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1.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961410

ABSTRACT

Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are deployed in Novel Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine distribution process. To address issues of fake vaccine distribution, real-time massive UAV monitoring and control at nodal centers (NCs), the authors propose SanJeeVni, a blockchain (BC)-assisted UAV vaccine distribution at the backdrop of sixth-generation (6G) enhanced ultra-reliable low latency communication (6G-eRLLC) communication. The scheme considers user registration, vaccine request, and distribution through a public Solana BC setup, which assures a scalable transaction rate. Based on vaccine requests at production setups, UAV swarms are triggered with vaccine delivery to NCs. An intelligent edge offloading scheme is proposed to support UAV coordinates and routing path setups. The scheme is compared against fifth-generation (5G) uRLLC communication. In the simulation, we achieve and 86% improvement in service latency, 12.2% energy reduction of UAV with 76.25% more UAV coverage in 6G-eRLLC, and a significant improvement of ≈199.76% in storage cost against the Ethereum network, which indicates the scheme efficacy in practical setups. IEEE

2.
Indian Journal of Psychiatry ; 64(4):354-363, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957516

ABSTRACT

Background: Literature suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in poor sleep quality, especially among the infected population. However, literature regarding the effect of COVID-19 pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 infection on occurrence of insomnia, restless legs syndrome and dream enactment behavior is either scarce or unavailable. Methods: This study was planned to assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the occurrence of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS) and dream enactment behavior (DEB). For this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire comprising of items related to demographic details, past medical history, and information related to SARS-CoV-2 infection was distributed through social media. Insomnia was diagnosed using clinical criteria. RLS, DEB, sleep quality, depression and anxiety were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Information regarding the use of hypnotic medications was also gathered. Results: Of the 1596 respondents, 37.2% reported disturbed sleep while insomnia was reported by 22.6% respondents. 27.3% of respondents reported RLS and 17.4% suffered DEB. The odds of insomnia were greater among males (OR = 1.27;95% CI: 1.03-1.58;P < 0.02) and among those who had SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR = 1.76;95% CI = 1.42-2.19;P < 0.001). Similarly, SARS-CoV-2 infection was also associated with increased odds of RLS (OR = 2.48;95% CI = 1.98-3.11;P < 0.001) and DEB (OR = 1.58;95%CI = 1.21-2.06;P < 0.001). Insomnia, RLS and DEB were more frequent among respondents who required oxygen therapy, those who experienced loss of taste and/or smell, depression and anxiety. Prevalence of insomnia, DEB and RLS was higher than said prevalence among respondents with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but lower than that of those with positive history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. 5.3% of respondents reported taking hypnotic medications before infection, 7% during infection and 5.3% after infection. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2-infection-related factors in association with environmental factors have increased the prevalence of insomnia, DEB and RLS among subjects having infection. SARS-CoV-2-associated immunological changes, hypoxia and neurotropism may play a role in occurrence of insomnia, DEB and RLS.

3.
Indian Journal of Transplantation ; 16(2):195-199, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939186

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Novel coronavirus affects different individuals in different ways, with most people recovering with mild to moderate illness not requiring hospitalization. Liver transplant for end-stage liver disease is a lifesaving procedure, and though living donor liver transplant (LDLT) is a well-planned elective surgery, it was considered a semi-emergency owing to the decompensation of the recipient posing a challenge to the transplant team owing to the situation of the pandemic. The availability of liver grafts from cadaveric donors in India was 0.65 per million population until 2019 as per the National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization statistics which was sparse and further accentuated, leaving LDLT as the only option during the pandemic. Aim: This study aims to describe our experience and testing protocol for COVID-19 disease for the patients undergoing liver transplant during the pandemic at our hospital, which is a tertiary care referral hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study done at AIG Hospitals, Hyderabad, India. Fifty adult patients who underwent LDLT and deceased donor liver transplant from May 2020 to December 2020 were included in the study. Exclusion Criteria: All recipients and donors with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive for SARS CoV2;and COVID-19 disease reporting and data system (CO-RADS) score of 4 or 5 on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest. Results: The mean age of the recipients was 46 years, and the donors was 36 years;the most common indication being acute-on-chronic liver failure with failed medical therapies and the second common being hepatocellular carcinoma. All the 50 recipients were RT-PCR negative for SARS CoV2;8 out of whom had a CO-RADS score of 3;and 4 out of the 8 were post-COVID-19 infection who had IgG positive and IgM negative;and the other 4 were both IgG and IgM negative, similarly 4 out of 8 donors were IgG positive. Intraoperative and postoperative period was uneventful. None of the donors or recipients were infected with COVID-19 disease during the hospital stay and up to 1 month postoperative. One patient died within 1 month due to sudden cardiac arrest. Conclusion: In our experience, with meticulous testing and proper care, there is a favorable outcome for liver transplant even during the pandemic.

4.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(3):123-126, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939145

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The mechanism of sudden cardiac death in COVID-19 can be multifactorial. Cardiac hypersensitivity to 5-ASA therapy leading to myocarditis has been reported in some cases. Cytokine storm syndrome and idiosyncratic reaction with mesalazine use may lead to sudden cardiac death in COVID-19. Use of immunosuppressants in hospitalized COVID-19 patients should be continued with caution, especially in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Patient's concern: A 75-year-old man who was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 was admitted with a history of shortness of breath for the last two days. He was a known case of Crohn's disease treated with mesalazine. Diagnosis: COVID-19 pneumonia with underlying Crohn's disease leading to sudden cardiac death. Intervention: Remdesivir, antibiotics, steroids, low molecular weight heparin, tablet zinc, tab vitamin C, and other supportive treatment were started. Because of increased inflammatory markers, itolizumab was given to the patient on the 2nd day. Outcome: On the 5th day of the intensive care unit, the patient complained of sudden chest pain with respiratory distress leading to bradycardia and asystole and could not be resuscitated. Lessons: Causes for sudden cardiac death in COVID-19 pneumonia patients with Crohn's disease is multifactorial. Although mesalazine may be a safe and effective drug in the management of inflammatory bowel disease, it can induce sytokine strom syndrome and idiosyncratic reactions that could be one of the reasons of sudden cardic death. Therefore, we should be aware of its serious and potentially life-threatening complications, especially in COVID-19 infected patients.

5.
IEEE Internet of Things Journal ; 9(13):11376-11384, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932130

ABSTRACT

Up to now, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been sweeping across all over the world, which has affected individual's lives in an overwhelming way. To fight efficiently against the COVID-19, radiography and radiology images are used by clinicians in hospitals. This article presents an integrated framework, named COVIDNet, for classifying COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. Specifically, ResNet (i.e., ResNet-18 and ResNet-50) is adopted as a backbone network to extract the discriminative features first. Second, the spatial pyramid pooling (SPP) layer is adopted to capture the middle-level features from the features of ResNet. To learn the high-level features, the NetVLAD layer is used to aggregate the features representation from middle-level features. The context gating (CG) mechanism is adopted to further learn the high-level features for predicting the COVID-19 patients or not. Finally, extensive experiments are conducted on the collected database, showing the excellent performance of the proposed integrated architecture, with the sensitivity up to 97% and specificity of 99.5% of the ResNet-18, and with the sensitivity up to 99% and specificity of 99.4% of the ResNet-50. © 2014 IEEE.

6.
Acs Es&T Water ; : 12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927044

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater has been used to track community infections of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), providing critical information for public health interventions. Since levels in wastewater are dependent upon human inputs, we hypothesize that tracking infections can be improved by normalizing wastewater concentrations against indicators of human waste [Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV), beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M), and fecal coliform]. In this study, we analyzed SARS-CoV-2 and indicators of human waste in wastewater from two sewersheds of different scales: a University campus and a wastewater treatment plant. Wastewater data were combined with complementary COVID-19 case tracking to evaluate the efficiency of wastewater surveillance for forecasting new COVID-19 cases and, for the larger scale, hospitalizations. Results show that the normalization of SARS-CoV-2 levels by PMMoV and B2M resulted in improved correlations with COVID-19 cases for campus data using volcano second generation (V2G)-qPCR chemistry (r(s) = 0.69 without normalization, r(s) = 0.73 with normalization). Mixed results were obtained for normalization by PMMoV for samples collected at the community scale. Overall benefits from normalizing with measures of human waste depend upon qPCR chemistry and improves with smaller sewershed scale. We recommend further studies that evaluate the efficacy of additional normalization targets.

7.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1901413

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study identifies antecedents and consequences of destination brand engagement (DBE) that have redefined the tourists' behavior during the COVID-19 outbreak. Specifically, it assesses the impact of social media interaction and destination authenticity on DBE and DBE's effect on tourists' willingness to pay (WTP). Further, it examines the mediating role of affective attitude and the moderating role of perceived risk between the associations of DBE and WTP. Design/methodology/approach: Survey data were collected from 436 respondents through a structured questionnaire from selected tourism destinations in India. Structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) is employed to empirically examine the formulated hypotheses. Besides, hierarchical second-order confirmatory factor analysis is also deployed to analyze certain constructs as higher-order factors. Findings: Social media interaction and destination authenticity elevate DBE, and DBE enhances affective attitude and WTP. Affective attitude mediates the relationship between DBE and WTP. Hence, the association between tourists' engagement and spending behavior becomes crucial under elevated affective attitude conditions. Finally, perceived risk during the pandemic dampens the association between DBE and WTP. Practical implications: The findings may provide newer insights to the tourism companies, marketers and policymakers to create targeted strategies to minimize the risk perception and improve engagement levels of the tourists, which can yield economic returns in the long run. Originality/value: Based on the cues from protection motivation theory (PMT), this study develops a DBE framework and identifies the factors affecting its sustenance in the pandemic hit tourism sector. Further, suggesting implications to ensure safety measures in the tourism industry that may assist in establishing economic resilience. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

8.
International Journal of Manpower ; : 20, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883095

ABSTRACT

Purpose Even after COVID-19 pandemic, several organizations intend extending work-from-home (WFH), to the extent of making it permanent for many. However, WFH's impact on productivity remains uncertain. Therefore, this paper aims to study personal and job factors determining the likelihood of amount of work done at home being same/more vis-a-vis office. Design/methodology/approach Employees' basic psychological needs and job crafting tendencies;job-related aspects of task independence, technology resources and supervisory support;and several demographic factors are examined as determinants. Firth logistic regression analysis of data from 301 Indian white-collar employees is performed. Findings Demographically, longer exposure to WFH, greater work experience and being a support function worker increased the likelihood of same/greater amount of work done at home. Being a woman or married reduced the likelihood, while being a manufacturing/services worker was non-significant. Among psychological needs, greater needs for autonomy and relatedness decreased and increased the likelihood of same/greater amount of work done at home, respectively. Regarding personal and job resources, job crafting to increase structural job resources and supervisor support increased the likelihood of same/greater amount of work done at home versus office. Originality/value This paper adds to the limited India-centric literature on WFH;uniquely examining influences of individual personal attributes on amount of work done by combining job demands-resources (JD-R) model and basic psychological needs theory.

9.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:9957-9966, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874831

ABSTRACT

E-learning has become one of the most debated concepts in today's global education industry. While some speak in favour of e-learning, others criticize e-learning and state that it cannot cultivate better results compared to traditional learning. In today's Covid situation, e-learning has become necessary for universities around the world, this research has once again focused on this topic to identify whether e-learning can positively influence the performance of students or not. While identifying the same, three factors are selected that are technical competency, e-learning standards and e-learning infrastructure. After collecting data and information from existing empirical research works, it was found that e-learning can cultivate positive results in terms of student's performance in different universities and classes. However, it was found that for that positive performance, technical competency must be high and the standard of materials shared through e-learning must be effective enough. In terms of infrastructure, contradictory results are found as one research work stated that it is not vital for improved performance while the other stated that it is important for better academic performance. Overall, this research identified that e-learning can increase academic performance with the right tools and techniques implemented with it. © The Electrochemical Society

10.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:1619-1627, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874755

ABSTRACT

The world has confronted outcomes of COVID-19;it has affected every person from one corner to other corner of this planet. The students and teachers have quickly shifted to online mode of teaching. This sudden transformation from traditional to online teaching has come-up with some challenges as well as opportunities. The main objective of this study is to facilitate a device to determine the issues faced by teachers and students during online mode. An online survey is conducted to collect the issues faced by teachers during the online mode and thereafter a portable device is proposed to facilitate online learning. This is an extremely low-cost and portable device which enables the teachers to use the given canvas area just like a writing board. To find the usefulness of the device one more survey was conducted among the teachers, and it has been found that the given solution is more viable while online mode. © The Electrochemical Society

12.
Intelligent Decision Technologies-Netherlands ; 16(1):193-203, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1869338

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses constitute a family of viruses that gives rise to respiratory diseases. COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus also termed Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As COVID-19 is highly contagious, early diagnosis of COVID-19 is crucial for an effective treatment strategy. However, the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test which is considered to be a gold standard in the diagnosis of COVID-19 suffers from a high false-negative rate. Therefore, the research community is exploring alternative diagnostic mechanisms. Chest X-ray (CXR) image analysis has emerged as a feasible and effective diagnostic technique towards this objective. In this work, we propose the COVID-19 classification problem as a three-class classification problem to distinguish between COVID-19, normal, and pneumonia classes. We propose a three-stage framework, named COV-ELM based on extreme learning machine (ELM). Our dataset comprises CXR images in a frontal view, namely Posteroanterior (PA) and Erect anteroposterior (AP). Stage one deals with preprocessing and transformation while stage two deals with feature extraction. These extracted features are passed as an input to the ELM at the third stage, resulting in the identification of COVID-19. The choice of ELM in this work has been motivated by its faster convergence, better generalization capability, and shorter training time in comparison to the conventional gradient-based learning algorithms. As bigger and diverse datasets become available, ELM can be quickly retrained as compared to its gradient-based competitor models. We use 10-fold cross-validation to evaluate the results of COV-ELM. The proposed model achieved a macro average F1-score of 0.95 and the overall sensitivity of 0.94 +/- 0.02 at a 95% confidence interval. When compared to state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms, the COV-ELM is found to outperform its competitors in this three-class classification scenario. Further, LIME has been integrated with the proposed COV-ELM model to generate annotated CXR images. The annotations are based on the superpixels that have contributed to distinguish between the different classes. It was observed that the superpixels correspond to the regions of the human lungs that are clinically observed in COVID-19 and Pneumonia cases.

13.
Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 9(1):31-33, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868435

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of anticoagulation in preventing and treating thromboembolic events due to presence of micro thrombosis that may affect various end-organs especially in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Patients receiving some form of anticoagulation therapy are predisposed to more risks of bleeding complications. These bleeding may range from minor to major, or even life-threatening events. Purpose: Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is one of the commonly used treatment modalities in COVID-19 and its complications are thrombocytopenia, anemia, bruises, and the rare ones are ecchymosis and/ or hematoma. Case presentation: A 75-year-old male COVID-19 patient weighing 85 kg was admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) with shortness of breath, dry cough, and myalgia. On the 10th day, he develops ecchymotic patches over the anterior abdominal wall following administration of subcutaneous enoxaparin. This case describes the importance ofindividualizing the dose ofLMWH based on several risk factors.

14.
Springer Protocol. Handb. ; : 363-377, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1858946

ABSTRACT

Infectious disease outbreaks keep challenging human and veterinary health worldwide since decades. Disease outbreaks such as smallpox, influenza, polio, SARS, Ebola, foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, and the most recent and devastating COVID-19, all point to the need for a more proactive approach to developing diagnostics and treatment methods for these deadly diseases. Because the pathogenic agents that cause these diseases are highly transmissible, careful containment of these agents within the laboratories is necessary, with little or no exposure to working personnel. Different regulatory authorities across the world provide guidelines and procedures to ensure that research and diagnostic laboratories operate safely. This chapter delves into the many events that occur as a result of lab-mediated disease spread, as well as the need for, importance of, and guidelines for good lab practices and biosafety.

15.
Research Journal of Biotechnology ; 17(3):204-208, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848871

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, first appeared in Wuhan, China in the year 2019. It has been linked to a variety of fungal and bacterial illnesses that are opportunistic. There have been several reports of fungal infections following COVID-19. Recently, several cases of mucormycosis have been reported worldwide, particularly in India. Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is a fungal infection caused by members of the Mucorales and Zygiomycotic species with inhalation of fungal spores as the mechanism of infection. Poorly controlled debilitating diseases (such as diabetes), immunosuppression and trauma are all risk factors. The rise in cases of mucormycosis is a result of corticosteroid application in patients having COVID-19 complications. In diabetes mellitus, the rhinocerebral form of mucormycosis is most commonly seen whereas pulmonary mucormycosis has been seen in patients having hematological malignancy or undergoing blood/organ transplantation. However, in this mini-review, we are emphasizing the role of mucormycosis during COVID-19 infection, encompassing the types of mucormycosis, their diagnosis and treatment.

16.
2022 zh Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, zh EA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846558

ABSTRACT

In this special interest group (SIG), we follow up on previous conversations around hybrid models for conferences, conducted in open sessions by the ACM Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) Executive Committee (EC). The COVID-19 pandemic led to a sudden shift to virtual conferences;as we start to go back to in-person events, it is important to reflect on the types of events we desire, and design these accordingly. With this SIG, we hope to share experiences from previous conferences (successful or not) and discuss potential solutions to pending issues. This SIG will be led by VP at Large Adriana S. Vivacqua, with the participation of other EC members. © 2022 Owner/Author.

17.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333666

ABSTRACT

The exact mechanism of coronavirus replication and transcription is not fully understood;however, a hallmark of coronavirus transcription is the generation of negative-sense RNA intermediates that serve as the templates for the synthesis of positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) and an array of subgenomic mRNAs (sgRNAs) encompassing sequences arising from discontinuous transcription. Existing PCR-based diagnostic assays for SAR-CoV-2 are qualitative or semi-quantitative and do not provide the resolution needed to assess the complex transcription dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 over the course of infection. We developed and validated a novel panel of specially designed SARS-CoV-2 ddPCR-based assays to map the viral transcription profile. Application of these assays to clinically relevant samples will enhance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 replication and transcription and may also inform the development of improved diagnostic tools and therapeutics. HIGHLIGHTS: We developed a novel panel of 7 quantitative RT-ddPCRs assays for SARS-Cov-2Our panel targets nongenic and genic regions in genomic and subgenomic RNAsAll assays detect 1-10 copies and are linear over 3-4 orders of magnitudeAll assays correlated with the clinical Abbott SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load AssayClinical samples showed higher copy numbers for targets at the 3' end of the genome.

18.
J Mol Model ; 28(5): 128, 2022 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802772

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19 infection, the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 interacts to the ACE2 receptor of human host, instigating the viral infection. To examine the competitive inhibitor efficacy of broad spectrum alpha helical AMPs extracted from frog skin, a comparative study of intermolecular interactions between viral S1 and AMPs was performed relative to S1-ACE2p interactions. The ACE2 binding region with S1 was extracted as ACE2p from the complex for ease of computation. Surprisingly, the Spike-Dermaseptin-S9 complex had more intermolecular interactions than the other peptide complexes and importantly, the S1-ACE2p complex. We observed how atomic displacements in docked complexes impacted structural integrity of a receptor-binding domain in S1 through conformational sampling analysis. Notably, this geometry-based sampling approach confers the robust interactions that endure in S1-Dermaseptin-S9 complex, demonstrating its conformational transition. Additionally, QM calculations revealed that the global hardness to resist chemical perturbations was found more in Dermaseptin-S9 compared to ACE2p. Moreover, the conventional MD through PCA and the torsional angle analyses indicated that Dermaseptin-S9 altered the conformations of S1 considerably. Our analysis further revealed the high structural stability of S1-Dermaseptin-S9 complex and particularly, the trajectory analysis of the secondary structural elements established the alpha helical conformations to be retained in S1-Dermaseptin-S9 complex, as substantiated by SMD results. In conclusion, the functional dynamics proved to be significant for viral Spike S1 and Dermaseptin-S9 peptide when compared to ACE2p complex. Hence, Dermaseptin-S9 peptide inhibitor could be a strong candidate for therapeutic scaffold to prevent infection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemistry , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/therapeutic use , Anura/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Peptides/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research ; 73(1):1-7, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798547

ABSTRACT

Herbal drugs are medicinally and therapeutically active. From ancient times, Tinospora cordifolia belongs to Menispermaceae. This plant generally contains tinosporine, hydroxy ecdysone, furanoid diterpene, tinosponone, terpenoids, sinapic acid, and aliphatic compounds. Major phytopharmacological actions are significantly reported are against Diabetes Mellitus (DM), SARS-CoV-2 syndrome, boost immunity, treat influenza, viral infection, lymphoma, anticancer, antipyretic, effective against several bacteria such as Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and having diverse variety beneficial properties. This review is an endeavor on many isolated chemical components from T. cordifolia, medicinal utilization of this plant against several disorders, ethnopharmacology, phytopharmacological actions.

20.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-332635

ABSTRACT

Importance: Genomic footprints of pathogens shed by infected individuals can be traced in environmental samples. Analysis of these samples can be employed for noninvasive surveillance of infectious diseases. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of environmental surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for predicting COVID-19 cases in a college dormitory. Design: Using a prospective experimental design, air, surface swabs, and wastewater samples were collected from a college dormitory from March to May 2021. Students were randomly screened for COVID-19 during the study period. SARS-CoV-2 in environmental samples was concentrated with electronegative filtration and quantified using Volcano 2 nd Generation-qPCR. Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the associations between time-lagged SARS-CoV-2 in environmental samples and clinically diagnosed COVID-19 cases. Setting: This study was conducted in a residential dormitory at the University of Miami, Coral Gables campus, FL, USA. The dormitory housed about 500 students. Participants: Students from the dormitory were randomly screened, for COVID-19 for 2-3 days / week while entering or exiting the dormitory. Main Outcome: Clinically diagnosed COVID-19 cases were of our main interest. We hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 detection in environmental samples was an indicator of the presence of local COVID-19 cases in the dormitory, and SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the environmental samples several days prior to the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 cases. Results: SARS-CoV-2 genomic footprints were detected in air, surface swab and wastewater samples on 52 (63.4%), 40 (50.0%) and 57 (68.6%) days, respectively, during the study period. On 19 (24%) of 78 days SARS-CoV-2 was detected in all three sample types. Clinically diagnosed COVID-19 cases were reported on 11 days during the study period and SARS-CoV-2 was also detected two days before the case diagnosis on all 11 (100%), 9 (81.8%) and 8 (72.7%) days in air, surface swab and wastewater samples, respectively. Conclusion: Proactive environmental surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 or other pathogens in a community/public setting has potential to guide targeted measures to contain and/or mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. Key Points: Question: How effective is environmental surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in public places for early detection of COVID-19 cases in a community?Findings: All clinically confirmed COVID-19 cases were predicted with the aid of 2 day lagged SARS-CoV-2 in environmental samples in a college dormitory. However, the prediction efficiency varied by sample type: best prediction by air samples, followed by wastewater and surface swab samples. SARS-CoV-2 was also detected in these samples even on days without any reported cases of COVID-19, suggesting underreporting of COVID-19 cases. Meaning: SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in environmental samples several days prior to clinical reporting of COVID-19 cases. Thus, proactive environmental surveillance of microbiome in public places can serve as a mean for early detection of location-time specific outbreaks of infectious diseases. It can also be used for underreporting of infectious diseases.

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