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1.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(5): 2307-2315, 2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878485

ABSTRACT

Older people have been disproportionately vulnerable to the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with an increased risk of severe complications and death compared to other age groups. A mix of underlying factors has been speculated to give rise to this differential infection outcome including changes in lung physiology, weakened immunity, and severe immune response. Our study focuses on the impact of biomechanical changes in lungs that occur as individuals age, that is, the stiffening of the lung parenchyma and increased matrix fiber density. We used hydrogels with an elastic modulus of 0.2 and 50 kPa and conventional tissue culture surfaces to investigate how infection rate changes with parenchymal tissue stiffness in lung epithelial cells challenged with SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein pseudotyped lentiviruses. Further, we employed electrospun fiber matrices to isolate the effect of matrix density. Given the recent data highlighting the importance of alternative virulent strains, we included both the native strain identified in early 2020 and an early S protein variant (D614G) that was shown to increase the viral infectivity markedly. Our results show that cells on softer and sparser scaffolds, closer resembling younger lungs, exhibit higher infection rates by the WT and D614G variant. This suggests that natural changes in lung biomechanics do not increase the propensity for SARS-CoV-2 infection and that other factors, such as a weaker immune system, may contribute to increased disease burden in the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338327

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is accompanied with acute respiratory distress syndrome & pulmonary pathology, and is presented mostly with inflammatory cytokine release, dysregulated immune response, skewed neutrophil/ lymphocyte ratio, and hypercoagulable state. Though vaccinations have proved effective in reducing the COVID-19 related mortality, the limitation of use of vaccine against immunocompromised, comorbidity, and emerging variants remains a concern. In the current study we investigate for the first-time the efficacy of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG) extract, a potent immunomodulator, against SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters. Prophylactic treatment with GG showed protection against loss in body weight and 35-40% decrease in lung viral load along with reduced lung pathology in the hamster model. Remarkably, GG reduced the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Plasminogen activator inhibito-1 (PAI-1). In-vitro , GG acted as potent immunomodulator by reducing Th2 and Th17 differentiation and IL-4 and IL-17A cytokine production. In addition, GG also showed robust potential to suppress ROS, mtROS and NETs generation in a concentration dependent manner in both human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and murine bone marrow derived neutrophils (BMDNs). Taken together, we provide evidence for the protective efficacy of GG against COVID-19 and its putative mechanistic insight, which might be developed as a future immunomodulatory approach against various pathologies with high cytokine production, aberrant neutrophil activation including coronavirus infection.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113178, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866910

ABSTRACT

Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, endothelium imbalance, chronic inflammation, immune dysregulation, and its comorbidities may all have a role in systemic inflammation, leading to the pulmonary fibrosis and cytokine storm, which leads to failure of lung function, which is a hallmark of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Obesity may also disrupt the function of mucociliary escalators and cooperation of epithelial cell's motile cilia in the airway, limiting the clearance of the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). Adipose tissues in obese patients have a greater number of proteases and receptors for SARS-CoV-2 admittance, proposing that they could serve as an accelerator and reservoir for this virus, boosting immunological response and systemic inflammation. Lastly, anti-inflammatory cytokines such as anti-IL-6 and the infusion of mesenchymal stem cells could be used as a modulation therapy of immunity to help COVID-19 patients. Obesity, on the other hand, is linked to the progress of COVID-19 through a variety of molecular pathways, and obese people are part of the SARS-CoV-2 susceptible individuals, necessitating more protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Inflammation , Morbidity , Obesity/epidemiology
4.
Lung India ; 39(3): 254-260, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810864

ABSTRACT

Background: Little data exist on antifibrotic drugs for treating symptomatic patients with persistent interstitial lung abnormalities in the postacute phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Herein, we describe the physician practices of prescribing pirfenidone and nintedanib for these patients and the physician-assessed response. Materials and Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective survey study of subjects administered pirfenidone or nintedanib for post-COVID-19 interstitial lung abnormalities. Data on the demographic details, comorbidities, abnormalities on the computed tomography (CT) of the chest, treatment, antifibrotic drug use, and physician-assessed response were collected on a standard case record pro forma. We explored physician practices of prescribing antifibrotics (primary objective) and the physician-assessed response (secondary objective). Results: We included 142 subjects (mean age, 55.9 years; 16.2% women) at eight centers. The most common abnormalities on CT chest included ground glass opacities (75.7%), consolidation (49.5%), reticulation (43.9%), and parenchymal bands (16.8%). Of the 5701 patients discharged after hospitalization at six centers, 115 (2.0%) received antifibrotics. The drugs were prescribed an average of 26 days after symptom onset. One hundred and sixteen subjects were administered pirfenidone; 11 (9.5%) received the full dose (2400 mg/day). Thirty subjects were prescribed nintedanib; 23 (76.7%) received the full dose (300 mg/day). Of 76 subjects with available information, 27 (35.6%) and 26 (34.2%) had significant or partial radiologic improvement, respectively, according to the physician's assessment. Conclusions: Antifibrotic agents were administered to a minority of patients discharged after recovery from acute COVID-19 pneumonia. Larger, randomized studies on the efficacy and safety of these agents are required.

5.
Dis Model Mech ; 15(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793721

ABSTRACT

To elucidate the molecular mechanisms that manifest lung abnormalities during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, we performed whole-transcriptome sequencing of lung autopsies from 31 patients with severe COVID-19 and ten uninfected controls. Using metatranscriptomics, we identified the existence of two distinct molecular signatures of lethal COVID-19. The dominant 'classical' signature (n=23) showed upregulation of the unfolded protein response, steroid biosynthesis and complement activation, supported by massive metabolic reprogramming leading to characteristic lung damage. The rarer signature (n=8) that potentially represents 'cytokine release syndrome' (CRS) showed upregulation of cytokines such as IL1 and CCL19, but absence of complement activation. We found that a majority of patients cleared SARS-CoV-2 infection, but they suffered from acute dysbiosis with characteristic enrichment of opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus cohnii in 'classical' patients and Pasteurella multocida in CRS patients. Our results suggest two distinct models of lung pathology in severe COVID-19 patients, which can be identified through complement activation, presence of specific cytokines and characteristic microbiome. These findings can be used to design personalized therapy using in silico identified drug molecules or in mitigating specific secondary infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , Cytokines , Humans , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Mathematics ; 10(7):1121, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1785804

ABSTRACT

Crude oil market analysis has become one of the emerging financial markets and the volatility effect of the market is paramount and has been considered as an issue of utmost importance. This study examines the dynamics of this volatile market of crude oil by employing a hybrid approach based on an extreme learning machine (ELM) as a regressor and the improved grey wolf optimizer (IGWO) for prophesying the crude oil rate for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent crude oil datasets. The datasets are augmented using technical indicators (TIs) and statistical measures (SMs) to obtain better insight into the forecasting ability of this proposed model. The differential evolution (DE) strategy has been used for evolution and the survival of the fittest (SOF) principle has been used for elimination while implementing the GWO to achieve better convergence rate and accuracy. Whereas, the algorithmic simplicity, use of less parameters, and easy implementation of DE efficiently decide the evolutionary patterns of wolves in GWO and the SOF principle updates the wolf pack based on the fitness value of each wolf, thereby ensuring the algorithm does not fall into local optimum. Furthermore, the comparison and analysis of the proposed model with other models, such as ELM–DE, ELM–Particle Swarm Optimization (ELM–PSO), and ELM–GWO shows that the predictability evidence obtained substantially achieves better performance for ELM–IGWO with respect to faster error convergence rate and mean square error (MSE) during training and testing phases. The sensitivity study of the proposed ELM–IGWO provides better results in terms of the performance measures, such as Theil’s U, mean absolute error (MAE), average relative variance (ARV), mean average percentage error (MAPE), and minimal computational time.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313840

ABSTRACT

The high transmissibility and replication of SARS-CoV-2 have been attributed to enhanced protein functions which are dependent on protein folding. Our in silico study endeavored to scrutinize SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab by analyzing the conserved folding patterns of its transcribed proteins. Accordingly, the findings indicated that SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab shares domain-specific fold-fingerprints with a spectrum of unrelated organisms. Closer observation revealed slight changes in folding patterns engendered with small variation in the intrinsic amino acid sequence. By correlating with the evolvability-potential of RNA-viruses and COVID-19 pandemic, we hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 could undergo fast recombination with the host, SARS-CoV-2 minor variants and other viral species resulting in a reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 quasispecies. It is highly possible that natural selection will cause a future emergence of evolved SARS-CoV-2-descendants. Nonetheless, we hope that this insightful study will assist in elucidating SARS-CoV-2 protein functionalities, development of vaccines, and the possibility and nature of future emergence.

8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327731

ABSTRACT

Older people have been disproportionately vulnerable to the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with an increased risk of severe complications and death compared to other age groups. A mix of underlying factors has been speculated to give rise to this differential infection outcome, including changes in lung physiology, weakened immunity, and severe immune response. Our study focuses on the impact of biomechanical changes in lungs that occur as individuals age, i.e., the stiffening of the lung parenchyma and increased matrix fiber density. We used hydrogels with an elastic modulus of 0.2 and 50 kPa and conventional tissue culture surfaces to investigate how infection rate changes with parenchymal tissue stiffness in lung epithelial cells challenged with SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein pseudotyped lentiviruses. Further, we employed electrospun fiber matrices to isolate the effect of matrix density. Given the recent data highlighting the importance of alternative virulent strains, we included both the native strain identified in early 2020 and an early S protein variant (D614G) that was shown to increase the viral infectivity markedly. Our results show that cells on softer and sparser scaffolds, closer resembling younger lungs, exhibit higher infection rates by the WT and D614G variant. This suggests that natural changes in lung biomechanics do not increase the propensity for SARS-CoV-2 infection and that other factors, such as a weaker immune system, may contribute to increased disease burden in the elderly.

9.
Health Technol (Berl) ; : 1-12, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637631

ABSTRACT

Many countries around the world have been influenced by Covid-19 which is a serious virus as it gets transmitted by human communication. Although, its syndrome is quite similar to the ordinary flu. The critical step involved in Covid-19 is the initial screening or testing of the infected patients. As there are no special detection tools, the demand for such diagnostic tools has been increasing continuously. So, it is eminently admissible to find out positive cases of this disease at the earliest so that the spreading of this dangerous virus can be controlled. Although, some methods for the detection of Covid-19 patients are available, which are performed upon respiratory based samples and among them, a critical approach for treatment is radiologic imaging or X-ray imaging. The latest conclusions obtained from X-ray digital imaging based algorithms and techniques recommend that such type of digital images may consist of significant facts regarding the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The utilization of Deep Neural Networks based methodologies clubbed with digital radiological imaging has been proved useful for accurately identifying this disease. This could also be adjuvant in conquering the problem of dearth of competent physicians in far-flung areas. In this paper, a CheXImageNet model has been introduced for detecting Covid-19 disease by using digital images of Chest X-ray with the help of an openly accessible dataset. Experiments for both binary class and multi-class have been performed in this work for benchmarking the effectiveness of the proposed work. An accuracy of 100 % is reported for both binary classification (having cases of Covid-19 and Normal X-Ray) and classification for three classes (including cases of Covid-19, Normal X-Ray and, cases of Pneumonia disease) respectively.

10.
Cells ; 11(2)2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613629

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are associated with multiple disease pathologies including sepsis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and COVID-19. NETs, being a disintegrated death form, suffered inconsistency in their identification, nomenclature, and quantifications that hindered therapeutic approaches using NETs as a target. Multiple strategies including microscopy, ELISA, immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and image-stream-based methods have exhibited drawbacks such as being subjective, non-specific, error-prone, and not being high throughput, and thus demand the development of innovative and efficient approaches for their analyses. Here, we established an imaging and computational algorithm using high content screening (HCS)-cellomics platform that aid in easy, rapid, and specific detection as well as analyses of NETs. This method employed membrane-permeable and impermeable DNA dyes in situ to identify NET-forming cells. Automated algorithm-driven single-cell analysis of change in nuclear morphology, increase in nuclear area, and change in intensities provided precise detection of NET-forming cells and eliminated user bias with other cell death modalities. Further combination with Annexin V staining in situ detected specific death pathway, e.g., apoptosis, and thus, discriminated between NETs, apoptosis, and necrosis. Our approach does not utilize fixation and permeabilization steps that disturb NETs, and thus, allows the time-dependent monitoring of NETs. Together, this specific imaging-based high throughput method for NETs analyses may provide a good platform for the discovery of potential inhibitors of NET formation and/or agents to modulate neutrophil death, e.g., NETosis-apoptosis switch, as an alternative strategy to enhance the resolution of inflammation.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/blood , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Humans
11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 5145-5147, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550495

ABSTRACT

The circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2 pose a threat to the public health response worldwide, especially in the case of developing countries, lacking vaccines and having compromised health-care facilities. This article highlights several recent studies conducted to determine the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines against variants of concern. These studies comprise clinical trials and neutralization assay-based studies conducted on messenger RNA (mRNA), recombinant, viral vector-based, and inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Genotype , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated
12.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 583: 14-21, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471891

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has a major effect on world health, particularly on individuals suffering from severe diseases or old aged persons. Various case studies revealed that COVID-19 might increase the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Coxsackievirus, dengue virus Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis C virus, Japanese encephalitis, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, West Nile virus, and human immunodeficiency virus have all been linked to the development of transient or permanent parkinsonism, owing to the induction of neuroinflammation/hypoxic brain injury with structural/functional damage within the basal ganglia. Coronavirus mainly infects the alveolar cells and may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 invades cells via the ACE2 receptor, which is widely expressed in the central nervous system, where the virus may precipitate or accelerate dementia. SARS-CoV-2 could enter the central nervous system directly by the olfactory/vagus nerves or through the bloodstream. Here, we talked about the importance of this viral infection in terms of the CNS as well as its implications for people with Parkinson's disease; anosmia & olfaction-related impairments in COVID-19 & PD patients. And, also discussed the role of vitamin D to sustain the progression of Parkinson's disease and the COVID-19; regular vitamin D3 consumption of 2000-5000 IU/day may reduce the risk and severity of COVID-19 in parkinsonian patients.

13.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 477(1): 225-240, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469743

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (COVID-19) virus uses Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a gateway for their entry into the human body. The ACE2 with cleaved products have emerged as major contributing factors to multiple physiological functions and pathogenic complications leading to the clinical consequences of the COVID-19 infection Decreased ACE2 expression restricts the viral entry into the human cells and reduces the viral load. COVID-19 infection reduces the ACE2 expression and induces post-COVID-19 complications like pneumonia and lung injury. The modulation of the ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas (AAM) axis is also being explored as a modality to treat post-COVID-19 complications. Evidence indicates that specific food components may modulate the AAM axis. The variations in the susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and the post-COVID its complications are being correlated with varied dietary habits. Some of the food substances have emerged to have supportive roles in treating post-COVID-19 complications and are being considered as adjuvants to the COVID-19 therapy. It is possible that some of their active ingredients may emerge as the direct treatment for the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin I/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diet therapy , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , /metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Dietary Proteins/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Terpenes/pharmacology , Virus Internalization , Vitamins/pharmacology
14.
Immunogenetics ; 74(2): 197-206, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446132

ABSTRACT

The catastrophic phase of Covid-19 turns the table over with the spread of its disastrous transmission network throughout the world. Covid-19 associated with mucormycosis fungal infection accompanied by opportunistic comorbidities have emerged the myriad of complications and manifestations. We searched the electronic databases of Google Scholar, PubMed, Springer, and Elsevier until June 05, 2021, using keywords. We retrieved the details of confirmed and suspected mucormycosis patients associated with Covid-19. We analyzed the case reports, treatment given for Covid-19, steroids used, associated comorbidities, mucormycosis site involved, and patients survived or dead. Overall, 102 patients of mucormycosis associated with Covid-19 have been reported from India. Mucormycosis was predominant in males (69.6%) rather than females (19.6%), and most of the patients were active Covid-19 cases (70.5%). Steroids were mostly used (68.6%) for the treatment of Covid-19 followed by remdesivir (10.7%). Patients were suffering from diabetes mellitus (88.2%) and severe diabetic ketoacidosis (11.7%). Mucormycosis affects the sino-nasal (72.5%), orbit (24.5%), central nervous system (18.6%), and maxillary necrosis (13.7%) of the patients. The Mortality rate was recorded as 23.5%, and recovery rate was 2.9%. Diabetes mellitus cases are highest in India as compared to other countries, and prevalent use of steroids with the background of Covid-19 becomes an opportunistic environment for mucormycosis fungal infection to survive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Fungi , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pattern Recognit Lett ; 151: 267-274, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433717

ABSTRACT

At present times, COVID-19 has become a global illness and infected people has increased exponentially and it is difficult to control due to the non-availability of large quantity of testing kits. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques including machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), and computer vision (CV) approaches find useful for the recognition, analysis, and prediction of COVID-19. Several ML and DL techniques are trained to resolve the supervised learning issue. At the same time, the potential measure of the unsupervised learning technique is quite high. Therefore, unsupervised learning techniques can be designed in the existing DL models for proficient COVID-19 prediction. In this view, this paper introduces a novel unsupervised DL based variational autoencoder (UDL-VAE) model for COVID-19 detection and classification. The UDL-VAE model involved adaptive Wiener filtering (AWF) based preprocessing technique to enhance the image quality. Besides, Inception v4 with Adagrad technique is employed as a feature extractor and unsupervised VAE model is applied for the classification process. In order to verify the superior diagnostic performance of the UDL-VAE model, a set of experimentation was carried out to highlight the effective outcome of the UDL-VAE model. The obtained experimental values showcased the effectual results of the UDL-VAE model with the higher accuracy of 0.987 and 0.992 on the binary and multiple classes respectively.

16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 4128-4130, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398028

ABSTRACT

The article by Abdalla et al., published in the journal on 28 May 2021, raised a concern. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein is the major targeted surface glycoprotein in COVID-19 vaccines. Many mutations in the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 have been reported across the globe. The S protein plays a crucial role in the induction of neutralizing antibody and protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The protein biochemistry and immunology, in addition to conventional virology, will help us to delineate the biology of SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
Biomass Convers Biorefin ; : 1-18, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1250946

ABSTRACT

Emergence of "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" causing "COVID-19" or "coronavirus disease 19" as pandemic has got worldwide attention towards hygiene as the first line of defense for the infection control. It is first line of defense not only from COVID-19 but also from other infectious diseases caused by deadly pathogens such as cholera, hepatitis, tuberculosis, polio, etc. Absence of any particular vaccine or treatment let World Health Organization (WHO) recommend to the public to maintain social distancing along with regularly washing their hands with soap, sanitize their hands (where washing is not possible), and disinfect their belongings and buildings to avoid the infection. Out of various formulations available in the market, WHO has recommended alcohol-based hand sanitizers, which mainly comprise of ethanol, isopropyl alcohols, and hydrogen peroxides in different combinations due to their high potential to kill the broad range of pathogens including bacterial, viral, fungal, helminthes, etc. Therefore, alcohol-based sanitizers are in high demand since centuries to prevent infection from pathogenic diseases. Ethanol is the most common and popular alcohol in terms of vanishing wide range of pathogens, convenient to use and its production. Ethanol is produced worldwide and is used in various sectors, e.g., beauty and cosmetics, food and beverages, and as the most demanding gasoline additive. The present review is focused on the ethanol production in India, its diversified applications emphasizing hand sanitizers with discussions on formulation of sanitizer and disinfectants, and viability of lignocellulosic and food grain-based ethanol. The review article also emphasizes on the technological details of 1G and 2G ethanol production, their associated challenges, and inputs for the improved ethanol yields so as to strengthen the supply chain of ethanol in India, and making "Atmanirbhar Bharat" (Self-reliant India) campaign of Indian government successfully viable.

18.
Acta Sci Neurol ; 3(8): 37-38, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319971
20.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
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