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2.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
3.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(1): 1-3, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257360

ABSTRACT

Large-scale vaccination with a safe and effective vaccine against Covid-19 is the only way to conquer the ongoing lethal pandemic that has led to extraordinary social and economic upheaval globally. Fortunately, the world is on the verge of developing Covid-19 vaccines in an unprecedentedly short time. More than forty vaccines are in different stages of clinical trials, and a few are in the crucial phase III studies stage. A new demand for emergency use authorisation and rapid deployment of these vaccines before scrutinising phase III trial data is raging in different quarters. Can advancement of the deployment of these vaccines by even a few weeks give us rich public health dividends? Would it be ethical to deploy these novel vaccines based only on the safety and immunogenicity data generated by the phase-I and II clinical trials? Would it be ethical to deny vaccination of vulnerable populations against an untreatable infectious disease despite the availability of reasonably safe and efficacious vaccines for the want of phase III trial data? The answer is not straightforward, as there are many complexities involved. This commentary attempts to discuss some ethical issues involved in a decision to deploy Covid-19 vaccination before phase III trial results are declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/ethics , Emergency Medical Services/legislation & jurisprudence , Morals , Vaccination/ethics , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/ethics , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Vision ; : 0972262920980878, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1039988

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has left the globe in a situation of despondency. Physical as well as the human resources (HR) of an organization were adversely affected during the lockdown. The corporate world is observing several corporate crises from the full or partial shutdown of businesses to layoffs, furloughs and resignations. HR managers are struggling to curb this renunciation of employees and grappling with reduced employee engagement. To keep employees highly motivated in this time of mayhem and maelstrom of the pandemic, HR managers need to revisit their employee engagement strategies with a new perspective. This article provides a ready reference list of variables to HR managers to enhance employee engagement level during COVID-19 and post lockdown. This article suggests five major elements of employee engagement, namely?value, voice, variety, virtue and vision. These logical elements of employee engagement are identified after an exhaustive review of the literature. Appropriate variables for each element support author?s perspective. Though neither these elements nor the variables are exhaustive, yet they hold utmost relevance to enhance employee engagement in the time of the global pandemic.

5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(6): 1635-1649, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998189

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic mandates the development of a safe and effective Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. This review analyzes the complexities, challenges, and other vital issues associated with the development of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. A brief review of the immune responses (innate, antibody, and T-cell) to SARS-CoV-2, including immune targets, correlates of protection, and duration of immunity is presented. Approaches to vaccine development including different vaccine platforms, critical attributes of novel vaccine candidates, the status of the ongoing clinical trials, and the ways to speed up vaccine development are also reviewed. Despite a historical average success rate of only 6%, and a usual gestation period of 10-12 years for the development of a new vaccine, the world is on the verge of developing COVID-19 vaccines in an extraordinary short time span.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics
6.
Life Sci ; 257: 118105, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654811

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented disease caused by highly pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 and characterized by extreme respiratory deterrence, pneumonia and immune damage. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the sequence similarity of SARS-CoV-2 with other SARS-like bat viruses. The primary source and intermediate host are not yet confirmed, although transmission from human to human is universally confirmed. The new SARS-CoV-2 virus reaches cells via ACE-2 and subsequently down-regulates ACE-2, leaving angiotensin II unbalanced in affected organs primarily in the lungs, heart, brain, and kidneys. As reported recently, numerous secondary complications i.e., neurological, nephrological, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and hepatic complications, are associated with COVID-19 infection along with prominent respiratory disease including pneumonia. Extensive research work on recently discovered SARS-CoV-2 is in the pipeline to clarify pathogenic mechanisms, epidemiological features, and identify new drug targets that will lead to the development of successful strategies for prevention and treatment. There are currently no appropriate scientifically approved vaccines/drugs for COVID-19. Nonetheless, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, azithromycin were tested against COVID-19 in clinical trials, and finally, FDA approved emergency use of remdesivir in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Additionally, administration of convalescent plasma obtained from recovered COVID-19 patients to infected COVID-19 patients reduces the viral burden via immunomodulation. This review analysis therefore concentrates primarily on recent discoveries related to COVID-19 pathogenesis along with a full description of the structure, genome, and secondary complication associated with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, a short and brief clinical update has been provided concerning the development of therapeutic medications and vaccines to counter COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Chemokines , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
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