race and ethnicity, smoking history), and comorbidities were investigated. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was all-cause mortality within the primary hospitalization. Results: Overall, 2515 of 2786 patients registered during the study period were included; 1464 (58%) were men; and the median (IQR) age was 72 (62-80) years. The mortality rate was 38% (966 patients). The data suggest an association between higher mortality in patients with hematological malignant neoplasms irrespective of recent SACT, particularly in those with acute leukemias or myelodysplastic syndrome (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.30-3.60) and myeloma or plasmacytoma (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.04-2.26). Lung cancer was also significantly associated with higher COVID-19-related mortality (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.11-2.25). No association between higher mortality and receiving chemotherapy in the 4 weeks before COVID-19 diagnosis was observed after correcting for the crucial confounders of age, sex, and comorbidities. An association between lower mortality and receiving immunotherapy in the 4 weeks before COVID-19 diagnosis was observed (immunotherapy vs no cancer therapy: OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.86). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study of patients with active cancer suggest that recent SACT is not associated with inferior outcomes from COVID-19 infection. This has relevance for the care of patients with cancer requiring treatment, particularly in countries experiencing an increase in COVID-19 case numbers. Important differences in outcomes among patients with hematological and lung cancers were observed.

COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries , United Kingdom
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564105


The complex pathophysiologic interplay between SARS-CoV-2 infection and complement activation is the subject of active investigation. It is clinically mirrored by the occurrence of exacerbations of complement mediated diseases during COVID-19 infection. These include complement-mediated hemolytic anemias such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), particularly cold agglutinin disease (CAD), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). All these conditions may benefit from complement inhibitors that are also under study for COVID-19 disease. Hemolytic exacerbations in these conditions may occur upon several triggers including infections and vaccines and may require transfusions, treatment with complement inhibitors and/or immunosuppressors (i.e., steroids and rituximab for AIHA), and result in thrombotic complications. In this manuscript we describe four patients (2 with PNH and 2 with CAD) who experienced hemolytic flares after either COVID-19 infection or SARS-Cov2 vaccine and provide a review of the most recent literature. We report that most episodes occurred within the first 10 days after COVID-19 infection/vaccination and suggest laboratory monitoring (Hb and LDH levels) in that period. Moreover, in our experience and in the literature, hemolytic exacerbations occurring during COVID-19 infection were more severe, required greater therapeutic intervention, and carried more complications including fatalities, as compared to those developing after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, suggesting the importance of vaccinating this patient population. Patient education remains pivotal to promptly recognize signs/symptoms of hemolytic flares and to refer to medical attention. Treatment choice should be based on the severity of the hemolytic exacerbation as well as of that of COVID-19 infection. Therapies include transfusions, complement inhibitor initiation/additional dose in the case of PNH, steroids/rituximab in patients with CAD and warm type AIHA, plasma exchange, hemodialysis and complement inhibitor in the case of atypical HUS. Finally, anti-thrombotic prophylaxis should be always considered in these settings, provided safe platelet counts.

Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 428-436, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082066


We document here that intensive care COVID-19 patients suffer a profound decline in hemoglobin levels but show an increase of circulating nucleated red cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection either directly or indirectly induces stress erythropoiesis. We show that ACE2 expression peaks during erythropoiesis and renders erythroid progenitors vulnerable to infection by SARS-CoV-2. Early erythroid progenitors, defined as CD34-CD117+CD71+CD235a-, show the highest levels of ACE2 and constitute the primary target cell to be infected during erythropoiesis. SARS-CoV-2 causes the expansion of colony formation by erythroid progenitors and can be detected in these cells after 2 weeks of the initial infection. Our findings constitute the first report of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in erythroid progenitor cells and can contribute to understanding both the clinical symptoms of severe COVID-19 patients and how the virus can spread through the circulation to produce local inflammation in tissues, including the bone marrow.

COVID-19/virology , Erythroid Precursor Cells/virology , Erythropoiesis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Erythroid Precursor Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Vero Cells