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3.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880474
4.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880261
5.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):188, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880200

ABSTRACT

Background: The WHO recommends enhanced adherence counseling (EAC) before regimen switch for HIV-positive, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals with non-suppressed viral loads (VL). However, there is a paucity of data, especially within a clinical trial setting, on the determinants of viral suppression (VS) following EAC among those failing ART. We thus evaluated predictors of VS among adults failing ART who had undergone EAC in the VISEND clinical trial. Methods: Our trial is a randomized 144 week open label non-inferiority study with adults failing (VL≧ 1000 copies/mL) ART of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) plus efavirenz (EFV) or nevirapine (NVP), switched to 1) TDF,3TC,DTG or 2) tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), emtricitabine (FTC),DTG or 3) lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or atazanavir/r (ATV/r), zidovudine (ZDV),3TC. Viral loads and other biomarkers were collected at weeks 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 144. Adults with VL≧ 1000 copies/mL at each of these time points underwent EAC involving 3 sessions over a period of 3 months according to existing guidelines. We calculated proportions of individuals who achieved VS post EAC and analyzed factors (demographic and clinical) independently associated with VS post EAC. Using multivariable log regression models, associations were analyzed as crude risk ratios (CRR) and adjusted risk ratios (ARR). Results: The overall VS rates following EAC among individuals with virologic failure was 66%;broken down as follows: TAF,FTC,DTG (78%), TDF,3TC,DTG (71%), ZDV,3TC,ATV/r (62%), and ZDV,3TC,LPV/r (53%). Compared to adults with no formal education, those having primary (ARR 1.55 [1.32-1.81], P<0.001) or secondary level education (ARR 1.93 [1.65-2.27], P<0.001) were more likely to achieve VS. Those less likely to suppress post EAC were individuals on ART for > 5 years (ARR 0.75 [0.75-0.75], P<0.001), VL > 10,000 copies/mL at time of failure (0.48 [0.48-0.48], P<0.001), presence of comorbidities (ARR 0.77 [0.66-0.90], P=0.001) and those taking concomitant medications (ARR 0.67 [0.58-0.79], P<0.001). Having suffered from COVID-19 infection had no association with VS post EAC (ARR 0.59 [0.22-1.58], P=0.30). Consistent results are in Table 1. Conclusion: In the VISEND trial, EAC led to VS rates near the WHO target of 70% with disparities in outcomes according to gender, education, and other factors. There is a need to routinely incorporate EAC into clinical trials and practice before regimen switch in order to maximize outcomes.

6.
Journal International Medical Sciences Academy ; 35(1):13-22, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880047

ABSTRACT

Background: Long-COVID syndrome is now a real and pressing public health concern. We cannot reliably predict who will recover quickly or suffer with mild debilitating long COVID-19 symptoms or battle life-threatening complications. In order to address some of these questions, we studied the presence of (post covid) symptoms and various correlates in COVID-19 patients who were discharged from hospital, 3 months and up to 12 months after acute COVID-19 illness. Methods: This is an observational follow-up study of RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted at 3 hospitals in north India between April – August 2020. Patients were interviewed telephonically using a questionnaire regarding the post-COVID symptoms. The first tele-calling was done in the month of September 2020, which corresponded to 4- 16 weeks after disease onset. All those who reported presence of long COVID symptoms, were followed-up with a second call, in the month of March 2021, corresponding to around 9-12 months after the onset of disease. Results: Of 990 patients who responded to the first call, 615 (62.2%) had mild illness, 227 (22.9%) had moderate and 148 (15.0%) had severe COVID-19 illness at the time of admission. Nearly 40% (399) of these 990 patients reported at least one symptom at that time. Of these 399 long-COVID patients, 311 (almost 78%) responded to the second follow-up. Nearly 8% reported ongoing symptomatic COVID, lasting 1-3 months and 32% patients having post-COVID phase with symptoms lasting 3-12 months. Nearly 11% patients continued to have at least one symptom even at the time of the second interview (9-12 months after the disease onset). Overall, we observed Long-COVID in almost 40% of our study group. Incidence of the symptoms in both the follow-ups remained almost same across age-groups, gender, severity of illness at admission and presence of comorbidity, with no significant association with any of them. Most common symptoms experienced in long COVID phase in our cohort were fatigue, myalgia, neuro-psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, “brain fog” and sleep disorder, and breathlessness. Fatigue was found to be significantly more often reported in the elderly population and in those patients who had a severe COVID-19 illness at the time of admission. Persistence of breathlessness was also reported significantly more often in those who had severe disease at the onset. The overall median duration of long COVID symptoms was 16.9 weeks with inter-quartile range of 12.4 to 35.6 weeks. The duration of symptom resolution was not associated with age, gender or comorbidity but was significantly associated with severity of illness at the time of admission (P=0.006). Conclusions: Long-COVID was seen in almost 40% of our study group with no correlation to age, gender, comorbidities or to the disease severity. The duration of symptom resolution was significantly associated with severity of illness at the time of admission (P = 0.006). In our study, all patients reported minor symptoms such as fatigue, myalgia, neuro-psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, “brain fog” and sleep disorder and persistence of breathlessness.

7.
Journal of Modelling in Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1878919

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Facing the challenges posed by the pandemic of COVID-19, this paper aims to contribute to the resilience of businesses through the development of a real options approach (ROA) that provides alternatives and opportunities for a decision process under situations when future events and outcomes are unknown and not capable of being known from current information. Design/methodology/approach: This paper involves a stochastic modelling process in generating a set of absolute option values, using available data and scenarios from the COVID-19 pandemic event. The modelling and simulations using ROA suggest how strategic portfolios resolve the growing problem during the endemic to all but in the most isolated societies. Findings: This study finds the emergent correlation between circuit breakers and lockdowns, which have brought about a “distorted gravity” effect (inverse growth of global businesses and trades). However, “time-to-build” real options (i.e. deferral, expand, switch and compound exchange) start to function in the adaptive-transformative capabilities for growth opportunities of both government and corporate sectors. Significantly, some sectors grow faster than others while the compound exchange remains primarily challenging. Clearly, the government and corporate sectors are entangled, inevitably, the decoherence allows for the former to change uncertainty in the latter;therefore, government sector options change option values in the corporate sector. Originality/value: The ROA by empirically focusing on both government and corporate sectors demonstrates under conditions of uncertainty how options in decision-making generate opportunities that hitherto have not been recognised and exercised upon by research in the immediate context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Importantly, the ROA provides an insightful concatenation (capability–behaviour approach) that drives resilience. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

8.
ACS Environmental Au ; 1(1):71-84, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1878488

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks from choir performances, such as the Skagit Valley Choir, showed that singing brings potential risk of COVID-19 infection. There is less known about the risks of airborne infection from other musical performances, such as playing wind instruments or performing theater. In addition, it is important to understand methods that can be used to reduce infection risk. In this study, we used a variety of methods, including flow visualization, aerosol and CO2measurements, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to understand the different components that can lead to transmission risk from musical performance and risk mitigation. This study was possible because of a partnership across academic departments and institutions and collaboration with the National Federation of State High School Associations and the College Band Directors National Association. The interdisciplinary team enabled us to understand the various aspects of aerosol transmission risk from musical performance and to quickly implement strategies in music classrooms during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that plumes from musical performance were highly directional, unsteady and varied considerably in time and space. Aerosol number concentration measured at the bell of the clarinet was comparable to that of singing. Face and bell masks attenuated plume velocities and lengths and decreased aerosol concentrations measured in front of the masks. CFD modeling showed differences between indoor and outdoor environments and that the lowest risk of airborne COVID-19 infection occurred at less than 30 min of exposure indoors and less than 60 min outdoors. © 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

9.
4th International Conference Intelligent Computing and Communication, ICAC 2021 ; 430:207-216, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1877782

ABSTRACT

Everyone is aware about coronavirus disease (in short it is COVID-19). The meaning of word COVID is defined as ‘CO’ stands for corona, ‘VI’ for virus, and ‘D’ for disease. It is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus which makes all countries on globe unstable. More than 206 countries is affected due to this COVID-19, and more than 110,00,000 people infected on the globe, and out of that more than 5,00,000 people died due to this incurable (till date no vaccination) disease. So that COVID-19 is declared pandemic. In this research, generic social media dataset related to COVID-19 is used for study and find sentiment analysis. In this article, twitter data collection, data preprocessing, and calculation of tweeter sentiment analysis were discussed in detail with respect to India and USA and whole world. Different Python libraries were discussed in this article. During 3 months, first 2 months, USA was more positive comparison to India and world. But, after lockdown in June, India is more positive compared to USA and world. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

11.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:6251-6260, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874793

ABSTRACT

Architectural education has come a long way since the first formal school of architecture, École des Beaux-Arts, was started at Paris, France in 1816. 21st century architecture is constantly evolving through changes in technology, and now in 2020-'21, COVID-19 pandemic has brought the concept of architectural education going online. Due to the forced disruption to the traditional pedagogical environment, a new pedagogical paradigm has been established through online theory and studio classes. This has brought about a challenging design pedagogy where teachers and students are reaping the benefits of technological advancement but without any prior training. This in turn has raised the question, how can architecture be taught effectively through virtual means? In response, this paper conducts literature review and a questionnaire survey amongst students and teachers of Chandigarh region on experiences of virtual teaching in the field of architecture and seeks to address the issues concerning virtual architectural pedagogy. © The Electrochemical Society

12.
2020 National Conference on Advances in Applied Sciences and Mathematics, NCASM 2020 ; 2357, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1873612

ABSTRACT

From the past several year's educational institutions at every level was practicing conventional teaching-learning process. It seems to be the only way of imparting education to the learners. However, due to the onset of Coronavirus, i.e., Covid19, everything came to a halt for a while all over the world. The complete ecosystem of human society gets affected by this. Educational institutions also hit hard by this pandemic, and the complete layout of the teaching-learning process over the globe changed. It brings challenges for both students and teachers to withstand in this tough situation and to restore the backbone of learning. E-learning activities slowly-slowly gripped the complete educational ecosystem and the way of imparting education also changed. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the level of cognition faced by e-learners as compared to traditional learners at higher education level during Covid19. For this study, 120 students from Chitkara University have voluntarily participated and submitted their responses through the Google Form. It deduces from this study that learners using E-learning mode feel more cognitive load as compared to traditional learners. The cohen's d-value which represents the effect size comes to be 0.97 which means that the effect of cognitive load is significantly large on e-learners than the traditional learners. In the future, the reasons behind the rise of the cognition level of e-learners need to evaluate and improve the learning gain of e-learners. © 2022 Author(s).

13.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(5):4663-4686, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871572

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus is respiratory infections affected as cold and fever. The World Health Organization denoted as "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19). China was the first country invented in December 2019. This disease affects the health of humans but also influencing financial markets harshly affected across the globe. In April 2020, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) projected the severity of Covid-19 crossways the world affected by 3% this was higher than the 2008-09 financial crises. The Middle East and Central Asia region expressed that the growth of an economy decreased from 1.2% to 2.8% during 2019-20. In the same way, the oil import and export countries were affected by 4.2% and 0.7% correspondingly (IMF, 2020). The stock market is one of the barometers exposed to the economic status of the country. Due to Covid-19, the economic and social impact on BRICS countries were rigorously affected the manufacturing, services, education, health, hotels, real estate, hospitality tours and travel, media, IT, retails, and banking sector (M. Chaudhary, P.R. Sodani, S. Das, 2020). Last year, the worldwide stock markets crashed due to the Covid-19 pandemic situation. This study mainly focuses on investigating the impact of socioeconomic resources during COVID-19 on BRICS Nations;to analyze the performance of stock indices and its relation with the Covid-19 infected and death cases of BRICS nations. This study is empirical from official stock exchanges of respective countries in the pandemic situation on the stock market from January 2020-August 2021. The Covid-19 number of cases and their deaths are from the official website of the World Health Organization, Dashboard. Finally, to find out the relationship between the numbers of infected and deaths influencing the stock markets in BRICS Nations. This study finds the present situation based on that will further decisions for diversification of funds for getting benefits in the future especially post BRICS formation.

14.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869742

ABSTRACT

It has become a scientific obligation to unveil the underlying mechanisms and the fabrication methods behind wearable/stretchable strain sensors based on intelligent nanomaterials in order to explore their possible potential in the field of biomedical and healthcare applications. This report is based on an extensive literature survey of fabrication of stretchable strain sensors (SSS) based on nanomaterials in the fields of healthcare, sports, and entertainment. Although the evolution of wearable strain sensors (WSS) is rapidly progressing, it is still at a prototype phase and various challenges need to be addressed in the future in special regard to their fabrication protocols. The biocalamity of COVID-19 has brought a drastic change in humans' lifestyles and has negatively affected nations in all capacities. Social distancing has become a mandatory rule to practice in common places where humans interact with each other as a basic need. As social distancing cannot be ruled out as a measure to stop the spread of COVID-19 virus, wearable sensors could play a significant role in technologically impacting people's consciousness. This review article meticulously describes the role of wearable and strain sensors in achieving such objectives.

15.
Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 9(1):31-33, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868435

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of anticoagulation in preventing and treating thromboembolic events due to presence of micro thrombosis that may affect various end-organs especially in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Patients receiving some form of anticoagulation therapy are predisposed to more risks of bleeding complications. These bleeding may range from minor to major, or even life-threatening events. Purpose: Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is one of the commonly used treatment modalities in COVID-19 and its complications are thrombocytopenia, anemia, bruises, and the rare ones are ecchymosis and/ or hematoma. Case presentation: A 75-year-old male COVID-19 patient weighing 85 kg was admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) with shortness of breath, dry cough, and myalgia. On the 10th day, he develops ecchymotic patches over the anterior abdominal wall following administration of subcutaneous enoxaparin. This case describes the importance ofindividualizing the dose ofLMWH based on several risk factors.

16.
Journal of Molecular Structure ; : 133409, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1867597

ABSTRACT

We synthesized the halogenated Schiff base compound to understand the influence of halogen and hydrogen bonding interactions. The Schiff base compound is characterized by FTIR, SEM-EDAX and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The structural studies reveal that the 4-chloro-2-(((4-chlorobenzyl) imino) methyl) phenol crystallizes in the monoclinic, P21/n space group. The O1-H1‧‧‧N1 strong hydrogen bond forms the intramolecular pseudo chelating ring motif and acts as a coordinating site for metal complexes. The intra, intermolecular and π‧‧‧π interactions were involved in the construction of supramolecular architecture. The interesting type-I halogen bonds having trans geometry are exhibited. Hirshfeld surface analysis supports the interactions observed in the crystal structure, and the energy framework analysis provides the stabilization interaction energy among the molecular pairs. The enrichment ratio provides favored contacts between the atomic pair and gives strong validation to the halogen‧‧‧halogen and halogen‧‧‧hydrogen bonds. The DFT studies give more insight into electronic structure and provide a global and local parameter of the molecule. NB O studies provide stabilization energy and charge transfer within the molecule. The QTAIM studies were used to calculate the strength of the halogen, hydrogen and stacking intermolecular interaction. Further, docking studies were carried out for COVID-19 proteins to reveal the structural-function properties of halogen and hydrogen bonds present in the synthesized compound.

17.
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications ; 13(4):430-439, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863382

ABSTRACT

The deadly COVID-19 pandemic is currently sweeping the globe, and millions of people have been exposed to false information about the disease, its remedies, prevention, and origins. During such perilous times, the propagation of fake news and misinformation can have serious implications, causing widespread panic and exacerbating the pandemic's threat. This increasing threat factor has given rise to considerable research challenges. This article is mainly concerned about fake news identification and experimentation is specifically performed considering COVID-19 fake news as a case study. Fake news is spread intentionally to mislead the people and therefore we need to identify user's involvement and it's correlation with additional features. The aim of this research is to develop a model that can predict the essence of a tweet given as an input with the help of multiple features. Our strategy is to make use of the tweet's text as well as the user's metadata and develops a model using natural processing technique and deep learning method. In this process, we have analyzed the behavior of the accounts, observed the impact of the various factors that can lead to fake news. The experimental analysis shows that hybrid model with text and content features have generated a benchmark result than the existing state of art techniques. We have obtained a best F1-score of 0.976 during the experimentation. © 2022. All Rights Reserved.

18.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S133-S134, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857804

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global health care challenge. Upto 1/3rd of hospitalised patients develop severe pulmonary complications and ARDS. Our study aims to evaluate the pulmonary function in COVID-19 pneumonia patients at 6 months follow up. Methods: Prospective cohort study in 30 hospitalised patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia;belonging to mild, moderated, severe categories - 6 months after discharge. The study consists of assessing the pulmonary function with pre and post bronchodilator spirometry and 6-minute walking test for post exercise desaturation. Results: Lung function test results showed 27% patients had a normal FEV1/FVC ratio with reduction in FVC (forced vital capacity). The mean basal saturation before the 6-MWT was 96+ or - 2%. Exercise oxygen desaturation was observed in 6% cases. Conclusion: This study shows that post infection with SARS-CoV-2, severe or critical covid-19 pneumonia patients showed higher prevalence of abnormal spirometry , with a mainly restrictive pattern when compared to non severe pneumonia patients.

19.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S140, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857660

ABSTRACT

Background: Pulmonary Mucormycosis was rare pulmonary fungal disease ,which was difficult to diagnose early and lack effective treatment but during COVID-19 pandemic the testing modalities have become handy , usually it used to occur in immune compromised patients , present days post Covid pulmonary mucor has become common. Case Study: A case of 60yrs old male patient , hypertensive, post Covid presented with cough associated with black coloured sputum, also with streaky haemoptysis and sob on exertion ,CT chest revealed left upper lobe thick walled cavity with reverse halo sign with lower septated cavity , with post covid lung fibrosis. Discussion: Pulmonary Mucormycosis may develop by inhalation of spores or by hematogenous or lymphatic spread, mostly seen in immune compromised patient, the sequelae include angioinvasion and direct tissue injury it may cause severe morbidity and mortality sputum and BAL cultures and radiological investigations are the crucial modalities for diagnosis sputum and BAL cytology may be inconclusive however early diagnosis will prevent the patient from life threatening complications and at times alternative drugs in unavoidable situations can prevent patient from life threatening complications. Conclusion: Different scenarios may be challenging.

20.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S142-S143, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857636

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims at reporting the surgical outcomes of COVID Associated Pulmonary Mucormycosis (CAPM) with special emphasis on surgical mortality. This study also compares the surgical outcomes between Non-COVID Pulmonary Mucormycosis (NCPM) and CAPM. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a dedicated thoracic surgical unit in Gurugram over 18 months which includes 25 patients. An analysis of demography, perioperative variables including complications were carried out. Various parameters were analysed to assess the factors affecting mortality. Results: Out of 25 patients, male-female ratio was 16:9 (64%:36%), with a mean age of 54.8 years (range, 33-72 years). Diabetes was the most common predisposing factor in 17 patients (68%). A total of 8 patients (32%) were on supplemental oxygen (1-4 lit/min) at the time of surgery. Extent of surgery was non-anatomical wedge resection in 5 patients (20%), lobectomy/bi-lobectomy in 18 patients (72%) and pneumonectomy in 2 patients (8%). Commonest complication was prolonged air leak (> 7 days) in 5 patients (20%). There were 5 peri-operative deaths (20%), all due to persistent fungal sepsis. ECOG scale > 2 (P = <0.001) and pneumonectomy (P = 0.02) were the predictors of mortality. On comparison with NCPM, no difference in the postoperative complications (P = 1.00) and mortality (P = 1.00) was observed. Conclusion: Aggressive surgical resection with clear margins should be offered in CAPM whenever feasible. In appropriately selected patients, surgical resection is safe and efficacious. Surgery for CAPM was not associated with higher post-operative complications including mortality compared to NCPM.

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