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Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 39:S61-S61, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1517227
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126125, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240439


The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic increases the consumption of antimicrobial substances (ABS) due to the unavailability of approved vaccine(s). To assess the effect of imprudent consumption of ABS during the COVID-19 pandemic, we compare the 2020 prevalence of antidrug resistance (ADR) of Escherichia coli (E. coli) with a similar survey carried out in 2018 in Ahmedabad, India using SARS-CoV-2 gene detection as a marker of ABS usage. We found a significant ADR increase in 2020 compared to 2018 in ambient water bodies, harbouring a higher incidence of ADR E.coli towards non-fluoroquinolone drugs. Effective SARS-CoV-2 genome copies were found to be associated with the ADR prevalence. The prevalence of ADR depends on the efficiency of WWTPs (Wastewater Treatment Plants) and the catchment area in its vicinity. In the year 2018 study, prevalence of ADR was discretely distributed, and the maximum ADR prevalence recorded was ~60%; against the current homogenous ADR increase, and up to 85% of maximum ADR among the incubated E.coli isolated from the river (Sabarmati) and lake (Chandola and Kankaria) samples. Furthermore, wastewater treatment plants showed less increase in comparison to the ambient waters, which eventually imply that although SARS-CoV-2 genes and faecal pollution may be diluted in the ambient waters, as indicated by low Ct-value and E.coli count, the danger of related aftermath like ADR increase cannot be nullified. Also, Non-fluoroquinolone drugs exhibited overall more resistance than quinolone drugs. Overall, this is probably the first-ever study that traces the COVID-19 pandemic imprints on the prevalence of antidrug resistance (ADR) through wastewater surveillance and hints at monitoring escalation of other environmental health parameters. This study will make the public and policyholders concerned about the optimum use of antibiotics during any kind of treatment.

COVID-19 , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
Case Rep Neurol ; 12(2): 199-209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638529


COVID-19 has been associated with a hypercoagulable state causing cardiovascular and neurovascular complications. To further characterize cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in COVID-19, we review the current literature of published cases and additionally report the clinical presentation, laboratory and diagnostic testing results of 12 cases with COVID-19 infection and concurrent CVD from two academic medical centers in Houston, TX, USA, between March 1 and May 10, 2020. To date, there are 12 case studies reporting 47 cases of CVD in COVID-19. However, only 4 small case series have described the clinical and laboratory findings in patients with COVID-19 and concurrent stroke. Viral neurotropism, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy and inflammation are plausible proposed mechanisms of CVD in COVID-19 patients. In our case series of 12 patients, 10 patients had an ischemic stroke, of which 1 suffered hemorrhagic transformation and two had intracerebral hemorrhage. Etiology was determined to be embolic without a clear cause identified in 6 ischemic stroke patients, while the remaining had an identifiable source of stroke. The majority of the patients had elevated inflammatory markers such as D-dimer and interleukin-6. In patients with embolic stroke of unclear etiology, COVID-19 may have played a direct or indirect role in the processes that eventually led to the strokes while in the remaining cases, it is unclear if infection contributed partially or was an incidental finding.