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1.
Journal of Aerosol Science ; : 106002, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1804404

ABSTRACT

To understand the transmission characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through air, samples from different locations occupied by coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients were analyzed. Three sampling strategies were used to understand the presence of virus in the air in different environmental conditions. In the first strategy, which involved hospital settings, air samples were collected from several areas of hospitals like COVID-intensive-care units (ICUs), nurse-stations, COVID-wards, corridors, non-COVID-wards, personal protective equipment (PPE) doffing areas, COVID rooms, out-patient (OP) corridors, mortuary, COVID casualty areas, non-COVID ICUs and doctors’ rooms. Out of the 80 air samples collected from 6 hospitals from two Indian cities- Hyderabad and Mohali, 30 samples showed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids. In the second sampling strategy, that involved indoor settings, one or more COVID-19 patients were asked to spend a short duration of time in a closed room. Out of 17 samples, 5 samples, including 4 samples collected after the departure of three symptomatic patients from the room, showed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids. In the third strategy, involving indoor settings, air samples were collected from rooms of houses of home-quarantined COVID-19 patients and it was observed that SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected in the air in the rooms occupied by COVID-19 patients but not in the other rooms of the houses. Taken together, we observed that the air around COVID-19 patients frequently showed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in both hospital and indoor residential settings and the positivity rate was higher when 2 or more COVID-19 patients occupied the room. In hospitals, SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected in ICUs as well as in non-ICUs, suggesting that the viral shedding happened irrespective of the severity of the infection. This study also provides evidence for the viability of SARS-CoV-2 and its long-range transport through the air. Thus, airborne transmission could be a major mode of transmission for SARS-CoV-2 and appropriate precautions need to be followed to prevent the spread of infection through the air.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334409

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide, triggering one of the most challenging pandemics in human population. In the light of reporting of this virus in domestic and wild animals from several parts of world, a systematic surveillance study was conceptualized to detect the SARS-CoV-2 among species of Veterinary importance. Nasal and/or rectal samples of 413 animals (Dog=195, cattle=64, horse=42, goat=41, buffalo=39, sheep=19, cat=6, camel=6 and monkey=1) were collected from different places of Gujarat state of India. RNA was extracted from samples and subjected to RT-qPCR based amplification of target sequences in viral nucleoprotein (N), spike (S) and ORF1ab genes. A total of 95 (23.79 %) animals were found positive, comprised of 67 (34.35 %) dogs, 15(23.43 %) cattle and 13(33.33 %) buffaloes. Overall, nasal samples (N=80/412, 19.41 %) gave more positive results than rectal samples (N=70/407, 17.19 %) in RT-qPCR. The whole SRAS-CoV-2 genome sequencing was done on one sample (ID-A4N;from dog) where 32 mutations, including 29 single nucleotide variation (SNV) and two deletions, were detected. Among them, 9 mutations were located in the receptor binding domain of the spike (S) protein. The consequent changes in amino acid sequence revealed that T19R, G142D, E156-, F157-, A222V, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R mutation in S protein and D63G, R203M and D377Y in N protein. The lineage assigned to this SARS-CoV-1 sequence is B.1.617.2. Thus, the present study highlights the importance of SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in non-human host.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334376

ABSTRACT

Deep learning is very effectively used in the medical field to predict diseases such as pneumonia classification , cancer, and so on. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is used to classify the chest X-rays of humans in normal and COVID-19 infected cases. To build a model, pre-trained models and transfer learning is used. In this paper, four pre-trained models VGG16, VGG19, ResNet50, and InceptionV3 are ensemble and build a new ensemble model. To train and test a model, a dataset of as many as 720 X-ray images has been used. Less number of images makes us apply image augmentation. The ensemble models such as VGG19 and ResNet50, VGG16 and ResNet50, VGG16 and InceptionV3, and VGG19 and InceptionV3 yield 96.53%, 98.61%, 99.31%, and 100% accuracy respectively.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 751-758, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771001

ABSTRACT

Limited genomic sampling in many high-incidence countries has impeded studies of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic epidemiology. Consequently, critical questions remain about the generation and global distribution of virus genetic diversity. We investigated SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in Gujarat, India, during the state's first epidemic wave to shed light on spread of the virus in one of the regions hardest hit by the pandemic. By integrating case data and 434 whole-genome sequences sampled across 20 districts, we reconstructed the epidemic dynamics and spatial spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Gujarat. Our findings indicate global and regional connectivity and population density were major drivers of the Gujarat outbreak. We detected >100 virus lineage introductions, most of which appear to be associated with international travel. Within Gujarat, virus dissemination occurred predominantly from densely populated regions to geographically proximate locations that had low population density, suggesting that urban centers contributed disproportionately to virus spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , India/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Journal of Family Medicine & Primary Care ; 11(3):908-911, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1753772

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Current study was carried out as per the government of India and Himachal Pradesh guidelines to carry out a serosurvey to assess the extent of COVID-19 infection among health care professionals (HCPs) after 6 months of managing COVID-19 cases. Methods: A hospital-based survey was carried out among 1279 conveniently selected HCPs from September 2020 to January 2021. Results: The participants had a mean age of 38.3 (±10.4) years, and almost half (47.4%) were ≤35 years of age. A total of 29 (2.3%) were already tested positive for COVID-19 (RT-PCR: 22;Rapid Antigen Test: 7) before the survey, and the overall prevalence of IgG antibody was 12.7% among the participants (Male: 12.8%;Females: 12.5%). The odds were observed significantly high among administrative staff (aOR: 5.09;95%CI: 1.27–20.33) and participants tested positive of COVID-19 previously (aOR: 28.41;95%CI: 11.71–69.00). Conclusion: HCPs were tested about 6 months after the initiation of the COVID-19 pandemic in the state and demonstrated a high and expected level of seroprevalence. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Family Medicine & Primary Care is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313026

ABSTRACT

Background: Antibody testing are often used for serosurveillance of COVID-19. ELISA and Chemiluminesence based antibody test are quiet sensitive and specific for such serological testing. Rapid antibody tests are developed and effectively used for this purpose. But their diagnostic efficiency needs to be evaluated. So, the present study was conducted in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital in Delhi, India to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of a Rapid antibody kit for COVID-19. Material and Method : Sixty COVID-19 confirmed cases by RT-PCR were recruited and categorized as early, intermediate and late cases based on the number of days of their first RT-PCR + ve tests, 20 subjects in each category. Twenty samples from pre-covid era were taken as controls. IgM and IgG antibodies against RBD of spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV2 virus were detected by Rapid antibody test and compared with total antibody against the nucleocapsid (N) antigen of SARS-CoV-2 by Electrochemiluminescence based Immunoassay (ECLIA). Results The detection IgM against Receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein by rapid kit was 0-37.5% sensitive and 0-100% specific for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, efficacy of detection of IgG by rapid kit was 87–89% sensitive and 75–100% specific when compared with total antibody against N antigen measured by ECLIA based immunoassay. Conclusion It can be concluded that detection of IgM against RBD of S protein by rapid kit is not effective but IgG detection can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for SARS-COV-2 infection.

8.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211060165, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582740

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Post-COVID-19 symptoms and its features in many recovered patients are almost similar to post-severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study aims to assess the outcome and manifestations during post-COVID follow-up period in recovered patients. METHODS: Ambidirectional longitudinal study was conducted among recovered COVID-19 patients from a tertiary care hospital near Chennai through telephonic interview after discharge. Total admitted patients from June to November 2020 were 3496 and among those 183 died and 12 transferred to other hospitals. Totally 1354 consented for study and the rest were wrong numbers or not willing to participate. Chi-square test and multinominal logistic regression analysis were done. RESULTS: Majority of, that is, 27.6% and 18.7% were in 21-30 years and >60 years, respectively. Majority were admitted with fever (38.3%), cough (15.3), and body pain (10%). Post-COVID symptoms reported were fatigue (39.7%), stress and anxiety (27.6%), and mood changes (5.8%). Some patients were newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (10), hypertension (5), and TB (1) after discharge. Having diabetes mellitus is an independent risk to have neurological and cardio-respiratory symptoms and patients who were discharged with minimal support were to have an independent risk factor of renal symptoms on follow-up than other subjects. CONCLUSION: The follow-up symptoms were associated with the patients' comorbidities, age, severity of illness, and environmental factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , India , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295217

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has shaken the entire world and the socio-economic life on the planet. The implications of the bacterial co-infections in SARS-CoV-2 patients remained the least explored subject of clinical manifestations among the COVID-19. Identification and association of the nasopharyngeal microbial community structure within SARS-CoV-2 infected patients could reveal microbiota dynamics that may determine and/or influence the disease outcome in the COVID-19 patients. Results Here, in this study, we present distinct nasopharyngeal microbiome in the demised (N=48) and recovered (N=29) COVID-19 patients as compared to the control group (N=33). The nasal microbiome composition in the three groups vary significantly (PERMANOVA, p-value <0.001), where demised patients showed higher species richness as compared to the recovered and control groups. Pathogenic genera including C orynebacterium (LAD score 5.51), Staphylococcus , Serratia , Klebsiella and their corresponding species were found as biomarkers (p-value <0.05, LDA cutoff 4.0) in the patients those who demised due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Except for a few pathogenic species in the genera, Ochrobactrum (LDA score 5.79), and Burkholderia (LDA 5.29), the recovered group harbors ordinal bacteria (p-value <0.05, LDA-4.0) as biomarkers. Similarly, Pseudomonas (LDA score 6.19), and several healthy oral/nasal cavity commensal including Veillonella , and Porphyroonas , were biomarkers for the control individuals. Conclusions Dysbiosis in the commensal nasopharyngeal microbiota, especially due to infection of opportunistic pathogens could lead to more complex and severe COVID-19 disease dynamics. Whereas, healthy commensal bacteria may trigger the immune response and alter the viral infection susceptibility and thus, may help in preventing the viral infection and possible recovery which is yet to be explored. The findings in the present study provide key considerations and have significant implications for the COVID-19 treatment and control measures. However, further study is required to address the microbiome based therapeutic aspects.

10.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294437

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 with better immune escape mechanisms and higher transmissibility remains a persistent threat across the globe. B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant was first emerged from Maharashtra, India in December, 2020. This variant is classified to be a major cause and concern of the second wave of COVID-19 in India. In the present study, we explored the genomic and structural basis of this variant through computational analysis, protein modelling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations approach. B.1.617.2 variant carried E156G and Arg158, Phe-157/del mutations in NTD of spike protein. These mutations in N-terminal domain (NTD) of spike protein of B.1.617.2 variant revealed more rigidity and reduced flexibility compared to spike protein of Wuhan isolate. Further, docking and MD simulation study with 4A8 monoclonal antibody which was reported to bind NTD of spike protein suggested reduced binding of B.1.617.2 spike protein compared to that of spike protein of Wuhan isolate. The results of the present study demonstrate the possible case of immune escape and thereby fitness advantage of the new variant and further warrants demonstration through experimental evidence. Our study identified the probable mechanism through which B.1.617.2 variant is more pathogenically evolved with higher transmissibility as compared to the wild-type. Abstract Figure

11.
Front Chem ; 9: 744376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485033

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has now spread across the nations with high mortality rates and multifaceted impact on human life. The proper treatment methods to overcome this contagious disease are still limited. The main protease enzyme (Mpro, also called 3CLpro) is essential for viral replication and has been considered as one of the potent drug targets for treating COVID-19. In this study, virtual screening was performed to find out the molecular interactions between 36 natural compounds derived from sesame and the Mpro of COVID-19. Four natural metabolites, namely, sesamin, sesaminol, sesamolin, and sesamolinol have been ranked as the top interacting molecules to Mpro based on the affinity of molecular docking. Moreover, stability of these four sesame-specific natural compounds has also been evaluated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for 200 nanoseconds. The molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations revealed that these compounds have stable and favorable energies, causing strong binding with Mpro. These screened natural metabolites also meet the essential conditions for drug likeness such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties as well as Lipinski's rule of five. Our finding suggests that these screened natural compounds may be evolved as promising therapeutics against COVID-19.

12.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-7, 2021 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479530

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is an uncommon but a fatal fungal infection that usually affects patients with altered immunity. The Rhizopus Oryzae is most common type and responsible for nearly 60% of mucormycosis cases in humans and also accounts for 90% of the Rhino-orbital-cerebral (ROCM) form. Our aim and objective was to study, the site of mucormycosis in nose and paranasal sinuses, adjacent site like orbit palate or intracranial involvement, co-morbid condition and management to be done in confirm mucormycosis patients. The most common sinuses involved are the ethmoid, maxillary followed by the frontal and sphenoid sinus. Diabetes mellitus is often associated with mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses, as is corona virus infection; uncontrolled diabetes further increases the risk. Intra-orbital involvement is common, but intracranial involvement is rare. Extensive steroid and broad-spectrum antibiotic use for Covid-19 management may cause or exacerbate fungal disease. All the patients required surgical intervention along with medical treatment.

13.
Agron J ; 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479370

ABSTRACT

Today, global food systems are highly susceptible to food safety risks, economic shocks, price volatility, and natural disasters and pandemics, such as Coronavirus (COVID-19). This paper draws the research on food and nutritional security, food fraud and associated economic ecosystem, and the disruptions due to COVID-19 for socio-economic inequality globally. It is concluded that the safety risks have pushed enforcement of measures to reduce food supplies, adversely impacting food availability. Also, COVID-19 is likely to raise fleeting food security and nutritional concerns across the globe, which most likely resulted in the rise in poverty, food fraud, limiting food supply and access. Accelerated investments intended to develop more inclusive, sustainable, and resilient food systems will help shrink the effect of the pandemic and, hence, a way to control the foreseen food security crisis and economic growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463843

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 claimed numerous lives and put nations on high alert. The lack of antiviral medications and the small number of approved vaccines, as well as the recurrence of adverse effects, necessitates the development of novel treatment ways to combat COVID-19. In this context, using databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, we gathered information about nanotechnology's involvement in the prevention, diagnosis and virus-like particle vaccine development. This review revealed that various nanomaterials like gold, polymeric, graphene and poly amino ester with carboxyl group coated magnetic nanoparticles have been explored for the fast detection of SARS-CoV-2. Personal protective equipment fabricated with nanoparticles, such as gloves, masks, clothes, surfactants, and Ag, TiO2 based disinfectants played an essential role in halting COVID-19 transmission. Nanoparticles are used not only in vaccine delivery, such as lipid nanoparticles mediated transport of mRNA-based Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, but also in the development of vaccine as the virus-like particles elicit an immune response. There are now 18 virus-like particle vaccines in pre-clinical development, with one of them, developed by Novavax, reported being in phase 3 trials. Due to the probability of upcoming COVID-19 waves, and the rise of new diseases, the future relevance of virus-like particles is imperative. Furthermore, psychosocial variables linked to vaccine reluctance constitute a critical problem that must be addressed immediately to avert pandemic.

16.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104631, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300730

ABSTRACT

The Spike receptor binding domain (S-RBD) from SARS-CoV-2, a crucial protein for the entrance of the virus into target cells is known to cause infection by binding to a cell surface protein. Hence, reckoning therapeutics for the S-RBD of SARS-CoV-2 may address a significant way to target viral entry into the host cells. Herein, through in-silico approaches (Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and end-state thermodynamics), we aimed to screen natural molecules from different plants for their ability to inhibit S-RBD of SARS-CoV-2. We prioritized the best interacting molecules (Diacetylcurcumin and Dicaffeoylquinic acid) by analysis of protein-ligand interactions and subjected them for long-term MD simulations. We found that Dicaffeoylquinic acid interacted prominently with essential residues (Lys417, Gln493, Tyr489, Phe456, Tyr473, and Glu484) of S-RBD. These residues are involved in interactions between S-RBD and ACE2 and could inhibit the viral entry into the host cells. The in-silico analyses indicated that Dicaffeoylquinic acid and Diacetylcurcumin might have the potential to act as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD. The present study warrants further in-vitro and in-vivo studies of Dicaffeoylquinic acid and Diacetylcurcumin for validation and acceptance of their inhibitory potential against S-RBD of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors
17.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(1): 1-9, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239062

ABSTRACT

In view of India unlocking, to secure a large population of this country, the healthcare facilities delivering primary care as well standalone health facilities need to be secured from impacts of COVID-19 pandemic. This document dwells on the broader guidelines for primary care practitioners/standalone private health facilities/frontline healthcare facilities to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 Pandemic. The authors understand that the situation is evolving, so the guidelines too will keep evolving.

18.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 23(3): 361-387, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221870

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic hit the world lately and caused acute respiratory syndrome in humans. The causative agent of the disease was soon identified by scientists as SARS-CoV-2 and later called a novel coronavirus by the general public. Due to the severity and rapid spread of the disease, WHO classifies the COVID-19 pandemic as the 6th public health emergency even after taking efforts like worldwide quarantine and restrictions. Since only symptomatic treatment is available, the best way to control the spread of the virus is by taking preventive measures. Various types of antigen/antibody detection kits and diagnostic methods are available for the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. In recent years, various phytochemicals and repurposing drugs showing a broad range of anti-viral activities with different modes of actions have been identified. Repurposing drugs such as arbidol, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, hexamethylene amiloride, dexamethasone, tocilizumab, interferon-ß, and neutralizing antibodies exhibit in vitro anti-coronaviral properties by inhibiting multiple processes in the virus life cycle. Various research groups are involved in drug trials and vaccine development. Plant-based antiviral compounds such as baicalin, calanolides, curcumin, oxymatrine, matrine, and resveratrol exhibit different modes of action against a wide range of positive/negative sense-RNA/DNA virus, and future researches need to be conducted to ascertain their role and use in managing SARS-CoV-2. Thus this article is an attempt to review the current understanding of COVID- 19 acute respiratory disease and summarize its clinical features with their prospective control and various aspects of the therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Arab J Sci Eng ; : 1-7, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216277

ABSTRACT

Anxiety is usually transient in nature, but if the symptoms are severe and persistent in the absence of stressor, then it is considered as anxiety disorder. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which was declared as pandemic by World Health Organization in March 2020 affected the lives of human beings worldwide. A panic and anxious situation was created due to the outbreak of COVID-19. Medical health practitioners have been connected with the patients and hence can better speculate the psychology of human beings. The present study was designed to find out the manifestation of anxiety as repercussion of COVID-19 on the basis of opinion of medical practitioners. A survey was conducted among the medical practitioners from India and Bangladesh to find out the possibility of anxiety as after-effect of COVID-19 through questionnaires. Results of the study showed that 95% medical practitioners were in the view to have chances of anxiety with more possibility to have social anxiety and post-traumatic stress anxiety disorder as a consequence of COVID-19. Female and male genders have equal chances, whereas transgender have lesser chances to have anxiety disorders as a consequence of COVID-19. Population above 50 years age might have maximum chance of having anxiety as after-effect of COVID-19. The study concludes to have chances of anxiety as repercussion of COVID-19.

20.
Amino Acids ; 53(6): 813-842, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216222

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced that COVID-19 is a pandemic having a higher spread rate rather than the mortality. Identification of a potential approach or therapy against COVID-19 is still under consideration. Therefore, it is essential to have an insight into SARS-CoV-2, its interacting partner, and domains for an effective treatment. The present study is divided into three main categories, including SARS-CoV-2 prominent receptor and its expression levels, other interacting partners, and their binding domains. The first section focuses primarily on coronaviruses' general aspects (SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronaviruses (MERS-CoV)) their structures, similarities, and mode of infections. The second section discusses the host receptors which includes the human targets of coronaviruses like dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), CD147, CD209L, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), and other miscellaneous targets (type-II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs), furin, trypsin, cathepsins, thermolysin, elastase, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase, two-pore segment channel, and epithelium sodium channel C-α subunit). The human cell receptor, ACE2 plays an essential role in the Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS) pathway and COVID-19. Thus, this section also discusses the ACE2 expression and risk of COVID-19 infectivity in various organs and tissues such as the liver, lungs, intestine, heart, and reproductive system in the human body. Absence of ACE2 protein expression in immune cells could be used for limiting the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The third section covers the current available approaches for COVID-19 treatment. Overall, this review focuses on the critical role of human cell receptors involved in coronavirus pathogenesis, which would likely be used in designing target-specific drugs to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Cell Surface/drug effects , Receptors, Virus/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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