Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 44
Filter
1.
2022 IEEE Region 10 Symposium, TENSYMP 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2052090

ABSTRACT

Accurate forecasting of Covid-19 case load is essential to ensure healthcare system preparedness in all countries due to highly infectious strains like Omicron. Although many countries have started vaccination drives, forecasting of case numbers predominantly hasn't accounted for vaccinations. This paper investigates whether multivariate models that include vaccinations as a factor such as VAR, VARIMA and Multivariate LSTM, perform better than their univariate counterparts AR, ARIMA and Univariate LSTM, at forecasting daily case numbers. Both long-term and short-term forecast accuracies of the models have been compared using the RMSE, MAE and MAPE metrics. This study is conducted in the context of cases and vaccinations in India and USA up to January 2022 to find out the relative effect of the rate of vaccination on case load and contrast the situations in the two countries. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
1st International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Sustainable Engineering Solution, CISES 2022 ; : 541-544, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018632

ABSTRACT

In the Covid-19 pandemic, if residents do not take action to prevent the virus from spreading, the process of softening the curve of the coronavirus will be complicated in the face of the worldwide Covid-19 scenario. Without vaccination, the only method to combat the disease is social isolation. The proposed system employs the You Only Look Once, Version 3 (YOLOv3) object detection model to identify persons in the background and bind boxes around them, and assign IDs for in-depth tracking of recognized people. This study focuses on public space surveillance and determining whether or not people maintain social distance as per Covid-19 guidelines. YOLOv3 is an efficient tracking method that produces positive results with a moderate mean Average Precision(MAP) and Frame Per Second (FPS) score for monitoring community deviations in real-Time. In this study, YOLOv3 is used for object capture, and the OpenCV library is used for image processing. Proposed work is helpful in areas where big crowds are expected, such as retail malls, movie theatres, railway stations, airports, and public places. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S105, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006395

ABSTRACT

Aim and background: Severe COVID-19 pneumonia can be lifethreatening with a high mortality, largely due to an uncontrolled systemic hyperinflammatory response, generally referred to as cytokine storm. Tempering the immune response with immunomodulators has been considered as a potential therapeutic option. Except for a few, data on the effectiveness of different immunomodulating drugs are scarce and are limited to a few case reports and retrospective observational-cohort studies. Additionally, in the pandemic due to shortages, various immunomodulators were used with limited data on their effectiveness. This study looks at various immunomodulators used in the 2nd wave of COVID-19, and their impact on outcomes. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of 124 patients with severe COVID-19 disease who were treated with immunomodulators. The study population included patients above 18 years of age with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICU with severe pneumonia. All patients received standard of care treatment at the time of hospital admission according to the hospital protocols and updated data on treatment of COVID-19. Patients were considered eligible for immunomodulatory treatment if they showed rapidly worsening hypoxia and elevated inflammatory markers, as per standard recommendations. Immunomodulators were administered depending on the availability of specific agents at time of treatment. The immunomodulators used were tocilizumab, itolizumab, bevacizumab, pulse dose steroid with methylprednisolone and baricitinib. Results: 124 patients were treated with immunomodulators, 45 (36.3%) of them survived, and 79 (63.7%) passed away. Mean age in survivors was 48.2, and in non-survivors was 54.8, which was statistically significant. Diabetes and hypertension were the most common comorbidities observed. 97/124 patients (78.2%) received immunomodulator therapy within 48 hours of ICU admission, out of which 41 (42.2%) recovered and 56 (57.7%) passed away. 21/124 (21.8%) patients received immunomodulators after 48 hours of admission, and had a high mortality with only 3 (14.2%) recovering and 18 (85.7%) dead. There was a significant reduction in CRP levels post immunomodulator therapy among survivors compared to nonsurvivors. The mean invasive ventilator days were 4.27 and there was a significant difference among survivors and non-survivors. Among survivors (45) in our study, we found that immunomodulator therapy was seen to avoid mechanical ventilation in severe COVID patients (33) who received immunomodulator therapy early within 48 hours of ICU admission as seen by the improvement on a 7-point ordinal scale. The mean ventilator days for patients who received immunomodulator therapy after intubation were also reduced. Most common adverse events were found with itolizumab administration. Secondary infections were more in non-survivors and secondary bacterial pneumonia was the commonest. Conclusion: Our descriptive study showed that the early administration(<48 hours) of various immunomodulators reduced the need for ventilation and the number of ventilator days, compared to administration after 48 hours. There was an increased incidence of secondary bacterial infections among the non-survivors.

4.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S98, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006387

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The 1st wave of COVID-19 spread rapidly affecting most countries globally in a short duration. Many countries suffered the 2nd wave of COVID-19 infection, months after the 1st wave, largely driven by viral mutants with high transmissibility and reduced susceptibility to neutralising antibodies (1-3). Despite COVID-19 being the common etiology, the two waves have significant differences impacting both current understanding and future planning of the impact of COVID-19. This study from a tertiary ICU is a comparative analysis focusing on the cardinal differences in COVID-19 ICU patients between the two waves, with respect to baseline demographics, clinical features, disease severity, and outcomes. Materials and methods: Retrospective data was collected from the medical records of all patients with COVID-19 disease admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in the 1st and 2nd wave of the pandemic. COVID-19 disease was confirmed by means of a positive RT-PCR or a rapid antigen test (RAT) on a nasopharyngeal swab or respiratory sample. Baseline demographic and clinical data, disease severity, and outcomes were analysed. Results: 419 patients (74.9% males) were admitted to the ICU between July and December 2020 and 206 (65% males) patients between April and June 2021. The mean age of patients admitted in the 1st wave was 59.84 ± 13.7 (mean ± SD) years and the 2nd wave was 55.31 ± 14.9 years (p = 0.038). The duration from symptom onset to admission (Median, IQR) was 5 days (3, 7) for the 1st wave and 5 days (3, 8) for the 2nd wave. 74.5% (312/419) of the patients in the 1st wave and 64.5% (129/206) in the 2nd wave had one or more comorbidities (p = 0.05). The median CRP values were 83.0 mg% (IQR 31.45, 159.7) for the 1st wave and 93.0 mg% (IQR 48.0, 141.0) for the 2nd wave, respectively, statistically not significant. 31.8% (131/412) of the ICU patients in the 1st wave and 52.3% (103/196) in the 2nd wave required mechanical ventilator support (p < 0.05). The overall ICU mortality was 32.1% (134/418) for the 1st and 52.5% (104/198) for the 2nd wave (p value?). Conclusion: There is a significant difference between the 2 waves in age, comorbidities, and mortality, likely related to viral mutants, vaccination policies, and social mobility dynamics.

5.
International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering ; 14(2):190-199, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1989720

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 is throwing the entire globe into a terrible predicament, bringing living things to a terrifying standstill all across the planet and taking millions of human lives. As we have seen, there is a breakdown in the healthcare sector during pandemics since we are unable to meet all the required demands. This circumstance mandates the automation of the procedure for diagnosing COVID-19 with imaging techniques. Modality of imaging Chest X-rays/CT scans is less expensive and speedier tests that may aid in the timely identification of COVID-19 patients suffering. With AI's rapid growth in popularity in the healthcare industry, it can assist in boosting productivity and efficiency. As a result, AI-based image processing and diagnosis procedures are pursued. The proposed LungCov methodology helps in understanding the diagnostic technique for COVID-19 from an input image to an artificial intelligence-based processed image. AI provides the optimized image which can be further used to classify the image as a COVID-19 positive patient or a healthy one. One technology that might aid in this endeavor is machine learning. The main objective is to improve the healthcare system's care and service to society. © 2022, International Organization on 'Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering'. All rights reserved.

7.
Biomedicine (India) ; 42(3):539-542, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939774

ABSTRACT

Introduction and Aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which rapidly evolved into a pandemic infecting humans all over the world. Whether hematologic and immunologic responses play a crucial role in progression of COVID-19 is still not clear. Increasing scientific evidence has shown that abnormalities in routine hematological tests, have the potential to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection in an economical way. Major laboratory changes indicating systemic inflammation and multi-organ impairment including hematopoietic system leading to lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, eosinopenia, mild thrombocytopenia and ratios derived from these hematological parameters indicated severe disease and/or fatal outcomes. The aim was to study the hematological profile of Covid-19 patients admitted at a tertiary care hospital at Ramanagar district. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 260 confirmed cases of Covid-19 diagnosed at a tertiary health care centre. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were extracted from the institutional electronic medical records after obtaining permission from the concerned authorities. From CBC test results obtained neutrophil lymphocyte ratio was derived. Results: The present study revealed that majority of Covid positive patients presented with lymphopenia. While a significant association was observed between N/L ratio and disease severity, no significant association was seen between platelet count and severity of the disease. Conclusion: Since the results of the present study features lymphopenia among large proportion of patients and elevated N/L ratio among critically ill patients these markers could be utilized as useful prognostic indicators during the initial assessment of disease severity and thus appropriate management can be planned for such patients before the condition of the patient deteriorates.

8.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(3):120-122, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939144

ABSTRACT

Rationale: COVID-19 usually presents with flu-like symptoms and signs, but some rare presentations like leukemoid symptoms cannot be ignored. Patient's concerns: A 37-year-old female presented to the outpatient department with flu-like symptoms. Diagnosis: The RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 infection was positive, while complete blood cell and peripheral blood smear showed leukemoid reaction. Intervention: Paracetamol and fexofenadine for flu-like symptoms and leukemoid presentation. Outcomes: On the 10th day, the patient was asymptomatic and RT-PCR was negative. So the patient was discharged and leukemoid presentation subsided after clearance of viral disease. Lessons: COVID-19 has a myriad of presentations, and unusual symptoms/signs especially in this pandemic could be induced by COVID-19 infection.

9.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925336

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess if patients with persistent positive nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) swab for SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus seem to be at a higher risk of developing complications like acute transverse myelitis (ATM). Background: ATM as post-infectious sequelae was mostly attributed to bacteria-like Mycoplasma pneumonia or viruses like varicella in the pre-pandemic times. However, in the light of the world seeing two waves of the COVID-19, ATM as a post-COVID-19 sequelae is being reported more frequently. Design/Methods: The literature search was done using PubMed and Google scholar using keywords. The search criteria was set to filter cases of ATM in COVID-19 patients, reports between Jan 2020 to July 2021. A total of eight case reports were selected from peer reviewed journals. Results: The reported cases included a total of eight patients ranging from 32-72 years of age. Of the eight case reports, five presented after two weeks of initial COVID-19 symptoms. Seven of the eight patients tested positive for a nasopharyngeal PCR swab for COVID-19 at the time of presentation with ATM symptoms. The most common initial manifestation was acute onset bladder dysfunction and lower limb weakness. In six out of eight cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the whole spine showed cervicothoracic cord hyperintensities. Treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone started on day 2 of ATM at a 1g/day dose showed clinical improvement in three patients. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) at a dose of 25- 30g/day for three days showed improvement in two patients, and one patient improved with plasma exchange following steroid therapy. Conclusions: Most patients with ATM presented with a long latency period (beyond 2 weeks after the initial COVID-19 positive test) and intravenous steroid therapy helps, but most patients seem to require additional IVIg or plasma exchange before showing clinical improvement. We encourage further large scale studies in this regard.

10.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925299

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our review aims to study the significance of the association between the manifestations of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and COVID-19 immunization, as well as provide medical practitioners with relevant clinical information through a detailed summary of the current cases of GBS related to the COVID-19 vaccines. Additionally, we will shed light on the impact of associated demographic risk factors such as age, gender, and comorbid conditions in the development of GBS post-vaccination. Background: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare and potentially fatal post-infectious, immune-mediated neuropathy characterized by rapidly progressive weakness and ascending paralysis. As an adverse reaction to the COVID-19 vaccines, GBS is becoming an arising catastrophe increasingly reported as a complication of the COVID-19 vaccines. Design/Methods: A literature search was conducted across four databases: PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline (through PubMed), and Google Scholar using predefined keywords. These keywords included “Guillain Barre Syndrome, ” “COVID-19 vaccination”, “COVID-19”. The search criteria were set to filter cases of GBS in post-COVID-19 vaccination, reported between March 2020 to October 2021. Results: A total of eighteen articles were selected from peer-reviewed journals which documented twenty-eight patients (ages ranged between 20-82 years old) that had developed GBS after receiving COVID-19 vaccinations;fifteen males and thirteen females. GBS side effects were reported with five COVID-19 vaccines including Pfizer, Moderna, Janssen, AstraZeneca (now called Vaxzevria), and a vector-based vaccine. In addition, the average duration between COVID-19 vaccine administration and GBS symptoms onset was noted to be 12.46 days. Conclusions: Although it is too early to draw conclusions concerning GBS following COVID-19 vaccination, we recommend monitoring for cases suggestive of GBS following vaccination and implementing post-vaccination surveillance to ensure adequate data gathering of this outcome, as well as to determine its cause. Additionally, we encourage even further large-scale research into this area.

11.
Mycopathologia ; : 1-8, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1898051

ABSTRACT

Background In experimental models, the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in endothelial cells played a role in the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. However, the role of GRP78 in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) has not been studied. We hypothesized that serum GRP78 levels are elevated in subjects with CAM. Objective To compare the serum GRP78 levels in subjects with CAM and COVID-19 controls without mucormycosis. Design And Setting We performed a hospital-based, case–control study between 1 April 2021 and 31 May 2021. Participants We enrolled 24 subjects each of CAM and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis. We also measured serum GRP78 levels in ten healthy controls. Exposure The primary exposure studied was serum GRP78 concentration, estimated using a commercially available ELISA kit in stored serum samples. Results We found the mean ± standard deviation (SD) serum GRP78 levels significantly higher (p = 0.0001) among the CAM (374.3 ± 127.3 pg/mL) than the COVID-19 (246.4 ± 67.0 pg/mL) controls. The proportion of subjects with an abnormal GRP78 level (> mean [184.8 pg/mL] plus two SD [23.2 pg/mL] of GRP78 from healthy participants) was 87.5% and 45.8% in the CAM group and COVID-19 controls, respectively. Serum GRP78 level was independently associated with CAM (odds ratio 1.011;95% confidence interval [1.002–1.019]) after adjusting for diabetes mellitus and hypoxemia during acute COVID-19. Conclusion Serum GRP78 levels were significantly higher in CAM than in COVID-19 controls. Further studies are required to the role of GRP78 in the pathogenesis of CAM. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11046-022-00645-6.

12.
Mycopathologia ; 187(4): 355-362, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In experimental models, the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in endothelial cells played a role in the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. However, the role of GRP78 in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) has not been studied. We hypothesized that serum GRP78 levels are elevated in subjects with CAM. OBJECTIVE: To compare the serum GRP78 levels in subjects with CAM and COVID-19 controls without mucormycosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a hospital-based, case-control study between 1 April 2021 and 31 May 2021. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 24 subjects each of CAM and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis. We also measured serum GRP78 levels in ten healthy controls. EXPOSURE: The primary exposure studied was serum GRP78 concentration, estimated using a commercially available ELISA kit in stored serum samples. RESULTS: We found the mean ± standard deviation (SD) serum GRP78 levels significantly higher (p = 0.0001) among the CAM (374.3 ± 127.3 pg/mL) than the COVID-19 (246.4 ± 67.0 pg/mL) controls. The proportion of subjects with an abnormal GRP78 level (> mean [184.8 pg/mL] plus two SD [23.2 pg/mL] of GRP78 from healthy participants) was 87.5% and 45.8% in the CAM group and COVID-19 controls, respectively. Serum GRP78 level was independently associated with CAM (odds ratio 1.011; 95% confidence interval [1.002-1.019]) after adjusting for diabetes mellitus and hypoxemia during acute COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Serum GRP78 levels were significantly higher in CAM than in COVID-19 controls. Further studies are required to the role of GRP78 in the pathogenesis of CAM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Case-Control Studies , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Glucose/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mucormycosis/pathology
13.
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology ; 25(2):270-271, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1887277
14.
2022 zh Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, zh EA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846568

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) and other public health agencies have identified vaccine hesitancy as a critical challenge in reducing future cases and deaths from COVID-19. The current study has investigated ways to improve a widely circulated vaccine infographic video by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After gathering qualitative feedback on properties of the message that could be improved (from online crowdworkers), we conducted a randomized experiment to investigate different combinations of these attributes. Our results suggest participants were more likely to share the video which was: (1) played more slowly;(2) had a female speaker;(3) did not have background music. The study demonstrates potential of user studies for improving existing communication strategies for encouraging vaccinations and alleviating vaccine hesitancy on social media platforms. Our contribution also includes a repository of messages to encourage vaccination, generated by online crowdworkers, which could be utilized by future studies. © 2022 ACM.

16.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327257

ABSTRACT

Background: Government of India has introduced COVID 19 vaccination in Jan 2021. There are no studies on out of pocket expenditure in COVID- 19 vaccination in India, hence this study was undertaken to estimate the out of pocket expenditure for availing COVID 19 vaccine, to assess the factors associated with out of pocket expenditure for COVID vaccination and adverse events following immunisation. Methods: This is a cross- sectional study conducted during Sep 2021- Dec 2021 of a medical college. A total of 438 study subjects above 18 years fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were studied using probability proportional to population size. Data was collected using interview method by pre-tested semi structured proforma and analysed using descriptive & inferential statistics. Results: The mean direct cost in Government vaccination centre was 3.24- 6.74 INR, indirect cost 809.10 -1076.35 INR, total cost was 812.34 - 1079.49 INR.The mean direct cost in private vaccination centre was 1446.9 -1845.65 INR, indirect cost 1140- 1398 INR and total cost was 2586.90 -2241.54 INR. The mean total cost was OOPE for COVID 19 vaccination was 852.80 -1128.512 INR, out of which direct cost was only 36.17(-359.20). The higher mean OOPE was found in loss of wages 670.02 INR. The factors associated with higher out of pocket expenditure was type of vaccine (P=0.031, OR=2.141, 95% CI=1.07-4.24) occupation of the study subject (P=0.000, OR=2.043, 95% CI= 1.37-3.03), reported stress following vaccination (P= 0.018, OR=1.72, 95%CI=1.098-2.703), adverse event within 48hrs (P=0.006, OR=2.125, 95% CI= 1.248-3.62), received any medication for adverse event (P=0.041, OR= 1.721, 95% CI= 1.022-2.84) Conclusion: Majority of the study subjects utilized public facility. The higher mean out of pocket expenditure was for indirect cost loss of wages. This study shows that type of vaccine, occupation of the study subject and adverse event within 48 hrs, had 2 times higher out of pocket expenditure compared to other factors. Among the AEFI, fever was the most common, followed by pain at the injection site and myalgia.

17.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 15(11):2905-2908, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1573206

ABSTRACT

Aim: To understand the psychological impact of COVID - 19 on Medical Students of a private sector Medical University in Karachi, Pakistan. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students studying at Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry, Karachi, Pakistan. The data collection was done through online survey from July 2020 to December 2020. The study aimed to gather data from many medical students. A total number of 420 students were participated from Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry in Karachi, Pakistan. The participants were selected from all years of MBBS and BDS programs . Results: Out of 420 participants, 236 (56.2%) were male and 184 (43.8%) female, with a male:female ration of 1.28:1. Majority of participants were single as 411 (97.9%), of 224 (53.3%) students living with their family, 150 (35.7%) in hostel and 46 (11%) living with friends. In our sample 369 (87.9%) students studying in MBBS program while only 51 (12.1%) BDS, among those 80 (19%) medical students were in first year, followed by 122 (29%) second year, 65 (15.5%) third year, 54 (12.9%) fourth year and 99 (23.6%) studying in final year. IES-R scale and results shows 75 (17.9%) reported that PTSD is a clinical concern, probable diagnosis of PTSD 28 (6.7%) and majority rated as high enough to PTSD 133 (31.7%). Impact of event (revised) scale shows significant association with age and year of study with p value 0.026 and 0.002 respectively. Based on the PHQ9 scale, Gender, Living arrangements and the program enrolled in were reported significant association with depression p values 0.059, 0.008 and 0.006 respectively. Conclusion: Findings suggests high rate of anxiety, depression, and signs of PTSD in medical students due to COVID-19 which needs pressing attention and provision of professional help from mental health practitioners.

18.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(5): 774-775, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566727
19.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 15(9):SR01-SR03, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1527006

ABSTRACT

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS) is a newer, rarer and dangerous childhood disease that require early attention and is associated with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection. This article reports four clinically ill children of age 6-15 years admitted to Aster CMI hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, during October and November 2020. The diagnosis was based on elevated laboratory values (D-Dimer, C-reactive Protein (CRP), and Ferritin) and positive COVID-19 antibody test. No infectious aetiologies were identified. All patients presented at Emergency Room (ER) with hypotensive shock and were treated with inotropic support, Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IV-Ig), and steroids. Children responded well to treatment and were discharged within a period of 8-11 days. Clinical characteristics are necessary for understanding more about newly identified paediatric illness.

20.
Mycoses ; 65(1): 120-127, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether dysregulated iron metabolism is associated with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) remains unknown. Herein, we compare the serum iron indices in COVID-19 subjects with and without mucormycosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study enrolling COVID-19 participants with and without mucormycosis. We compared the baseline serum iron indices (iron, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity [TIBC], unsaturated iron-binding capacity and percentage transferrin saturation) between CAM cases and COVID-19 controls. Additionally, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess whether any iron indices are associated with CAM. RESULTS: We enrolled 28 CAM cases (mean age 53.6 years old; 78.6% men) and 26 controls (mean age 57.2 years old; 73.1% men). Rhino-orbital (±cerebral) mucormycosis (85.7%) was the most clinical presentation. Diabetes mellitus was more frequent in the cases than controls (75% vs. 42.3%; p = .015). Hypoxaemia during COVID-19 illness was more common in controls than cases. The mean serum iron values (33 vs. 45 µg/dl, p = .03) and TIBC (166.6 vs. 201.6 µg/dl, p = .003) were significantly lower in CAM cases than controls. On multivariate analysis, we found a lower TIBC (odds ratio [OR] 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99) and diabetes mellitus (OR 5.23; 95% CI, 1.21-22.68) to be independently associated with CAM after adjusting for serum iron, ferritin and glucocorticoid therapy. The case fatality rate of CAM was 73.9%. The iron indices were not significantly different between CAM survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The CAM is associated with lower TIBC levels than COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis, suggesting dysregulated iron metabolism in its pathogenesis. Further studies are required to confirm our preliminary observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ferritins/blood , Iron/blood , Mucormycosis , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL