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1.
Journal of Industrial Textiles ; : 15280837221090663, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1794094

ABSTRACT

In the present ongoing pandemic, the N95 respirator is an essential protective barrier to suppress the spread of the SARS-Cov-2 virus and protect the frontline worker from exposure. The N95 respirators are meant for single usage;however, they can be used after sterilization, considering the economy and shortfall in availability. At this juncture, the performance of the respirator after various types of sterilization and usage condition is required to be analyzed in detail. With this motto, this work has proceeded. The respirator?s filtration efficiency (FE), breathing resistance, and quality factor are evaluated for two face velocities (5.8 ± 0.2 and 26.4 ± 0.9 cm/s). Sterilization techniques used here are dry air oven heating at 70?80 ± 3°C for 30 and 60 min, gamma irradiation for cumulative dose 15 and 25 kGy, and soaking in liquid hydrogen peroxide for 30 min. The filtration performance and electrostatic surface charge density are used to determine the facemask?s efficacy after sterilization. The respirator?s physical, chemical, and morphological degradation were investigated using materials area density, microscopic analyses, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, EPR, and TGA analyses. The highest reduction in filtration efficiency is 29.36 ± 0.49?36.08 ± 1.78% after irradiation due to a reduction in the charge density (71?133%) of the respirator layers. However, the FE does not reduce significantly (0.39 ± 0.52 to ?2.46 ± 0.60) for dry air heat and H2O2 sterilization despite a change in charge density (0.4?53%), but there is no direct correlation with FE. Electrostatic charge measurement of the filtration layer is a crucial indicator of FE degradation. Hence, dry air heat and H2O2 soaking are found to be the most suitable sterilization methods. No significant degradation was observed on the physical, chemical, and morphological properties of respirators layers after sterilization.

2.
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1785378

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) a pandemic in March 2020, causing almost 3.5 million coronavirus disease (COVID-19) related deaths worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a significant burden on healthcare systems, economies, and social systems in many countries around the world. The access and delivery of rehabilitation care were severely disrupted, and patients have faced several challenges during the COVID-19 outbreak. These challenges include addressing new functional impairments faced by survivors of COVID-19 and infection prevention to avoid the virus spread to healthcare workers and other patients not infected with COVID-19. In this scoping review, we aim to develop rehabilitation recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic across the continuum of rehabilitation care. Materials and Methods: Established frameworks were used to guide the scoping review methodology. Medline, Embase, Pubmed, CINAHL databases from inception to August 1, 2020, and prominent rehabilitation organizations' websites were searched. Study Selection: We included articles and reports if they were focused on rehabilitation recommendations for COVID-19 survivors or the general population at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data Extraction: Two of our team members used the pre-tested data extraction form to extract data from included full-text articles. The strength and the quality of the extracted recommendations were evaluated by two reviewers using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. Results: We retrieved 6,468 citations, of which 2,086 were eligible after removing duplicates. We excluded 1,980 citations based on the title and the . Of the screened full-text articles, we included 106 studies. We present recommendations based on the patient journey at the time of the pandemic. We assessed the evidence to be of overall fair quality and strong for the recommendations. Conclusion: We have combined the latest research results and accumulated expert opinions on rehabilitation to develop acute and post-acute rehabilitation recommendations in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic. Further updates are warranted in order to incorporate the emerging evidence into rehabilitation guidelines.

3.
Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health ; : 101044, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1783224

ABSTRACT

Introduction Newer coexisting conditions should be identified in order to modify newer risk factors. Aim was to identify patients with non-classical or less common coexisting conditions in patients infected of COVID 19. Method Single centred study from June 2020 to May 2021 at a tertiary centre in North India. A preformed questionnaire was used to record clinical and laboratory parameters and to identify cases which are in addition to CDC list and Indian data. Results 0.67% (46) cases out of 6832 patients were identified to have non-classical coexisting illness. It was divided into 2 groups-infections A (60.1%) and non-infections B (39.9%). Group A included-tuberculosis- pulmonary (14.3%) & extra pulmonary (32.9%), bacterial (25.0%) viral infections [dengue, hepatitis B & C] (14.3%), HIV disease (10.7%) and malaria (3.6%). Group B included- organ transplant (27.8%), autoimmune [myasthenia gravis, polymyositis, psoriasis] (22.6%), haematologic [Haemophilia, ITP, Aplastic anaemia, APML, CML] (27.8%), uncommon malignancies [disseminated sacral chordoma and GTN] (11.1%) and snakebite (11.1%). Serum Procalcitonin was not helpful for diagnosis of bacterial infection in COVID-19 disease. Group A had significantly longer duration of illness, hepatitis and elevated CRP. The mortality in group A & B were 32.1% and 43.8% respectively. Death in non-severe COVID cases was in tetanus and snakebite. 30.7% death among tuberculosis patients. More than 70% of deaths were attributable to COVID 19 in both the groups. Conclusion In Indian settings, comorbidities like tuberculosis and bacterial infections can precipitate severe COVID 19 unlike other parts of the world where tuberculosis is relatively uncommon.

4.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(3):361-374, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1771536

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic continues to be a significant public health problem. Severe COVID-19 cases have a poor prognosis and extremely high mortality. Prognostic factor evidence can help healthcare providers understand the likely prognosis and identify subgroups likely to develop severe disease with increased mortality risk so that timely treatments can be initiated. This meta-analysis has been performed to evaluate the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at admission as a prognostic factor to predict severe coronavirus disease and mortality.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314693

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 has caused a recent pandemic called COVID-19 and a severe health threat around the world. In the current situation, the virus is rapidly spreading worldwide, and the discovery of vaccine and potential therapeutics are critically essential. The crystal structure for main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) was recently made available and is considerably similar to previously reported SARS-CoV. Due to its essentiality in viral replication, it represents a potential drug target. Herein, computer-aided drug design (CADD) approach was implemented for the initial screening of 13 approved antiviral drugs. Molecular docking of 13 antivirals against 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) enzyme was accomplished and indinavir was described as a lead drug with a docking score of -8.824 and a XP Gscore of -9.466 kcal/mol. Indinavir possesses an important pharmacophore, hydroxyethylamine (HEA), and thus a new library of HEA compounds (>2500) was subjected to virtual screening that led to 25 hits with a docking score more than indinavir. Exclusively, compound 16 with docking score of -8.955 adhered to drug like parameters, and the Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) analysis was demonstrated to highlight the importance of chemical scaffolds therein. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation studies carried out at 100ns supported the stability of 16 within the binding pocket. Largly, our results supported that this novel compound 16 binds to the domain I & II, and domain II-III linker of 3CLpro protein, suggesting its suitablity as strong candidate for therapeutic discovery against COVID-19. Lead compound 16 could pave incredible directions for the design of novel 3CLpro inhibitors and ultimately therapeutics against COVID-19 disease.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314629

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the recent Covid-19 pandemic has rendered mandatory wearing of respiratory masks by infected persons, frontline workers, security personnel and members of the public. This has caused a sudden shift of focus and significant demand on availability, effectiveness, reuse after sterilization and development of facemask. Toward this, three types of masks viz. N95, nonwoven fabric and double layer cotton cloth are being used by the majority of the population across the world as an essential inhalation protective measure for suppressing the entry of virus- laden respiratory droplets. The Filtering Efficiency ( FE ) of these masks are tested for atmospheric and laboratory generated aerosols of size 1.0 µm and 102.7 nm particles before and after sterilisation and for the two flow rate conditions corresponding to normal breath rate and during sneezing/coughing. Sterilisation is carried out using a gamma irradiator containing Co-60 source for the two-dose exposures viz. 15 kGy and 25 kGy. The FE of surgical and cloth masks is found to be in the range of 15.76±0.22 to 22.48±3.92%, 49.20±8.44 to 60±7.59% and 73.15±3.73 to 90.36±4.69% for aerosol sizes 0.3˗5.0, 1.0˗5.0 and 3.0˗5.0 µm atmospheric aerosols respectively. The FE of cloth and surgical masks ranges from 45.07±6.69% to 63.89±4.44% and 56.58±1.69% to 83.95±1.04% for 1.0 µm laboratory generated aerosol for two flow rate, control and irradiated conditions. The FE of N95 mask is found to be more than 95% for atmospheric aerosol and 1.0 µm laboratory generated aerosol. However, FE reduced to about 70% for most penetrating particle size after sterilisation. Further, FE reduced to 84% for the particle >0.3 µm and to 87% for the particle <0.3 µm after sterilisation. The reduction in FE for N95 mask after sterilization is associated with reduction of electrostatic interaction of filter medium with particles laden in the air stream. Instead of disposing of N95 masks after single use, they can be reused a few times as N70 mask during this pandemic crisis after sterilisation. The use of cotton cloth masks in the general public serves fit for the purpose than surgical masks.

9.
J Indian Inst Sci ; : 1-17, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664563

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is an alternative route of viral entry in the susceptible host cell. In this process, antiviral antibodies enhance the entry access of virus in the cells via interaction with the complement or Fc receptors leading to the worsening of infection. SARS-CoV-2 variants pose a general concern for the efficacy of neutralizing antibodies that may fail to neutralize infection, raising the possibility of a more severe form of COVID-19. Data from various studies on respiratory viruses raise the speculation that antibodies elicited against SARS-CoV-2 and during COVID-19 recovery could potentially exacerbate the infection through ADE at sub-neutralizing concentrations; this may contribute to disease pathogenesis. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to study the effectiveness of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in COVID-19-infected subjects. Theoretically, ADE remains a general concern for the efficacy of antibodies elicited during infection, most notably in convalescent plasma therapy and in response to vaccines where it could be counterproductive.

10.
J Infect ; 84(3): 383-390, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the Coronavirus-disease associated mucormycosis (CAM) syndemic is poorly elucidated. We aimed to identify risk factors that may explain the burden of cases and help develop preventive strategies. METHODS: We performed a case-control study comparing cases diagnosed with CAM and taking controls as recovered COVID 19 patients who did not develop mucormycosis. Information on comorbidities, glycemic control, and practices related to COVID-19 prevention and treatment was recorded. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: A total of 352 patients (152 cases and 200 controls) diagnosed with COVID-19 during April-May 2021 were included. In the CAM group, symptoms of mucormycosis began a mean of 18.9 (SD 9.1) days after onset of COVID-19, and predominantly rhino-sinus and orbital involvement was present. All, but one, CAM cases had conventional risk factors of diabetes and steroid use. On multivariable regression, increased odds of CAM were associated with the presence of diabetes (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.1-11), use of systemic steroids (aOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.4-24.7), prolonged use of cloth and surgical masks (vs. no mask, aOR 6.9, 95%CI 1.5-33.1), and repeated nasopharyngeal swab testing during the COVID-19 illness (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2). Zinc therapy was found to be protective (aOR 0.05, 95%CI 0.01-0.19). Notably, the requirement of oxygen supplementation or hospitalization did not affect the risk of CAM. CONCLUSION: Judicious use of steroids and stringent glycemic control are vital to preventing mucormycosis. Use of clean masks, preference for N95 masks if available, and minimizing swab testing after the diagnosis of COVID-19 may further reduce the incidence of CAM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal ; 26(1):1-13, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1619374

ABSTRACT

According to the PAN India Residential Market survey conducted by Anarock in 2020, the Q2 was the worst hit quarter and the new launches were the lowest since 2013 in both the residential and commercial segment. [...]the consumer and investor psychological pattern will take time and turn to showcase purchase behaviour. Realty products are high involvement products and requires intensive research before decision is made. [...]buying a house is considered a complex buying process. According to the model propounded by (Engel, et al., 1968;Howard and Sheth, 1969;Nicosa 1966) on consumer decision making, highlighting the psychological frame and individual behaviour from the time they have encountered the need for the product, quest for information and knowledge, alternative generation and evaluation, purchase of product and post evaluation.

12.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 12(1): 100-113, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616633

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: The management of the worldwide spreading COVID-19 consists of amelioration of its symptoms but no cure is yet available. Herbal medicines supplemented with the Western medicine have been applied for COVID-19 treatment in India, China, Iran, and other countries. This systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluates the effect and safety of herbal intervention in the management of COVID-19. Experimental procedure: RCTs from databases like PubMed, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Science Direct, CTRI, AYUSH Research Portal, India, were reviewed and the data were extracted for study sample demographics, intervention details, clinical effect, inflammatory markers and safety monitoring. Outcomes were expressed as Risk-ratio (RR) with 95% CI for dichotomous data, and Mean-Difference (MD) with 95% CI for continuous data. Result and conclusion: From the 32 eligible studies, a total of 3177 COVID-19 patients were included in the review. Herbal intervention as an adjuvant to Western medicine causes significantly higher improvement compared to Western medicine alone [Fever (RR = 1.09 CI 1.03, 1.15), Cough (Risk-Ratio = 1.22 CI 1.08, 1.37), Fatigue (Risk-Ratio = 1.27 CI 1.11, 1.44), Chest CT Improvement (Risk-Ratio = 1.15 CI 1.08, 1.23)]. The laboratory parameters were also better in the herbal medicine group compared to standard care group only WBC (MD = 0.36 CI 0.16, 0.55), Lymphocyte percentage (MD = 5.48 CI 3.05, 7.92), Absolute lymphocyte count (MD = 0.23 CI 0.07, 0.39), CRP (MD = -5.66 CI -7.96, -3.37). However, duration of hospital stays (MD = -1.82 CI -3.84, 0.21); IL-6 (MD = -3.67 CI -8.76, 1.43), ESR Level (MD = -10.38 CI -25.96, 5.21) were statistically insignificant. No significant adverse events for herbal medications were noted in the included RCTs, during the time of the studies. (n = 665, RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.76, 1.14).

13.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 781271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606841

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 has imposed a significant burden on health care systems, economies, and social systems in many countries around the world. The provision of rehabilitation services for persons with active COVID-19 infection poses challenges to maintaining a safe environment for patients and treating providers. Materials and Methods: Established frameworks were used to guide the scoping review methodology. Medline, Embase, Pubmed, CINAHL databases from inception to August 1, 2020, and prominent rehabilitation organizations' websites were searched. Study Selection: We included articles and reports if they were focused on rehabilitation related recommendations for COVID-19 patients, treating providers, or the general population. Data Extraction: Pairs of team members used a pre-tested data abstraction form to extract data from included full-text articles. The strength and the quality of the extracted recommendations were evaluated by two reviewers using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results: We retrieved 6,468 citations, of which 2,086 were eligible for review, after duplicates were removed. We excluded 1,980 citations based on title and abstract screening. Of the screened full-text articles, we included all 106 studies. A summary of recommendations is presented. We assessed the overall evidence to be strong and of fair quality. Conclusion: The rehabilitation setting, and processes, logistics, and patient and healthcare provider precaution recommendations identified aim to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection and ensure adequate and safe rehabilitation services, whether face-to-face or through teleservices. The COVID-19 pandemic is rapidly changing. Further updates will be needed over time in order to incorporate emerging best evidence into rehabilitation guidelines.

14.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):241-241, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584708

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionally affected communities of color and older adults in the United States. Nursing homes (NHs) have reported over 130,000 COVID-19 deaths (or one-fourth of all US deaths) circa March 2021, a high share of the nation’s total death count (CMS COVID-19 NH Data). These inequities partially driven by barriers to care, segregation and structural racism have resulted in the unequal impact of COVID-19 across NHs (Li et al., 2020). In this presentation, I will describe NHs that disproportionally care for minority residents and the effect of NH composition on COVID-19-related mortality and outcomes. In 2020, minority older adults were less likely to have access to high quality facilities. From June – August, NHs with a high proportion of minority residents reported higher COVID-19 mortality rates per 1000 residents. Equal access to high quality of care across the life-course among racial and ethnic groups is needed.

17.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-10, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574801

ABSTRACT

Intraviral protein-protein interactions are crucial for replication, pathogenicity, and viral assembly. Among these, virus assembly is a critical step as it regulates the arrangements of viral structural proteins and helps in the encapsulation of genomic material. SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins play an essential role in the self-rearrangement, RNA encapsulation, and mature virus particle formation. In SARS-CoV, the membrane protein interacts with the envelope and spike protein in Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Intermediate Complex (ERGIC) to form an assembly in the lipid bilayer, followed by membrane-ribonucleoprotein (nucleocapsid) interaction. In this study, we tried to understand the interaction of membrane protein's interaction with envelope, spike, and nucleocapsid proteins using protein-protein docking. Further, simulation studies were performed up to 100 ns to examine the stability of protein-protein complexes of Membrane-Envelope, Membrane-Spike, and Membrane-Nucleocapsid proteins. Prime MM-GBSA showed high binding energy calculations for the simulated structures than the docked complex. The interactions identified in our study will be of great importance, as it provides valuable insight into the protein-protein complex, which could be the potential drug targets for future studies.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

18.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-14, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575050

ABSTRACT

Of all the nutrients, vitamin A has been the most extensively evaluated for its impact on immunity. There are three main forms of vitamin A, retinol, retinal and retinoic acid (RA) with the latter being most biologically active and all-trans-RA (ATRA) its main derivative. Vitamin A is a key regulator of the functions of various innate and adaptive immune cells and promotes immune-homeostasis. Importantly, it augments the interferon-based innate immune response to RNA viruses decreasing RNA virus replication. Several clinical trials report decreased mortality in measles and Ebola with vitamin A supplementation.During the Covid-19 pandemic interventions such as convalescent plasma, antivirals, monoclonal antibodies and immunomodulator drugs have been tried but most of them are difficult to implement in resource-limited settings. The current review explores the possibility of mega dose vitamin A as an affordable adjunct therapy for Covid-19 illness with minimal reversible side effects. Insight is provided into the effect of vitamin A on ACE-2 expression in the respiratory tract and its association with the prognosis of Covid-19 patients. Vitamin A supplementation may aid the generation of protective immune response to Covid-19 vaccines. An overview of the dosage and safety profile of vitamin A is presented along with recommended doses for prophylactic/therapeutic use in randomised controlled trials in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Immunomodulation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vitamin A/analysis
19.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering ; : 1-18, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1562277

ABSTRACT

The supply chain (SC) network is prone to disturbance due to various uncertainties associated with their subsystems. The COVID-19 outbreak has exposed the global vulnerability of the supply chain network. The current pandemic has severely affected almost every SC network because its members are situated at the international level. One of the reasons for SC network failure is the deterministic assumptions of different parameters. A realistic SC network model requires the use of the uncertain value of the parameters, which can be further captured by fuzzy numbers. This paper discusses the possibilistic moment of several nonlinear types of fuzzy numbers that are important for SC network modeling. We give closed-form possibilistic moments' expression for various types of fuzzy numbers that are very similar to the moment's properties in probability theory and stochastic process. We then illustrate the application of proposed fuzzy numbers by solving an inventory model. This paper also provides results related to the EPQ inventory model in a fuzzy possibilistic setup. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Mathematical Problems in Engineering is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

20.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295216

ABSTRACT

In the present ongoing pandemic, the N95 respirator is an essential protective barrier to suppress the spread of the SARS-Cov-2 virus and protect the frontline worker from exposure. The N95 respirators are meant for single usage;however, they can be used after decontamination in-light of the economy and shortfall in availability. At this juncture, the respirators performance after various types of sterilization and usage condition is required to be analyzed in detail. With this motto, this work has proceeded. The filtration efficiency, pressure drop, and quality factor of the respirator are evaluated for two face velocities (5.8 and 26.4 cm/s) following different sterilization methods. Sterilization techniques used here are dry air oven heating, gamma irradiation, and immersing in a 10% concentration of liquid hydrogen peroxide. The particle filtration performance and electrostatic surface charge density measurement are used to determine the facemasks efficacy after sterilization. The methods recommended to sterilize N95 masks without affecting their performance are (i) using dry air heat at 80°C and (ii) H 2 O 2 soaking. The highest reduction in filtration efficiency is observed to be 30-35% after gamma irradiation due to a change in the electrostatic properties of the respirator layers. However, the filtration efficiency does not change significantly for other sterilization methods despite a change in charge density, but there is no direct correlation with filtration efficiency. Electrostatic charge measurement of the filtration layer is a crucial indicator of filtration efficiency degradation. Policymakers can use these data during potential future N95 shortage to assess the viability of sterilization methods.

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