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1.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(2): 240-241, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575149

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Kumar N, Kumar A, Pradhan S, Kumar A, Singh K. Painful Blisters of Left Hand Following Extravasation of Remdesivir Infusion in COVID-19. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(2):240-241.

2.
Indian J Anaesth ; 65(9): 669-675, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Nutrition Risk in Critically ill (NUTRIC) score is an appropriate nutritional assessment tool in mechanically ventilated patients. We retrospectively observed the applicability of the NUTRIC score for predicting outcomes in coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. METHODS: All adult COVID-19 ARDS patients admitted to the intensive care unit and requiring various forms of oxygen therapy were included in the study. The demographic characteristics and clinical information about the patients were obtained from the hospital's medical records department. The nutritional risk for each patient was assessed using the NUTRIC score at 72 hours of ICU admission. The discriminating power and ability of NUTRIC score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, age and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II to predict the 28-day mortality and need for mechanical ventilation (MV) was calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves and area under this curve. RESULTS: A total of 80 COVID-19 ARDS patients fitted into the inclusion criteria. Among non-survivors, the median Glasgow Coma Score, APACHE II score, NUTRIC score and SOFA score were 10, 16, 6 and 4, respectively. The cut-off values for NUTRIC score, SOFA, and APACHE II to predict 28-day mortality and need for MV was obtained as 3.5, 3.5 and 11.5, respectively. These cut-off values of NUTRIC score, SOFA score, and APACHE II have a sensitivity of 62%, 72.5% and 75.5%, respectively, and specificity of 95%, 72% and 83% for predicting mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 ARDS patients requiring MV in the ICU are at nutritional risk, and a high NUTRIC score is associated with higher mortality.

3.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(11): 1324-1325, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512926

ABSTRACT

Kumar A, Kumar A, Kumar A, Sinha C, Kumar N, Singh PK. Acute Exacerbation of Cough as a Precipitating Cause of Hypoxia in COVID-19 Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(11):1324-1325.

4.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(10): 1113-1119, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection affects the cardiovascular system at many levels. It initially infects endothelial cells, inducing marked endothelial damage and inflammation. However, there was no empirical evidence of functional compromise of arterial walls. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to study functional arterial damage in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and establish the noninvasive measurement of arterial stiffness as an independent marker of disease severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recorded the arterial stiffness of 23 mild, 21 moderate, and 20 severe COVID-19 patients grouped on the latest National Institute of Health (NIH) severity criteria. We observed arterial stiffness of COVID-19 patients with standard parameters like noninvasive estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), age-normalized increase in cfPWV (ANI_cfPWV), age-normalized increase in aortic augmentation pressure (ANI_AugP), and heart rate-normalized augmentation index (HRN_ AIx). All the parameters were also corrected for statistically significant confounding factors. RESULTS: Moderate and severe COVID-19 patients have extremely significantly elevated arterial stiffness than mild patients. In mild patients, cfPWV (829.1 ± 139.2 cm/second) was significantly lower than both moderate (1067 ± 152.5 cm/second, p <0.0001) and severe (1416 ± 253.9 cm/second, p <0.0001) patients. ANI_cfPWV in moderate and severe patients was significantly higher than mild patients (mild: 101.2 ± 126.1 cm/second; moderate: 279 ± 114.4 cm/second; severe: 580.1 ± 216.4 cm/second; intergroup p <0.0001). The results even after correction for significant confounding factors did not show any considerable change in the increasing trend of arterial stiffness. CONCLUSION: This study establishes the functional deterioration of arteries in proportion to the severity of COVID-19. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Kumar N, Kumar S, Kumar A, Bhushan D, Kumar A, Kumar A, et al. The COSEVAST Study Outcome: Evidence of COVID-19 Severity Proportionate to Surge in Arterial Stiffness. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(10):1113-1119.

6.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(8): 948-949, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355124

ABSTRACT

Oxygen supplementation is required for approximately 14% of the patients diagnosed of having COVID-19 infection. Despite the use of conventional oxygen therapy, 5% among these require treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU). Here, we are describing a situation in which oxygen therapy was delivered to the patients by making an assembly of oxygen tubing, three-way stopcock, and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) present in the hospital setting following the malfunction of air blender of HFNC machine (Fig. 1). This assembly might be useful as rescue oxygen therapy during a malfunction of HFNC machine and in resource-limited settings where HFNC machine is not available. The mechanisms of action could be (1) washout of anatomic dead space due to medium oxygen flow, (2) improved gas mixing in large airways, and (3) increased oxygen concentration inside the conducting airway. How to cite this article: Kumar A, Kumar A, Kumar N, Kumar A, Singh V, Kumar S, et al. Repackaging of Malfunctioning High-flow Nasal Cannula as a Rescue Oxygen Therapy: An Innovation amid COVID-19 Crisis. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(8):948-949.

8.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(7): 791-794, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gargling had been reported to have some roles in the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of regular gargling using 7.5% sodium bicarbonate to eliminate SARS-CoV-2 in the oropharynx and nasopharynx. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This pilot, open-labeled, nonrandomized, parallel single-center study. The effect of 30 seconds, three times per day gargling using 7.5% sodium bicarbonate solution-25 mL on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance among coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients in a dedicated COVID hospital at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India. We monitored the progress on by days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 by observing variables like clinical category, P/F ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ratio, platelet count, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CRP, procalcitonin, d-dimer, INR, APTT, and sequential organ function assessment (SOFA) score. We have also done repeat reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing on day 5 and day 7. RESULTS: A total of 10 patients (7 males and 3 females) were included in our study after confirmed COVID positivity. The age range was from 30 to 61 years. Based on clinical severity and P/F ratio, 7 patients were included in the milder group as their ratio was more than 200 and the rest 3 patients were included in the moderate group as P/F ratio was less than 200. Two respondents had comorbidities, which were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and ovarian carcinoma. Viral clearance was achieved at day 7 in 3 of 10 patients. However, the analysis of using 7.5% sodium bicarbonate 25 mL gargle statistically showed nonsignificant p-value for all of our studied variables. However, the PCR results were negative on 24 hours apart, i.e., on day 5 and day 7. CONCLUSIONS: This is only a preliminary study which showed that gargling with 7.5% sodium bicarbonate may not be effective in achieving early SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance among mild COVID-19 patients. However, still larger studies are required to ascertain the benefit of gargling for different stages of COVID-19 patients with keeping in mind the important variables suggestive of viremia clearance. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Kumar N, Kumar A, Mahto M, Singh PK. Gargling with 7.5% Sodium Bicarbonate Solution for SARS-CoV-2 Viremia Clearance: Our Institutional Clinical Experience. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(7):791-794.

9.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(5): 599-600, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229410

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Naaz S, Kumar A, Sahay N, Kumar R, Ozair E, Valiaparambath A. Defecation and Micturition may Cause Syncope in COVID-19 Patients on High Oxygen Requirement. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(5):599-600.

13.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(10): 991-994, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-931217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meanwhile, over 50 lakh people have now been affected by coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) across the globe. There are various reports on neurological manifestations of COVID-19, which have attracted broad attention. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare complication of influenza and other viral infections and has been related to intracranial cytokine storm, which results in breach in blood-brain barrier leading to encephalitis like presentation. We report an unusual case of acute necrotizing encephalitis as a solitary presentation of COVID-19. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of 35-year-old man from Bihar, presented to our emergency department in unconscious state, with high-grade fever and vomiting since last 5 days. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain showed a left parasellar-middle cranial fossa mass looks most likely like an invasive meningioma. Urgent noncontrast computed tomography scan (NCCT) brain showed that mass as well as hypodensities in both thalami and left caudate nucleus. As per our institutional protocol, clinical management of raised intracranial pressure was initiated. As there is no current evidence from any randomized control trails (RCTs) to recommend any specific treatment for suspected or confirmed patients with COVID-19 with acute necrotizing encephalitis. CONCLUSION: Our case highlights the importance of identifying encephalitis as a presenting sign of COVID-19 based on NCCT findings with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and normal chest X-ray (CXR) findings. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Kumar N, Kumar S, Kumar A, Pati BK, Kumar A, Singh C, et al. Acute Necrotizing Encephalitis as a Probable Association of COVID-19. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(10):991-994.

14.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(10): 981-982, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-931216

ABSTRACT

The importance of this intubation box has come to light recently in view of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the fact that intubation is an aerosol-generating procedure (AGP). Risks of the healthcare worker attending to the airway of COVID-19 patients is high and the intubation box aims to minimize that and reduce contamination of the environment. To address this objective of decreasing transmission during AGP, we created a negative airflow aerosol box with a leak-proof airway handling system using readily available and affordable materials. The dimension of this box was 24 × 17.5 × 17.5 cm and it was made of high-quality 4 mm transparent acrylic sheet with two arm holes of 10 cm diameter. The caudal end of the negative airflow aerosol prevention box is wrapped with disposable plastic sheet and the both hand slots are sealed using camera cover and latex hand gloves and it decreases the risk of contamination. How to cite this article: Kumar N, Kumar A, Kumar A, Sinha C. Modified Negative Airflow Aerosol Prevention Box for COVID-19 Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(10):981-982.

18.
Trends Anaesth. Crit. Care ; 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-659680
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