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1.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 31(7): 464-474, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429159

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe the development of a protocol and practical tool for the safe delivery of telemental health (TMH) services to the home. The COVID-19 pandemic forced providers to rapidly transition their outpatient practices to home-based TMH (HB-TMH) without existing protocols or tools to guide them. This experience underscored the need for a standardized privacy and safety tool as HB-TMH is expected to continue as a resource during future crises as well as to become a component of the routine mental health care landscape. Methods: The authors represent a subset of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Telemental Health Consortium. They met weekly through videoconferencing to review published safety standards of care, existing TMH guidelines for clinic-based and home-based services, and their own institutional protocols. They agreed on three domains foundational to the delivery of HB-TMH: environmental safety, clinical safety, and disposition planning. Through multiple iterations, they agreed upon a final Privacy and Safety Protocol for HB-TMH. The protocol was then operationalized into the Privacy and Safety Assessment Tool (PSA Tool) based on two keystone medical safety constructs: the World Health Organization (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist/Time-Out and the Checklist Manifesto. Results: The PSA Tool comprised four modules: (1) Screening for Safety for HB-TMH; (2) Assessment for Safety During the HB-TMH Initial Visit; (3) End of the Initial Visit and Disposition Planning; and (4) the TMH Time-Out and Reassessment during subsequent visits. A sample workflow guides implementation. Conclusions: The Privacy and Safety Protocol and PSA Tool aim to prepare providers for the private and safe delivery of HB-TMH. Its modular format can be adapted to each site's resources. Going forward, the PSA Tool should help to facilitate the integration of HB-TMH into the routine mental health care landscape.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health Services/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Child Health Services/organization & administration , Clinical Protocols/standards , Home Care Services , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Patient Safety , Privacy , Telemedicine , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Computer Communication Networks/standards , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Home Care Services/ethics , Home Care Services/standards , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/ethics , Telemedicine/methods , United States
2.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 61(2): 277-290.e2, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A consortium of 8 academic child and adolescent psychiatry programs in the United States and Canada examined their pivot from in-person, clinic-based services to home-based telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aims were to document the transition across diverse sites and to present recommendations for future telehealth service planning. METHOD: Consortium sites completed a Qualtrics survey assessing site characteristics, telehealth practices, service use, and barriers to and facilitators of telehealth service delivery prior to (pre) and during the early stages of (post) the COVID-19 pandemic. The design is descriptive. RESULTS: All sites pivoted from in-person services to home-based telehealth within 2 weeks. Some sites experienced delays in conducting new intakes, and most experienced delays establishing tele-group therapy. No-show rates and use of telephony versus videoconferencing varied by site. Changes in telehealth practices (eg, documentation requirements, safety protocols) and perceived barriers to telehealth service delivery (eg, regulatory limitations, inability to bill) occurred pre-/post-COVID-19. CONCLUSION: A rapid pivot from in-person services to home-based telehealth occurred at 8 diverse academic programs in the context of a global health crisis. To promote ongoing use of home-based telehealth during future crises and usual care, academic programs should continue documenting the successes and barriers to telehealth practice to promote equitable and sustainable telehealth service delivery in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
3.
Perspect Med Educ ; 10(4): 222-229, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206959

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a significant toll on the health of structurally vulnerable patient populations as well as healthcare workers. The concepts of structural stigma and moral distress are important and interrelated, yet rarely explored or researched in medical education. Structural stigma refers to how discrimination towards certain groups is enacted through policy and practice. Moral distress describes the tension and conflict that health workers experience when they are unable to fulfil their duties due to circumstances outside of their control. In this study, the authors explored how resident physicians perceive moral distress in relation to structural stigma. An improved understanding of such experiences may provide insights into how to prepare future physicians to improve health equity. METHODS: Utilizing constructivist grounded theory methodology, 22 participants from across Canada including 17 resident physicians from diverse specialties and 5 faculty members were recruited for semi-structured interviews from April-June 2020. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. RESULTS: Results describe a distinctive form of moral distress called structural distress, which centers upon the experience of powerlessness leading resident physicians to go above and beyond the call of duty, potentially worsening their psychological well-being. Faculty play a buffering role in mitigating the impact of structural distress by role modeling vulnerability and involving residents in policy decisions. CONCLUSION: These findings provide unique insights into teaching and learning about the care of structurally vulnerable populations and faculty's role related to resident advocacy and decision-making. The concept of structural distress may provide the foundation for future research into the intersection between resident well-being and training related to health equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Mental Health , Pandemics , Physicians/ethics , Social Discrimination/ethics , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Canada , Ethics, Medical , Faculty, Medical , Female , Health Equity , Humans , Male , Morals , Physicians/psychology , Policy , Power, Psychological , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Discrimination/psychology , Social Justice , Vulnerable Populations
4.
J Contemp Psychother ; 51(1): 1-7, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893312

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 restrictions have necessitated child/youth mental health providers to shift towards virtually delivering services to patients' homes rather than hospitals and community mental health clinics. There is scant guidance available for clinicians on how to address unique considerations for the virtual mental healthcare of children and youth as clinicians rapidly shift their practices away from in-person care in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we bridge this gap by discussing a six-pillar framework developed at Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, for delivering direct to patient virtual mental healthcare to children, youth and their families. We also offer a discussion of the advantages, disadvantages, and future implications of such services.

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