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1.
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice ; : 101601, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821203

ABSTRACT

Background The present study aimed to evaluate the safety and prophylactic efficacy of add-on Comprehensive Ayurveda and Mindfulness-based Yoga (CAY) regimen to standard care among Healthcare workers (HCWs) against COVID-19. Materials and methods This prospective single-blind (outcome assessor-blinded) RCT was conducted in tertiary care hospital in Delhi during November 2020–January 2021. HCWs of both sexes were randomized to add-on CAY intervention or control group. The primary outcomes were the incidence of confirmed COVID-19 positive cases and influenza-like illness events (ILI). Secondary outcomes were anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9), and quality of Life (SF-36) at the end of 12 weeks. Results Three hundred fifty-six participants (181 in intervention and 175 in the control group) were randomized. With the modified intention to treat approach, we analyzed 309 participants. The mean age for the intervention and control groups was 39.3 ± 10.1 and 36.6 ± 10 years, respectively. Incidence of COVID-19 events was higher in control group compared to CAY group (16 of 164 [9.8%] vs. 11 of 145 [7.6%];P = 0.50). The incidence of ILI events was also higher in the control group as compared to the CAY group (14 of 164 [8.5%] vs 9 of 145 [6.2%]). The health change domain of the SF-36 questionnaire showed statistically significant improvement in the CAY group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Conclusion Incidence of COVID-19 and ILI cases were lower in the CAY intervention group compared with the control group, though the difference is not statistically significant.

2.
ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering ; 10(10):3150-3154, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1783939

ABSTRACT

The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic has initiated a radical attention shift of society toward the severe consequences it has had over human health, shadowing a symmetrically, if not more, important issue of the rapid intensification in the amount of plastic waste that has been generated over the due course of time. Such a growth in the plastic footprint across the globe has led to a carbon positive environment with an increased amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) released due to the processing of the waste plastic. We aim to address and provide our perception to this pressing challenge that can be decoded via the advancement of upcycling technologies, utilized and augmented worldwide. With the establishment of such sustainable policies and strategies, the global plastic footprint can be systematically mitigated, accelerating the world into economic circularity and environmental sustainability.

3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773856

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) remains an underdiagnosed entity. Using a modified Delphi method, we have formulated a consensus statement for the diagnosis and management of CAPM. We selected 26 experts from various disciplines who are involved in managing CAPM. Three rounds of the Delphi process were held to reach consensus (≥70% agreement or disagreement) or dissensus. A consensus was achieved for 84 of the 89 statements. Pulmonary mucormycosis occurring within 3 months of COVID-19 diagnosis was labelled CAPM and classified further as proven, probable, and possible. We recommend flexible bronchoscopy to enable early diagnosis. The experts proposed definitions to categorise dual infections with aspergillosis and mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. We recommend liposomal amphotericin B (5 mg/kg per day) and early surgery as central to the management of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. We recommend response assessment at 4-6 weeks using clinical and imaging parameters. Posaconazole or isavuconazole was recommended as maintenance therapy following initial response, but no consensus was reached for the duration of treatment. In patients with stable or progressive disease, the experts recommended salvage therapy with posaconazole or isavuconazole. CAPM is a rare but under-reported complication of COVID-19. Although we have proposed recommendations for defining, diagnosing, and managing CAPM, more extensive research is required.

4.
Journal of Family Medicine & Primary Care ; 11(3):1140-1145, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1753782

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) had generated considerable interest for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prophylaxis. We conducted a prospective observational study at a tertiary care hospital in India, with dedicated COVID-19 care facilities. Objectives: Primary objective was incidence of adverse effects, secondary objective being efficacy in preventing COVID-19. Methods: Healthcare workers were recruited and grouped based on voluntary HCQ prophylaxis as per national guidelines. Side effects in HCQ group were graded in accordance with national cancer institute-common terminology criteria for adverse events (NCI-CTCAE) version 5.0. At 3–7-week follow-up, groups were compared for COVID-19 exposure, symptoms development and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR results. Results: Among 358 participants recruited, 216 (60.3%) were males and mean age was 31.2 ± 6.6 years. Chemoprophylaxis was initiated by 258 (72%) participants. After loading dose, 7 (2.7%) reported grade 2 and 1 (0.4%) grade 3 adverse effects. Discontinuation of HCQ due to side effects was reported in 11 (4.3%) participants. Electrocardiogram was done by 50 (19.4%) participants on HCQ;no abnormalities were noted. A total of 106 (41%) among those taking and 63 (63%) among those not taking HCQ were tested for SARS-CoV-2 due to influenza-like illness or significant exposure. Among all participants, 25 (6.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.3–9.6) developed COVID-19 during the study period. In the group taking HCQ, 10 (3.9%) tested positive compared to 15 (15%) in the group not taking HCQ (P < 0.001). Odds ratio with HCQ intake was 0.34 (95% CI 0.13–0.83, P = 0.01) and the number needed to treat was 12. Conclusion: HCQ is safe at the recommended dose for pre-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Family Medicine & Primary Care is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Lung India ; 39(2): 100-101, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726380
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321185

ABSTRACT

Background: and Aim There is a paucity of data on the clinical presentations and outcomes of Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in patients with underlying liver disease. We aimed to summarize the presentations and outcomes of COVID-19 positive patients and compare with historical controls. Methods: Patients with known chronic liver disease who presented with superimposed COVID- 19(n=28) between 22nd April and 22nd June 2020 were studied. Seventy-eight cirrhotic patients from historical controls were taken as comparison group. Results: A total of 28 COVID patients- two without cirrhosis, one with compensated cirrhosis, sixteen with acute decompensation (AD), and nine with acute-on-chronic liver failure(ACLF) were included. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcohol(n=9), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(n=2), viral(n=5), autoimmune hepatitis(n=4), and cryptogenic cirrhosis(n=6). The clinical presentations included complications of cirrhosis in 12(46.2%), respiratory symptoms in 3(11.5%) and combined complications of cirrhosis and respiratory symptoms in 11(42.3%) patients. The median hospital stay was 8(7-12) days. The mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was 42.3%(11/26), as compared to 23.1%(18/78) in the historical controls(p=0.077). All COVID-19 patients with ACLF(9/9) died compared to 53.3%(16/30) in ACLF of historical controls(p=0.015). Mortality rate was higher in COVID patients with compensated cirrhosis and AD as compared to historical controls 2/17(11.8%) vs 2/48(4.2%), though not statistically significant (p=0.278). Requirement of mechanical ventilation independently predicted mortality (hazard ratio, 13.68). Both non-cirrhotic patients presented with respiratory symptoms and recovered uneventfully. Conclusion: COVID-19 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with cirrhosis, with worst survival rates in ACLF. Mechanical ventilation is associated with a poor outcome.

7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327081

ABSTRACT

Background: Delta variant transmission resulted in a surge of SARS CoV-2 cases in New Delhi, India during the early half of the year 2021. Health Care Workers (HCWs) received vaccines on priority for the prevention of infection. The real-life effectiveness of the BBV152 vaccine against severe disease including hospitalization and death was not known. Objective: To estimate the effectiveness of BBV152 vaccine among HCWs against SARS CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, or death Design: Observational study Setting: a multi-specialty tertiary care public-funded hospital in New Delhi, India. Participants: 12,237 HCWs Interventions: BBV152 vaccine (Covaxin, Bharat Biotech Limited, Hyderabad, India);whole virion inactivated vaccine;two doses four weeks apart Measurements: vaccine effectiveness after receipt of two doses of BBV152 protecting against any SARS CoV-2 infection, symptomatic infections or hospitalizations or deaths, and hospitalizations or deaths. Results: The mean age of HCWs was 36(11) years, 66% were men and 16% had comorbidity. After adjusting for potential covariates viz age, sex, health worker type category, body mass index, and comorbidity, the vaccine effectiveness (95% Confidence Interval) in fully vaccinated HCWs and two weeks elapsed after the receipt of the second dose was 44% (37 to 51, p<0.001) against symptomatic infection, hospitalization or death due to SARS CoV-2, and 61% (37 to 76, p<0.001) against hospitalization or death, respectively. Conclusions: BBV152 vaccine with complete two doses offers a modest response to SARS CoV-2 infection in real-life situations against a backdrop of high delta variant community transmission. Efforts in maximizing receipt of full vaccines should be invested for HCWs, who are at higher occupational risk for infection.

8.
J Infect ; 84(3): 383-390, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the Coronavirus-disease associated mucormycosis (CAM) syndemic is poorly elucidated. We aimed to identify risk factors that may explain the burden of cases and help develop preventive strategies. METHODS: We performed a case-control study comparing cases diagnosed with CAM and taking controls as recovered COVID 19 patients who did not develop mucormycosis. Information on comorbidities, glycemic control, and practices related to COVID-19 prevention and treatment was recorded. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: A total of 352 patients (152 cases and 200 controls) diagnosed with COVID-19 during April-May 2021 were included. In the CAM group, symptoms of mucormycosis began a mean of 18.9 (SD 9.1) days after onset of COVID-19, and predominantly rhino-sinus and orbital involvement was present. All, but one, CAM cases had conventional risk factors of diabetes and steroid use. On multivariable regression, increased odds of CAM were associated with the presence of diabetes (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.1-11), use of systemic steroids (aOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.4-24.7), prolonged use of cloth and surgical masks (vs. no mask, aOR 6.9, 95%CI 1.5-33.1), and repeated nasopharyngeal swab testing during the COVID-19 illness (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2). Zinc therapy was found to be protective (aOR 0.05, 95%CI 0.01-0.19). Notably, the requirement of oxygen supplementation or hospitalization did not affect the risk of CAM. CONCLUSION: Judicious use of steroids and stringent glycemic control are vital to preventing mucormycosis. Use of clean masks, preference for N95 masks if available, and minimizing swab testing after the diagnosis of COVID-19 may further reduce the incidence of CAM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142210, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611175

ABSTRACT

Importance: A surge of COVID-19 occurred from March to June 2021, in New Delhi, India, linked to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out for health care workers (HCWs) starting in January 2021. Objective: To assess the incidence density of reinfection among a cohort of HCWs and estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virion vaccine BBV152 against reinfection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study among HCWs working at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Exposures: Vaccination with 0, 1, or 2 doses of BBV152. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HCWs were categorized as fully vaccinated (with 2 doses and ≥15 days after the second dose), partially vaccinated (with 1 dose or 2 doses with <15 days after the second dose), or unvaccinated. The incidence density of COVID-19 reinfection per 100 person-years was computed, and events from March 3, 2020, to June 18, 2021, were included for analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted HR) was reported. Results: Among 15 244 HCWs who participated in the study, 4978 (32.7%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 36.6 (10.3) years, and 55.0% were male. The reinfection incidence density was 7.26 (95% CI: 6.09-8.66) per 100 person-years (124 HCWs [2.5%], total person follow-up period of 1696 person-years as time at risk). Fully vaccinated HCWs had lower risk of reinfection (HR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.08-0.23]), symptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.24]), and asymptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05-0.53]) compared with unvaccinated HCWs. Accordingly, among the 3 vaccine categories, reinfection was observed in 60 of 472 (12.7%) of unvaccinated (incidence density, 18.05 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 14.02-23.25), 39 of 356 (11.0%) of partially vaccinated (incidence density 15.62 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 11.42-21.38), and 17 of 1089 (1.6%) fully vaccinated (incidence density 2.18 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 1.35-3.51) HCWs. The estimated effectiveness of BBV152 against reinfection was 86% (95% CI, 77%-92%); symptomatic reinfection, 87% (95% CI, 76%-93%); and asymptomatic reinfection, 84% (95% CI, 47%-95%) among fully vaccinated HCWs. Partial vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of reinfection. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that BBV152 was associated with protection against both symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection in HCWs after a complete vaccination schedule, when the predominant circulating variant was B.1.617.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Virion/immunology , Young Adult
10.
Infez Med ; 29(4): 557-561, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579083

ABSTRACT

Risk factors which led to the outbreak of COVID-19 associated Mucormycosis still remains elusive. Face masks can become contaminated by fungal spores that are present ubiquitously in the environment. However the exact burden of such contamination is not known. Fifty masks of patients who attended the Employees Health Scheme COVID-19 facility of a tertiary healthcare centre in India were sampled by direct impression smears on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Agar plates were screened for any growth within five days after incubation. Growth was identified by microscopy on the Lactophenol Cotton Blue mount. Mask hygiene practices of participants was assessed using a pre-designed proforma. Out of 50 masks, fungal contamination was seen in 35/50 (70%) masks, with Aspergillus sp. being isolated from 26/50 (52%) masks and Mucorales being isolated from 9/50 (18%) of the masks. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus a rrhizus and Syncephalastrum sp. were the most common species isolated. Same mask was worn for a median duration of 8 days (2-30 days) at a stretch with or without washing. Thirty one patients washed and re-wore their masks, with median time duration since last wash being 12 hours (4-72 hours). None of the factors assessed for mask hygiene were associated with fungal contamination. High rates of fungal contamination observed in our study emphasizes the need for better mask hygiene in the COVID-19 era.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296896

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known complication of COVID-19 and is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Unbiased proteomics using longitudinally collected biological specimens can lead to improved risk stratification and discover pathophysiological mechanisms. Using longitudinal measurements of ∼4000 plasma proteins in two cohorts of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, we discovered and validated markers of COVID-associated AKI (stage 2 or 3) and long-term kidney dysfunction. In the discovery cohort (N= 437), we identified 413 upregulated and 40 downregulated proteins associated with COVID-AKI (adjusted p <0.05). Of these, 62 proteins were validated in an external cohort (p <0.05, N =261). We demonstrate that COVID-AKI is associated with increased markers of tubular injury (NGAL) and myocardial injury. Using estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) measurements taken after discharge, we also find that 25 of the 62 AKI-associated proteins are significantly associated with decreased post-discharge eGFR (adjusted p <0.05). Proteins most strongly associated with decreased post-discharge eGFR included desmocollin-2, trefoil factor 3, transmembrane emp24 domain-containing protein 10, and cystatin-C indicating tubular dysfunction and injury. Using longitudinal clinical and proteomic data, our results suggest that while both acute and long-term COVID-associated kidney dysfunction are associated with markers of tubular dysfunction, AKI is driven by a largely multifactorial process involving hemodynamic instability and myocardial damage.

12.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 254-260, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542928

ABSTRACT

Post COVID-19 sequelae are a constellation of symptoms often reported after recovering from COVID-19. There is a need to better understand the clinical spectrum and long-term course of this clinical entity. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and risk factors of post COVID-19 sequelae in the North Indian population. This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare centre in Northern India between October 2020 and February 2021. Patients aged >18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited after at least two weeks of diagnosis, and details were captured. A total of 1234 patients were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 91 days (IQR: 45-181 days). Among them, 495 (40.1%) had persistent symptoms post-discharge or recovery. In 223 (18.1%) patients, the symptoms resolved within four weeks; 150 (12.1%) patients had symptoms till 12 weeks, and 122 (9.9%) patients had symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis/symptom-onset of COVID-19. Most common symptoms included myalgia (10.9%), fatigue (5.5%), shortness of breath (6.1%), cough (2.1%), insomnia (1.4%), mood disturbances (0.48%) and anxiety (0.6%). Patients who were hospitalized were more likely to report fatigue as a feature of long COVID. Hypothyroidism (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.2-7.6, p-value < 0.001) and hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, p-value 0.012) were identified as risk factors for long COVID sequelae. In conclusion, long COVID symptoms were common (22%), and 9.9% had the post COVID-19 syndrome. Myalgias, fatigue and dyspnoea were common symptoms. Patients with hypothyroidism and hypoxia during acute illness were at higher risk of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 349-356, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that has been deployed in India. The results of the phase 3 trial have shown clinical efficacy of BBV152. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative, case-control study among employees of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India), who had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and had an RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the peak of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India between April 15 and May 15, 2021. Cases (test-positives) and controls (test-negatives) were matched (1:1) on the basis of age and gender. The odds of vaccination with BBV152 were compared between cases and controls and adjusted for level of occupational exposure (to COVID-19), previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and calendar time, using conditional logistic regression. The primary outcome was effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 (with the second dose received at least 14 days before testing) in reducing the odds of symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, expressed as (1 - odds ratio) × 100%. FINDINGS: Between April 15 and May 15, 2021, 3732 individuals had an RT-PCR test. Of these, 2714 symptomatic employees had data on vaccination status, and 1068 matched case-control pairs were available for analysis. The adjusted effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 after two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 50% (95% CI 33-62; p<0·0001). The adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 28 days before testing was 46% (95% CI 22-62) and administered at least 42 days before testing was 57% (21-76). After excluding participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, the adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 47% (95% CI 29-61). INTERPRETATION: This study shows the effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 in the context of a huge surge in cases, presumably dominated by the potentially immune-evasive delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support the ongoing roll-out of this vaccine to help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, while continuing the emphasis on adherence to non-pharmacological measures. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Hindi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Humans , India , Middle Aged , Virion/immunology
14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292634

ABSTRACT

Background: The Impact of COVID-19 pandemic over non-essential health services has been massive. We initiated Influenza Like Illness (ILI) screening for resumption of out-patient services at a tertiary care centre and this study attempted to gauge its efficacy in effectively pruning out COVID-19.Methods: We included all the patients who had visited for an OPD appointment during the study period. Patient details and ILI symptoms were noted. Patients were then followed up telephonically after 2 weeks. The telephonic follow up was to ensure RT-PCR status and complaints of any newly developed ILI post OPD visit (within the last 14 days).Results:: Out of the 957 patients who were enrolled, 929 patients were successfully followed up telephonically after 14 days. Only 13 who were screened out as ‘possible ILI’, were either RT-PCR negative or did not follow up with a confirmatory test. The telephonic follow up to ensure RT-PCR status and complaints of any newly developed ILI post OPD visit (within the last 14 days) was noted in the rest of the patients. Only 1 participant out of 957 screened, tested positive for COVID-19.Conclusion: The period in which the study was held the national positivity rate was low (around 3%). Therefore, in a resource limited country such as India it is astute to restart the OPD services in the pre-existing setup using basic precautions and a verbal questionnaire during the slope of the pandemic.

15.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 77: S312-S318, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) has been identified as one of the deadliest complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Western literature reminds us of the high prevalence of PE in COVID. Here, we report a series of 13 cases of PE diagnosed and managed at our hospital. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of 13 cases of PE admitted at our hospital from February 1, 2020, to September 31, 2020, were done. Their clinical, laboratory, and radiologic data were assessed in detail. RESULTS: Computed tomography pulmonary arteriography was used to make the diagnosis in eight patients (61.53%), and clinical findings with corroborative ultrasound and laboratory parameters were used to label PE in five patients (38.46%). Five patients were hemodynamically unstable, requiring thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, and four patients (30.76%) suffered a fatal outcome. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is a highly prothrombotic state, and all physicians should keep a high vigilance for PE. All hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially those admitted in ICU, should be on prophylactic anticoagulation and, if there is any worsening, should be started on therapeutic regimen. Patients at the time of discharge should be switched to oral anticoagulation, which should be continued for at least 3-6 months.

16.
Journal of Orthopaedics and Spine ; 9(1):6-10, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1502619

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has wreaked havoc on global health care. Although tertiary care hospitals and major trauma centers in developing countries are well equipped to render trauma care safely, this is not the case in district or nonmetropolitan small centers. Herein, we intend to outline the problems currently being faced by these small peripheral centers and their carefully crafted strategy in managing trauma victims. We also proposed some recommendations that are hoped to boost the endeavor to work in a sound and effective milieu.

17.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 17(2): 203-213, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the wake of recent widespread interest in telemedicine during the COVID-19 era, many orthopaedic surgeons may be unfamiliar with clinical examination skills, patients' safety, data security, and implementation-related concerns in telemedicine. We present a bibliometric analysis and review of the telemedicine-related publications concerning orthopaedics care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Such analysis can help orthopaedic surgeons become acquainted with the recent developments in telemedicine and its usage in regular orthopaedics practice. METHODS: We systematically searched the database of Thomson Reuters Web of Science for telemedicine-related articles in orthopaedics published during the COVID-19 pandemic. The selected articles were analysed for their source journals, corresponding authors, investigating institutions, countries of the corresponding authors, number of citations, study types, levels of evidence, and a qualitative review. RESULTS: Fifty-nine articles meeting the inclusion criteria were published in 28 journals. Three hundred forty-two authors contributed to these research papers. The United States (US) contributed the most number of articles to the telemedicine-related orthopaedics research during the COVID-19 era. All articles combined had a total of 383 citations and 66.1% were related to the Economic and Decision-making Analyses of telemedicine implementation. By and large, level IV evidence was predominant in our review. CONCLUSION: Telemedicine can satisfactorily cover a major proportion of patients' visits to outpatient departments, thus limiting hospitals' physical workload. Telemedicine has a potential future role in emergency orthopaedics and inpatient care through virtual aids. The issues related to patient privacy, data security, medicolegal, and reimbursement-related aspects need to be addressed through precise national or regional guidelines. Lastly, the orthopaedic physical examination is a weak link in telemedicine and needs to be strengthened.

18.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(8): 3047-3050, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no data on the impact of COVID-19 on patients' income and work in India. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary hospital in New Delhi. We included all the patients who were ≥18 years of age and consecutively diagnosed with COVID-19 between the 1st of May 2020 to 31st July 2020. Patients were interviewed by a physician using a semi-structure questionnaire. Data were collected on socio-economic status, occupation, income loss, leaves taken, decrease in work efficiency (self-perceived) and about-facing any stigma/discrimination at the workplace. RESULTS: Out of 245 patients, 190 patients were employed. A total of 126 patients (66.3%) self-reported their work was affected due to COVID-19 disease. A total of 30.5% of patients (n = 58/190) reported deduction in their salary. The median amount of salary loss was INR 10,000 (IQR 9000-25000). Decrease in income and work efficiency (self-perceived) was found to be 37.3% (n = 71) and 12.1% (n = 23), respectively. A total of 47 patients (37.3%) took personal leaves (median number - 17 days (IQR 14-25), and discrimination/stigma related to the COVID-19 at the workplace was faced by 22.6% of patients. CONCLUSION: Income and work of a substantial number of patients was affected due to COVID-19, as there was a decrease in income and work efficiency. Patients also had to take personal leaves and face stigma in the workplace. This will inform the policymakers to formulate strategies to mitigate the impact of COVID-19.

19.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(8): 2993-2997, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An efficient sampling is one of the key methods to identify all those affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVES: To analyze how efficient setting up of a central sampling team would be to prevent any outbreak within the institution by minimizing the movement of suspected COVID-19 patients admitted in the inpatient wards. The secondary objective was to train maximum resident doctors to collect samples of admitted patients. METHODOLOGY: A central sampling team comprising of resident doctors from various departments was made who did sampling of the suspected COVID-19 inpatients admitted under various specialties. RESULTS: There were a total of 341 patients [209 males (61.29%), 132 females (38.7%)] and 335 patients underwent sampling. There was a positive correlation between: (1) number of calls from a department vs percentage of positive samples in that department [Pearson correlation coefficient (R) = 0.47; P = 0.026], (2) number of samples taken by resident of a particular department from central sampling team vs number of positive samples taken by resident of that department [R = 0.8739, P = 0.01] and (3) number of visits to a department vs number of residents trained in that department [R = 0.93; P = 0.00001]. CONCLUSION: Formulation of a central sampling team led to changes like a separate donning and doffing area in each ward and training of many resident doctors posted in different wards. This made each ward self-sufficient in collection of samples. This venture also ensured minimal movement of suspected COVID-19 patients in the hospital and thus least exposure to the hospital staff.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(42)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447424

ABSTRACT

The coronaviruses responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV, and other coronavirus infections express a nucleocapsid protein (N) that is essential for viral replication, transcription, and virion assembly. Phosphorylation of N from SARS-CoV by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is required for its function and inhibition of GSK-3 with lithium impairs N phosphorylation, viral transcription, and replication. Here we report that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein contains GSK-3 consensus sequences and that this motif is conserved in diverse coronaviruses, raising the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 may be sensitive to GSK-3 inhibitors, including lithium. We conducted a retrospective analysis of lithium use in patients from three major health systems who were PCR-tested for SARS-CoV-2. We found that patients taking lithium have a significantly reduced risk of COVID-19 (odds ratio = 0.51 [0.35-0.74], P = 0.005). We also show that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein is phosphorylated by GSK-3. Knockout of GSK3A and GSK3B demonstrates that GSK-3 is essential for N phosphorylation. Alternative GSK-3 inhibitors block N phosphorylation and impair replication in SARS-CoV-2 infected lung epithelial cells in a cell-type-dependent manner. Targeting GSK-3 may therefore provide an approach to treat COVID-19 and future coronavirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/antagonists & inhibitors , Lithium Compounds/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Female , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lithium Compounds/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Retrospective Studies
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