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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3161, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705920

ABSTRACT

Maize is an important industrial crop where yield and quality enhancement both assume greater importance. Clean production technologies like conservation agriculture and integrated nutrient management hold the key to enhance productivity and quality besides improving soil health and environment. Hence, maize productivity and quality were assessed under a maize-wheat cropping system (MWCS) using four crop-establishment and tillage management practices [FBCT-FBCT (Flat bed-conventional tillage both in maize and wheat); RBCT-RBZT (Raised bed-CT in maize and raised bed-zero tillage in wheat); FBZT-FBZT (FBZT both in maize and wheat); PRBZT-PRBZT (Permanent raised bed-ZT both in maize and wheat], and five P-fertilization practices [P100 (100% soil applied-P); P50 + 2FSP (50% soil applied-P + 2 foliar-sprays of P through 2% DAP both in maize and wheat); P50 + PSB + AM-fungi; P50 + PSB + AMF + 2FSP; and P0 (100% NK with no-P)] in split-plot design replicated-thrice. Double zero-tilled PRBZT-PRBZT system significantly enhanced the maize grain, starch, protein and oil yield by 13.1-19% over conventional FBCT-FBCT. P50 + PSB + AMF + 2FSP, integrating soil applied-P, microbial-inoculants and foliar-P, had significantly higher grain, starch, protein and oil yield by 12.5-17.2% over P100 besides saving 34.7% fertilizer-P both in maize and on cropping-system basis. P50 + PSB + AMF + 2FSP again had significantly higher starch, lysine and tryptophan content by 4.6-10.4% over P100 due to sustained and synchronized P-bioavailability. Higher amylose content (24.1%) was observed in grains under P50 + PSB + AMF + 2FSP, a beneficial trait due to its lower glycemic-index highly required for diabetic patients, where current COVID-19 pandemic further necessitated the use of such dietary ingredients. Double zero-tilled PRBZT-PRBZT reported greater MUFA (oleic acid, 37.1%), MUFA: PUFA ratio and P/S index with 6.9% higher P/S index in corn-oil (an oil quality parameter highly required for heart-health) over RBCT-RBCT. MUFA, MUFA: PUFA ratio and P/S index were also higher under P50 + PSB + AMF + 2FSP; avowing the obvious role of foliar-P and microbial-inoculants in influencing maize fatty acid composition. Overall, double zero-tilled PRBZT-PRBZT with crop residue retention at 6 t/ha per year along with P50 + PSB + AMF + 2FSP while saving 34.7% fertilizer-P in MWCS, may prove beneficial in enhancing maize productivity and quality so as to reinforce the food and nutritional security besides boosting food, corn-oil and starch industry in south-Asia and collateral arid agro-ecologies across the globe.

2.
Transplantation ; 105(7): 1423-1432, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited current knowledge on feasibility and safety of kidney transplantation in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) survivors. METHODS: We present a retrospective cohort study of 75 kidney transplants in patients who recovered from polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 performed across 22 transplant centers in India from July 3, 2020, to January 31, 2021. We detail demographics, clinical manifestations, immunosuppression regimen, laboratory findings, treatment, and outcomes. Patients with a previous diagnosis of COVID-19 were accepted after documenting 2 negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 PCR tests, normal chest imaging with complete resolution of symptom for at least 28 d and significant social distancing for 14 d before surgery. RESULTS: Clinical severity in patients ranged from asymptomatic (n = 17, 22.7%), mild (n = 36.48%), moderate (n = 15.20%), and severe (n = 7.9.3%) disease. Median duration between PCR positive to transplant was 60 d (overall) and increased significantly from asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe disease (49, 57, 83, 94 d, P 0.019), respectively. All recipients and donors were asymptomatic with normal creatinine after surgery at a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 81 (56-117) d without any complications relating to surgery or COVID-19. Patient and graft survival was 100%, and acute rejection was reported in 6.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective kidney transplant recipients post-COVID-19 can be considered for transplantation after comprehensive donor and recipient screening before surgery using a combination of clinical, radiologic, and laboratory criteria, careful pretransplant evaluation, and individualized risk-benefit analysis. Further large-scale prospective studies with longer follow-up will better clarify our initial findings. To date, this remains the first and the largest study of kidney transplantation in COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Donor Selection/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , India , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Retrospective Studies , Survivors , Treatment Outcome
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324367

ABSTRACT

The covid-19 virus has been linked to an acute outbreak of the disease that has passed for years. Clear explanations of these should be provided by trained professionals and those with healthcare experience who have the energy to work on intensive care. The World Health Organization (WHO) has taken various steps to address this. These can be audited by NETCCN (National Emergency Telecritical Care Network) using digital technology. This section explains a lot. It is proposed by the National Emergency Telecritical Care Network (NETCCN). This digital health information will be solved as an updated version 2.0, which will greatly improve future emergencies. The proposed method of digital predication support for Artificial Intelligent (AI). Use these to learn historical information about the virus. This technology can detect telemetry, complex maintenance robotics and monitoring intelligence. These can be developed to integrate multiple virus-related information. All of these will be coordinated by health professionals. Frequently testing should be done to ensure continued readiness to protect against emergency disasters.

4.
Cureus ; 14(1): e21413, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disproportionately affects individuals with various comorbidities. Among these, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to be strongly associated with the progression to severe disease. This study aimed to assess the severity and disease outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection and CKD. METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital from July 2021 to September 2021. The case records of patients with CKD and COVID-19 were studied. They were compared with age and gender-matched controls equally. The presenting symptoms, clinical course, severity of illness, laboratory markers, need for ventilator support, and mortality outcomes were studied. RESULTS: In total, 40 CKD and 40 non-CKD patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. It was also observed that among the patients with CKD, more patients had fever, breathlessness, and diarrhea. The requirement for noninvasive ventilation, ventilator, and inotropes was on the higher average for patients with CKD. Overall mortality was 27.5% in the CKD group and 2.5% in the non-CKD group, which was statistically significant (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with CKD had more severe illnesses with a requirement of ventilator support and had higher mortality than the patients without CKD. Patients with CKD are a key subset of patients with COVID-19 for whom more aggressive early treatment and stricter preventive measures may be beneficial.

5.
BJPsych open ; 7(Suppl 1):S170-S170, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1660923

ABSTRACT

Aims There have been long-standing concerns about communication and safety on the Bethlem site out-of-hours due to its size, acuity and the number of specialist services;these issues were exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. A Quality Improvement Project was designed to address communication and safety concerns from the on-call team at the Bethlem Royal psychiatric hospital out-of-hours through the introduction of weekend safety huddles. Method Daily weekend safety huddles were introduced to improve communication regarding workload, acuity, new admissions, seclusion reviews, deteriorating patients;and to improve team cohesiveness and trainee support out-of-hours. The QIP team involved the deputy medical director, the associate director for speciality units, consultants, the college tutor, specialty registrars and core psychiatry trainees. Prior to initiating the huddles, the QIP team met to decide which specialties to involve, to agree on an agenda and liaise with other sites regarding existing huddles. Once the huddles began in April 2020, the team met periodically to agree next courses of action and to troubleshoot. The huddles initially involved acute services and eventually included CAMHS, Forensic, Older Adults, Specialist Units, all on-call consultants, the on-call registrar, two core trainees, the psychiatric liaison manager and the duty senior nurse. Result Data were gathered throughout the QIP using Likert scale surveys which were sent to all junior doctors on the out-of-hours rota. Paper surveys were used initially but were later replaced with Microsoft Forms to ensure anonymity. The percentage of respondents who answered “most of the time” or “all of the time” increased across all parameters when comparing data from before and after implementation of the safety huddles. These results included improvement in: understanding of workload and acuity (9% before vs 69% after), discussion of new admissions on site (4% before vs 90% after), discussion of patients with deteriorating mental health (35% before vs 90% after) and physical health (22% before vs 83% after), understanding of number of patients in seclusion (61% before vs 93% after) and feeling part of a cohesive “on-call” team (17% before vs 86% after). In addition, the results suggested a reduction in frequency of safety concerns on site (83% answered at least “sometimes” before vs 62% after). Conclusion The results of the final survey demonstrated a measurable and positive impact on communications between the out-of-hours team, improved team cohesiveness and a reduction in safety concerns. The lessons learnt also influenced decisions made in formatting safety huddles at other trust sites.

6.
Plasmonics ; : 1-13, 2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653703

ABSTRACT

In this study, we propose a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor using silicon nitride (Si3N4), black phosphorous (BP), and thiol-tethered DNA as a ligand for fast detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In the proposed biosensor, we have deposited silver (Ag), Si3N4, and BP on the base of the BK-7 prism and investigated the performance parameters on the probe in different combinations of the mentioned materials. Herein, three (Ag, Si3N4, and BP) different configurations are introduced and compared for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, with the help of the transfer matrix method (TMM), all the three configurations have been analyzed. Notably, the combination of Ag, Si3N4, and BP shows better sensitivity (154°/RIU) when compared with other configurations for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. This work may facilitate a new sensing device to detect SARS-CoV-2, based on the hybrid materials.

7.
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow ; 32(3):915-930, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1627105

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of irregular unsettling on the smoking model in form of the stochastic model as in the deterministic model these effects are neglected for simplicity.Design/methodology/approachIn this research, the authors investigate a stochastic smoking system in which the contact rate is perturbed by Lévy noise to control the trend of smoking. First, present the formulation of the stochastic model and study the dynamics of the deterministic model. Then the global positive solution of the stochastic system is discussed. Further, extinction and the persistence of the proposed system are presented on the base of the reproductive number.FindingsThe authors discuss the dynamics of the deterministic smoking model form and further present the existence and uniqueness of non-negative global solutions for the stochastic system. Some previous study’s mentioned in the Introduction can be improved with the help of obtaining results, graphically present in this manuscript. In this regard, the authors present the sufficient conditions for the extinction of smoking for reproductive number is less than 1.Research limitations/implicationsIn this work, the authors investigated the dynamic stochastic smoking model with non-Gaussian noise. The authors discussed the dynamics of the deterministic smoking model form and further showed for the stochastic system the existence and uniqueness of the non-negative global solution. Some previous study’s mentioned in the Introduction can be improved with the help of obtained results, clearly shown graphically in this manuscript. In this regard, the authors presented the sufficient conditions for the extinction of smoking, if <1, which can help in the control of smoking. Motivated from this research soon, the authors will extent the results to propose new mathematical models for the smoking epidemic in the form of fractional stochastic modeling. Especially, will investigate the effective strategies for control smoking throughout the world.Originality/valueThis study is helpful in the control of smoking throughout the world.

8.
Stem Cell Investig ; 8: 23, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597628

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this review article is to outline the pathology, virology and mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to study the regenerative role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to tackle the lung damage caused by SARS-CoV-2. Background: The MSCs possess trophic potentialities which enable them to find out the sites of injury or inflammation and because of their pleiotropic and pericytic nature, these cells are capable of differentiating into different cell types. The MSCs can be derived from a variety of tissue sources be it adult or embryonic origin. The one major characteristic of MSCs is that they are immunologically naïve in terms of expression of MHC Class II. This very low or no expression of MHC class II makes them useful in clinical settings where they can be used in allogenic transplant cases. This allogenic transplant possibilities of these MSCs makes them one of the most researched stem cells and investigated for cell-based therapies. Though these MSCs are in clinical settings for long the one even more important characteristic which makes them even more in demand is their immunomodulatory properties which have been used in various cases to mitigate the effect of overstimulation of the immune system. In recent times after the pandemic of the novel corona virus disease 2019 (nCOVID-19) generated by SARS-CoV-2, the effect of various MSCs isolated from various tissue sources are being utilized to curb the overstimulation of immune response, so that the immune system can be brought under some regulation to ultimately reduce the effect of inflammation. Methods: In this review article, we have reviewed the existing literature, data and ongoing clinical trials by using keywords like novel coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, acute respiratory distress syndrome, mesenchymal stem cells, immunomodulation properties of stem cells, regenerative properties of stem cells, cell therapy, clinical trials of stem cells, clinical trials of COVID-19 and stem cells till 20th August 2020 using database named PubMed, NCBI, Google Scholar, Scopus, Research Gate and Clinicaltrials.gov. Conclusions: Thus, concluding the therapeutic potential of MSCs in managing and treating COVID-19.

9.
Bhatnagar, Tarun, Chaudhuri, Sirshendu, Ponnaiah, Manickam, Yadav, Pragya, Sabarinathan, R.; Sahay, Rima, Ahmed, Faheem, Aswathy, S.; Bhardwaj, Pankaj, Bilimale, Anil, Muthusamy, Santhosh Kumar, Logaraj, M.; Narlawar, Uday, Palanivel, C.; Patel, Prakash, Rai, Sanjay, Saxena, Vartika, Singh, Arvind, Thangaraj, Jeromie Wesley Vivian, Agarwal, Ashwini, Alvi, Yasir, Amoghashree, Ashok, P.; Babu, Dinesh, Bahurupi, Yogesh, Bhalavi, Sangita, Behera, Priyamadhaba, Biswas, Priyanka Pandit, Charan, Jaykaran, Chauhan, Nishant Kumar, Chetak, K. B.; Dar, Lalit, Das, Ayan, Deepashree, R.; Dhar, Minakshi, Dhodapkar, Rahul, Dipu, T. S.; Dudeja, Mridu, Dudhmal, Manisha, Gadepalli, Ravisekhar, Garg, Mahendra Kumar, Gayathri, A. V.; Goel, Akhil Dhanesh, Gowdappa, Basavana, Guleria, Randeep, Gupta, Manoj Kumar, Islam, Farzana, Jain, Mannu, Jain, Vineet, Jawahar, Lanord Stanley, Joshi, Rajendra, Kant, Shashi, Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar, Kalita, Deepjyoti, Khapre, Meenakshi, Khichar, Satyendra, Kombade, Sarika Prabhakar, Kohli, Sunil, Kumar, Abhinendra, Kumar, Anil, Kumar, Deepak, Kulirankal, Kiran, Leela, K. V.; Majumdar, Triparna, Mishra, Baijayantimala, Misra, Puneet, Misra, Sanjeev, Mohapatra, Prasanta Raghab, Murthy, Narayana, Nyayanit, Dimpal, Patel, Manish, Pathania, Monika, Patil, Savita, Patro, Binod Kumar, Jalandra, Ramniwas, Rathod, Pragati, Shah, Naimesh, Shete, Anita, Shukla, Deepak, Shwethashree, M.; Sinha, Smita, Surana, Ashish, Trikha, Anjan, Tejashree, A.; Venkateshan, Mahalingam, Vijaykrishnan, G.; Wadhava, Sarita, Wig, Naveet, Gupta, Nivedita, Abraham, Priya, Murhekar, Manoj.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294258

ABSTRACT

Background: India introduced BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield vaccines from January 2021. We estimated effectiveness of these vaccines against severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among individuals aged >=45 years.<br><br>Methods: We did a multi-centric, hospital-based, case–control study between May and July 2021. Cases were severe COVID-19 patients and controls were COVID-19 negative individuals from 11 hospitals. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated for full (2 doses ≥14days) and partial (1 dose ≥21 days) vaccination;duration between two vaccine doses and against the Delta variant. We used a random effects logistic regression model to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI after adjusting for relevant known confounders.<br><br>Findings: We enrolled 1,143 cases and 2,541 controls. The VE of full vaccination was 80% (95% CI: 73%-86%) with AZD1222/Covishield and 69% (95% CI: 54%-79%) with BBV152/Covaxin. The VE was highest for a gap of 6-8 weeks between two doses of AZD1222/Covishield (92%, 95% CI: 82%-96%) and BBV152/Covaxin (92%, 95% CI: 26%-99%). The VE estimates were similar against the Delta strain and sub-lineages.<br><br>Interpretation: BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield were effective against severe COVID-19 among the Indian population during the period of dominance of highly transmissible Delta variant in second wave of pandemic. An escalation of two-dose coverage with COVID-19 vaccines is critical to control the pandemic in the country.<br><br>Funding Information: Indian Council of Medical Research<br><br>Declaration of Interests: None to declare. <br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: We obtained written informed consent from all the participants or their legally authorized representatives. Study procedures were approved by the Institutional Human Ethics Committees of all participating institutions.<br><br>

10.
Biomed Signal Process Control ; 71: 103272, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525711

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has a devastating impact on health and the economy globally, that's why it is critical to diagnose positive cases rapidly. Currently, the most effective test to detect COVID-19 is Reverse Transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) which is time-consuming, expensive and sometimes not accurate. It is found in many studies that, radiology seems promising by extracting features from X-rays. COVID-19 motivates the researchers to undergo the deep learning process to detect the COVID- 19 patient rapidly. This paper has classified the X-rays images into COVID- 19 and normal by using multi-model classification process. This multi-model classification incorporates Support Vector Machine (SVM) in the last layer of VGG16 Convolution network. For synchronization among VGG16 and SVM we have added one more layer of convolution, pool, and dense between VGG16 and SVM. Further, for transformations and discovering the best result, we have used the Radial Basis function. CovXmlc is compared with five existing models using different parameters and metrics. The result shows that our proposed CovXmlc with minimal dataset reached accuracy up to 95% which is significantly higher than the existing ones. Similarly, it also performs better on other metrics such as recall, precision and f-score.

11.
Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India ; : 1-2, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1498720

ABSTRACT

Total laryngectomy remains an essential treatment for locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma. However, it involves lifestyle changes for the patient, such as the inability to communicate verbally, breathing or aesthetic changes, which affect their quality of life and require comprehensive rehabilitation. Speech rehabilitation is of utmost importance for these patients. Hence to provide comprehensive rehabilitation after total laryngectomy we have been running a successful laryngectomee club at our institute for the benefit of our patients. But when the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020, declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic, many of our patients couldn't make their regular followup visits. We have successfully conducted the first ever online virtual meeting for our laryngectomee club members via video conferencing service.

12.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 26(5): 228-230, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438078
13.
J Vis Exp ; (173)2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359306

ABSTRACT

In the past several years, technological and methodological advancements in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have paved a new avenue for the high-resolution structure determination of biological macromolecules. Despite the remarkable advances in cryo-EM, there is still scope for improvement in various aspects of the single-particle analysis workflow. Single-particle analysis demands a suitable software package for high-throughput automatic data acquisition. Several automatic data acquisition software packages were developed for automatic imaging for single-particle cryo-EM in the last eight years. This paper presents an application of a fully automated image acquisition pipeline for vitrified biomolecules under low-dose conditions. It demonstrates a software package, which can collect cryo-EM data fully, automatically, and precisely. Additionally, various microscopic parameters are easily controlled by this software package. This protocol demonstrates the potential of this software package in automated imaging of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein with a 200 keV cryo-electron microscope equipped with a direct electron detector (DED). Around 3,000 cryo-EM movie images were acquired in a single session (48 h) of data collection, yielding an atomic-resolution structure of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, this structural study indicates that the spike protein adopts two major conformations, 1-RBD (receptor-binding domain) up open and all RBD down closed conformations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Software , Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323237

ABSTRACT

Ever-changing conditions and emerging new challenges affect the ability of the healthcare sector to survive with the current system, and to maintain its processes effectively. In the healthcare sector, the conservation of the natural resources is being obstructed by insufficient infrastructure for managing residual waste resulting from single-use medical materials, increased energy use, and its environmental burden. In this context, circularity and sustainability concepts have become essential in healthcare to meliorate the sector's negative impacts on the environment. The main aim of this study is to identify the barriers related to circular economy (CE) in the healthcare sector, apply big data analytics in healthcare, and provide solutions to these barriers. The contribution of this research is the detailed examination of the current healthcare literature about CE adaptation, and a proposal for a big data-enabled solutions framework to barriers to circularity, using fuzzy best-worst Method (BWM) and fuzzy VIKOR. Based on the findings, managerial, policy, and theoretical implementations are recommended to support sustainable development initiatives in the healthcare sector.


Subject(s)
Big Data , Health Care Sector , Humans , Sustainable Development
17.
J Virol ; 95(13): e0026621, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263905

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While previous studies have shown that several SARS-CoV-2 proteins can antagonize the interferon (IFN) response, some of the mechanisms by which they do so are not well understood. In this study, we describe two novel mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 blocks the IFN pathway. Type I IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were poorly induced during SARS-CoV-2 infection, and once infection was established, cells were highly resistant to ectopic induction of IFNs and ISGs. Levels of two key IFN signaling pathway components, Tyk2 and STAT2, were significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Expression of nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) or nucleocapsid in the absence of other viral proteins was sufficient to block IFN induction, but only NSP1 was able to inhibit IFN signaling. Mapping studies suggest that NSP1 prevents IFN induction in part by blocking IRF3 phosphorylation. In addition, NSP1-induced depletion of Tyk2 and STAT2 dampened ISG induction. Together, our data provide new insights into how SARS-CoV-2 successfully evades the IFN system to establish infection. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19, a serious disease that can have a myriad of symptoms from loss of taste and smell to pneumonia and hypercoagulation. The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 can be attributed in part to asymptomatic transmission, where infected individuals shed large amounts of virus before the onset of disease. This is likely due to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to effectively suppress the innate immune system, including the IFN response. Indeed, we show that the IFN response is efficiently blocked during SARS-CoV-2 infection, a process that is mediated in large part by nonstructural protein 1 and nucleocapsid. Our study provides new insights on how SARS-CoV-2 evades the IFN response to successfully establish infection. These findings should be considered for the development and administration of therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , STAT2 Transcription Factor/metabolism , TYK2 Kinase/metabolism , Vero Cells
18.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100425, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A key public health priority during the emergence of a novel pathogen is probing the factors contributing in clinical severity of the disease COVID-19. Moreover, analysis of the determined clinical outcomes is required and thus, modifiable predictor values need to identified. In Ayurveda, outcome of a disease is a multivariate function and this exploratory work is an attempt to identify one such factor "Vyadhiksamatwa" (immune status). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in fifty diagnosed cases of COVID-19. Study participants were subjected to a questionnaire to assess relationship between the three determinants of the disease - exposure, clinical severity, and Vyadhiksamatwa. RESULTS: Clinical severity was found strongly correlated with Vyadhiksmatwa with the value of Pearson Correlation - 0.740 significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). CONCLUSION: In the determination of clinical severity of disease, there are two epidemiological factors responsible - extrinsic (exposure) and intrinsic (Vyadhiksamatwa). It has been observed that higher the value of Vyadhiksamatwa of an individual, lesser will be the clinical severity of the disease in that individual. Vyadhiksamatwa can alter the host response to infections.

19.
Mol Ther ; 29(8): 2424-2440, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225433

ABSTRACT

Lung inflammation is a hallmark of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we show that mice develop inflamed lung tissue after being administered exosomes released from the lung epithelial cells exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Nsp12 and Nsp13 (exosomesNsp12Nsp13). Mechanistically, we show that exosomesNsp12Nsp13 are taken up by lung macrophages, leading to activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the subsequent induction of an array of inflammatory cytokines. Induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß from exosomesNsp12Nsp13-activated lung macrophages contributes to inducing apoptosis in lung epithelial cells. Induction of exosomesNsp12Nsp13-mediated lung inflammation was abolished with ginger exosome-like nanoparticle (GELN) microRNA (miRNA aly-miR396a-5p. The role of GELNs in inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) was further demonstrated via GELN aly-miR396a-5p- and rlcv-miR-rL1-28-3p-mediated inhibition of expression of Nsp12 and spike genes, respectively. Taken together, our results reveal exosomesNsp12Nsp13 as potentially important contributors to the development of lung inflammation, and GELNs are a potential therapeutic agent to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Plants/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , A549 Cells , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokines/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , U937 Cells , Vero Cells
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