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1.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472079

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In the wake of recent widespread interest in telemedicine during the COVID-19 era, many orthopaedic surgeons may be unfamiliar with clinical examination skills, patients' safety, data security, and implementation-related concerns in telemedicine. We present a bibliometric analysis and review of the telemedicine-related publications concerning orthopaedics care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Such analysis can help orthopaedic surgeons become acquainted with the recent developments in telemedicine and its usage in regular orthopaedics practice. Methods: We systematically searched the database of Thomson Reuters Web of Science for telemedicine-related articles in orthopaedics published during the COVID-19 pandemic. The selected articles were analysed for their source journals, corresponding authors, investigating institutions, countries of the corresponding authors, number of citations, study types, levels of evidence, and a qualitative review. Results: Fifty-nine articles meeting the inclusion criteria were published in 28 journals. Three hundred forty-two authors contributed to these research papers. The United States (US) contributed the most number of articles to the telemedicine-related orthopaedics research during the COVID-19 era. All articles combined had a total of 383 citations and 66.1% were related to the Economic and Decision-making Analyses of telemedicine implementation. By and large, level IV evidence was predominant in our review. Conclusion: Telemedicine can satisfactorily cover a major proportion of patients' visits to outpatient departments, thus limiting hospitals' physical workload. Telemedicine has a potential future role in emergency orthopaedics and inpatient care through virtual aids. The issues related to patient privacy, data security, medicolegal, and reimbursement-related aspects need to be addressed through precise national or regional guidelines. Lastly, the orthopaedic physical examination is a weak link in telemedicine and needs to be strengthened.

2.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 2911578, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455770

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract and lungs. Several studies have reported that the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is altered in COVID-19 patients. The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway plays a vital role in regulating inflammation, metabolism, immune responses, and musculoskeletal system biology. In this minireview, we surmise the effects of the kynurenine pathway in COVID-19 patients and how this pathway might impact muscle and bone biology.


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Kynurenine/metabolism , Muscular Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tryptophan/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology
3.
Vaccine ; 39(49): 7195-7207, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355754

ABSTRACT

As part of the Vaccine Innovation Prioritisation Strategy (VIPS), three immunization-stakeholder consultations were conducted between September 2018 and February 2020 to ensure that countries' needs drove the prioritization of vaccine product innovations. All consultations targeted respondents with immunization program experience. They included: (1) an online survey to identify immunization implementation barriers and desired vaccine attributes in three use settings, (2) an online survey to identify and evaluate the most important immunization challenges for ten exemplar vaccines, and (3) in-depth interviews to better understand the perceived programmatic benefits and challenges that could be addressed by nine innovations and to rank the innovations that could best address current challenges. The first consultation included responses from 442 participants in 61 countries, representing 89% of the 496 respondents who correctly completed at least one section of the online survey. For facility-based settings, missed opportunities for vaccination due to reluctance to open multidose vaccine vials was the barrier most frequently selected by respondents. In community-based (outreach) and campaign settings, limited access to immunization services due to geographic barriers was most frequently selected. Multidose presentations with preservative or single-dose presentations were most frequently selected as desired vaccine attributes for facility-based settings while improved thermostability was most frequently selected for outreach and campaign settings. The second online survey was completed by 220 respondents in 54 countries. For the exemplar vaccines, vaccine ineffectiveness or wastage due to heat or freeze exposure and missed opportunities due to multidose vial presentations were identified as the greatest vaccine-specific challenges. In-depth interviews with 84 respondents in six countries ranked microarray patches, dual-chamber delivery devices, and heat-stable/controlled temperature chain qualified liquid vaccines as the three innovations that could have the greatest impact in helping address current immunization program challenges. These findings informed the VIPS prioritization and provided broader application to designing immunization interventions to better meet country needs.

4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390561

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) is an infectious virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmitted mainly through droplets and aerosol affecting the respiratory tract and lungs. Little is known regarding why some individuals are more susceptible than others and develop severe symptoms. In this study, we analyzed the nasopharyngeal microbiota profile of aged patients with COVID-19 (asymptomatic vs. symptomatic) vs. healthy individuals. We examined the nasopharynx swab of 84 aged-matched patients, out of which 27 were negative asymptomatic (NegA), 30 were positive asymptomatic (PA), and 27 patients were positive symptomatic (PSY). Our analysis revealed the presence of abundant Cyanobacterial taxa at phylum level in PA (p-value = 0.0016) and PSY (p-value = 0.00038) patients along with an upward trend in the population of Litoricola, Amylibacter, Balneola, and Aeromonas at the genus level. Furthermore, to know the relationship between the nasal microbiota composition and severity of COVID-19, we compared PA and PSY groups. Our data show that the nasal microbiota of PSY patients was significantly enriched with the signatures of two bacterial taxa: Cutibacterium (p-value = 0.045) and Lentimonas (p-value = 0.007). Furthermore, we also found a significantly lower abundance of five bacterial taxa, namely: Prevotellaceae (p-value = 7 × 10-6), Luminiphilus (p-value = 0.027), Flectobacillus (p-value = 0.027), Comamonas (p-value = 0.048), and Jannaschia (p-value = 0.012) in PSY patients. The dysbiosis of the nasal microbiota in COVID-19 positive patients might have a role in contributing to the severity of COVID-19. The findings of our study show that there is a strong correlation between the composition of the nasal microbiota and COVID-19 severity. Further studies are needed to validate our finding in large-scale samples and to correlate immune response (cytokine Strome) and nasal microbiota to identify underlying mechanisms and develop therapeutic strategies against COVID-19.

5.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(7): 832-833, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335330

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Singh AK, Kumar S, Aggarwal R, Trikha A. Check Central Venous Catheter Set thoroughly or Bite the Bullet! Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(7):832-833.

6.
Digit Signal Process ; 112: 103001, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080658

ABSTRACT

In this study, the transmissibility estimation of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been presented using the generalized fractional-order calculus (FOC) based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and wavelet transform (WT) methods. Initially, the state-space representation for the bats-hosts-reservoir-people (BHRP) model is obtained using a set of fractional order differential equations for the susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model. Afterward, the EKF and Kronecker product based WT methods have been applied to the discrete vector representation of the BHRP model. The main advantage of using EKF in this system is that it considers both the process and the measurement noise, which gives better accuracy and probable states, which are the Markovian (processes). The importance of proposed models lies in the fact that these models can accommodate conventional EKF and WT methods as their special cases. Further, we have compared the estimated number of contagious people and recovered people with the actual number of infectious people and recovered people in India and China.

7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 383-402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076350

ABSTRACT

Advancements in analytical diagnostic systems for point-of-care (POC) application have gained considerable attention because of their rapid operation at the site required to manage severe diseases, even in a personalized manner. The POC diagnostic devices offer easy operation, fast analytical outcome, and affordable cost, which promote their advanced research and versatile adoptability. Keeping advantages in view, considerable efforts are being made to design and develop smart sensing components such as miniaturized transduction, interdigitated electrodes-based sensing chips, selective detection at low level, portable packaging, and sustainable durability to promote POC diagnostics according to the needs of patient care. Such effective diagnostics systems are in demand, which creates the challenge to make them more efficient in every aspect to generate a desired bio-informatic needed for better health access and management. Keeping advantages and scope in view, this mini review focuses on practical scenarios associated with miniaturized analytical diagnostic devices at POC application for targeted disease diagnostics smartly and efficiently. Moreover, advancements in technologies, such as smartphone-based operation, paper-based sensing assays, and lab-on-a-chip (LOC) which made POC more sensitive, informative, and suitable for major infectious disease diagnosis, are the main focus here. Besides, POC diagnostics based on automated patient sample integration with a sensing platform is continuously improving therapeutics interventions against specific infectious disease. This review also discussed challenges associated with state-of-the-art technology along with future research opportunities to design and develop next generation POC diagnostic systems needed to manage infectious diseases in a personalized manner.


Subject(s)
Point-of-Care Testing , Precision Medicine/methods , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Smartphone
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 179: 113074, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064881

ABSTRACT

On global scale, the current situation of pandemic is symptomatic of increased incidences of contagious diseases caused by pathogens. The faster spread of these diseases, in a moderately short timeframe, is threatening the overall population wellbeing and conceivably the economy. The inadequacy of conventional diagnostic tools in terms of time consuming and complex laboratory-based diagnosis process is a major challenge to medical care. In present era, the development of point-of-care testing (POCT) is in demand for fast detection of infectious diseases along with "on-site" results that are helpful in timely and early action for better treatment. In addition, POCT devices also play a crucial role in preventing the transmission of infectious diseases by offering real-time testing and lab quality microbial diagnosis within minutes. Timely diagnosis and further treatment optimization facilitate the containment of outbreaks of infectious diseases. Presently, efforts are being made to support such POCT by the technological development in the field of internet of medical things (IoMT). The IoMT offers wireless-based operation and connectivity of POCT devices with health expert and medical centre. In this review, the recently developed POC diagnostics integrated or future possibilities of integration with IoMT are discussed with focus on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases like malaria, dengue fever, influenza A (H1N1), human papilloma virus (HPV), Ebola virus disease (EVD), Zika virus (ZIKV), and coronavirus (COVID-19). The IoMT-assisted POCT systems are capable enough to fill the gap between bioinformatics generation, big rapid analytics, and clinical validation. An optimized IoMT-assisted POCT will be useful in understanding the diseases progression, treatment decision, and evaluation of efficacy of prescribed therapy.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Internet of Things , Point-of-Care Testing , Animals , Artificial Intelligence , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Equipment Design , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Malaria/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
9.
J Clin Virol ; 133: 104663, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody testing has recently emerged as an option to assist with determining exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Elucidation of the kinetics and duration of the humoral response is important for clinical management and interpreting results from serological surveys. OBJECTIVES: Here we evaluated the clinical performance of Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG assays, as well as the longitudinal dynamics of the antibody response in symptomatic COVID-19 patients. STUDY DESIGN AND RESULTS: The diagnostic specificity was 100 % for IgM and 99.67 % for IgG using 300 pre-COVID-19 serum specimens. Using 1349 sequential serum samples collected up to 168 days post symptom onset from 427 PCR-confirmed individuals, clinical test sensitivity of the SARS-CoV-2 IgM assay was 24.6 % at ≤7 days, 75.3 % at 8-14 days, 95.0 % at 15-21 days, and 96.0 % at 4-5 weeks (peak test sensitivity). The median duration of time for IgM seroconversion was 10 days. IgM levels declined steadily 4-5 weeks after symptom onset, and the positive rate dropped to 30.8 % at >3 months. The diagnostic sensitivity for the SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay post symptom onset was 23.2 % at ≤7 days, 69.5 % at 8-14 days, 93.6 % at 15-21 days, and 99.6 % at 4-5 weeks (peak test sensitivity). The median duration of time for IgG seroconversion was 11.5 days. During the convalescent phase of the infection, a decline in the IgG level was observed in patients who were followed for >100 days. Despite that decline, 92.3 % of the patient cohort remained IgG positive 3-6 months following symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the Abbott IgM assay against SARS-CoV-2 is detected slightly earlier compared to IgG, with both tests exhibiting excellent overall sensitivity and specificity. In symptomatic patients who test negative by PCR for a SARS-CoV-2 infection, assessing IgM and IgG antibodies can aid in supporting a diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Virus Res ; 294: 198275, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997584

ABSTRACT

Tmprss2 is an emerging molecular target which guides cellular infections of SARS-CoV-2, has been earmarked for interventions against the viral pathologies. The study aims to computationally screen and identifies potential miRNAs, following in vitro experimental validation of miRNA-mediated suppression of Tmprss2 for early prevention of COVID-19. Pool of 163 miRNAs, scrutinized for Tmprss2 binding with three miRNA prediction algorithms, ensued 11 common miRNAs. Further, computational negative energies for association, corroborated miRNA-Tmprss2 interactions, whereas three miRNAs (hsa-miR-214, hsa-miR-98 and hsa-miR-32) based on probability scores ≥0.8 and accessibility to Tmprss2 target have been selected in the Sfold tool. Transfection of miRNA(s) in the Caco-2 cells, quantitatively estimated differential expression, confirming silencing of Tmprss2 with maximum gene suppression by hsa-miR-32 employing novel promising role in CoV-2 pathogenesis. The exalted binding of miRNAs to Tmprss2 and suppression of later advocates their utility as molecular tools for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 viral transmission and replication in humans.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Virus Internalization , Caco-2 Cells , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Gene Silencing , Humans , MicroRNAs/chemistry , MicroRNAs/genetics , Nucleic Acid Conformation
12.
J Clin Orthop Trauma ; 11: S696-S699, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650995

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In the current COVID pandemic, hermetically sealed eyewear is recommended for safe surgical practices to prevent eye contact with contaminated airborne particles or aerosols. These sealed eyewears definitely reduce the risk of contamination of eyes. However, there is a constant issue of fogging up of the inner surface that prevents good surgical visibility which can impair surgeons' performance and their ability to perform fine tasks, especially in operating rooms with temperature and humidity controlled as per the COVID guidelines. We investigated the effectiveness of surface-modified anti-fog polyethylene terephthalate(PET) films and the application of a detergent-based surfactant liquid, applied to the inner aspect of viewing frame, and addition of filtered vents in the prevention of fogging up of the protective eyewears in a simulated operating room environment. Methods: Ten volunteer orthopedic surgeons tested three modifications of a poly-hydrocarbon based hermetically sealed eyewear as a) application of a surface-modified anti-fog PET film on the inner aspect of eyewear, b) application of a detergent-based surfactant coating on the inner aspect of the protective eyewear, and c) addition of two filtered vents/holes on each side of the protective eyewear, covered with an N95 mask cutting. The testing was performed while completing a synthetic bone-based surgical task in a simulated operating room environment of 24-26° temperature and humidity between 40 and 70%, for a maximum of 2 h. The duration to the loss of clear visibility (ability to read a newspaper) and workable visibility (ability to perform the surgical task) was recorded for each volunteer. Results: The detergent-based surfactant provided the longest duration of clear visibility (69.3 ± 8.16 min) and the workable visibility was maintained for more than 2 h. The second best durations of clear visibility (31.9 ± 3.75 min) and workable visibility (41.6 ± 5.39 min) were provided by the surface-modified anti-fog PET film. The addition of the filtered vents provided only a marginal improvement in the visibility. Conclusion: A detergent-based surfactant coating of the viewing surface provides a simple, inexpensive and effective solution to the problem of fogging of the protective eyewears. Besides this, the workable vision is maintained for a prolonged duration.

13.
Biology (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727392

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic threat with more than 11.8 million confirmed cases and more than 0.5 million deaths as of 3 July 2020. Given the lack of definitive pharmaceutical interventions against SARS-CoV-2, multiple therapeutic strategies and personal protective applications are being used to reduce the risk of high mortality and community spread of this infection. Currently, more than a hundred vaccines and/or alternative therapeutic regimens are in clinical trials, and some of them have shown promising results in improving the immune cell environment and controlling the infection. In this review, we discussed high-performance multi-directory strategies describing the uncontrolled deregulation of the host immune landscape associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and treatment strategies using an anti-neoplastic regimen. We also followed selected current treatment plans and the most important on-going clinical trials and their respective outcomes for blocking SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis through regenerative medicine, such as stem cell therapy, chimeric antigen receptors, natural killer (NK) cells, extracellular vesicular-based therapy, and others including immunomodulatory regimens, anti-neoplastic therapy, and current clinical vaccine therapy.

14.
J Clin Orthop Trauma ; 11: S704-S710, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724853

ABSTRACT

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic has implications on the morbidities of orthopedic patients due to lack of routine follow-ups, and inpatient and outpatient-based interventions. Telemedicine has recently emerged as an alternative for healthcare delivery to the patients and providing them with important information about orthopedic self-care and medications that can be followed without a hospital visit. However, due to lack of physical assessment, telemedicine is bound to have some limitations as well. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of proactive telemedicine in maintaining follow-up of orthopedic patients, and their satisfaction with telemedicine as an alternative mode of treatment delivery. Methods: This one-month cross-sectional study enrolled the follow-up patients that visited the orthopedic outpatient-department in February 2020. The patients were sequentially called according to the order of their registration, on a daily basis. Consenting patients were provided with telemedicine-based consultations, and those requiring physical evaluation were called for outpatient visits after documenting the valid reasons. The response-rates and the volume of patients requiring physical visits were measured for different diagnosis-based groups. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire that included overall patient satisfaction with telemedicine, its effectiveness, and ease in following the telemedicine-based treatment. Results: The response rate to telemedicine was 88.67%. Among the patients availing telemedicine, 71.43% were managed without needing physical visits to the outpatient-department. The need for physical examination and failed patient-doctor communication were the most common reasons for advising physical outpatient visits. The overall satisfaction-rate to telemedicine was 92%, and only 7.2% of patients had difficulty in understanding or following telemedicine-based advice. Conclusions: Telemedicine can effectively reduce the need for physical visits to outpatient-departments for follow up of orthopedic patients. The response-rate and overall patient-satisfaction rates to telemedicine are high. Further efforts in expanding the use of telemedicine and addressing its limitations, especially those related to the failed communications, are needed to develop it as an alternative to physical orthopedic consultations in the current situation.

15.
J. Interdiscip. Math. ; : 1-16, 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-591703

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is now becoming a global issue and declared as pandemic by world health organization. This virus spread out from China to entire world. This paper performed a descriptive analysis of COVID-19 in special reference of India. Different attributes such as age, gender, travel history, communication type and current status are analyzed. Till now it can be stated from the study that age is not a significant factor that affect a person to be captured by this disease, also age attribute is normally distributed in current dataset. A significant relationship is found between gender (male and female) and Transmission Type (imported from other country or communicated from local) of the patients.

16.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ; 54: 24-31, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548849

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pulmonary inflammatory disease induced by a newly recognized coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected for the first time in the city of Wuhan in China and spread all over the world at the beginning of 2020. Several millions of people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, and almost 382,867 human deaths worldwide have been reported so far. Notably, there has been no specific, clinically approved vaccine or anti-viral treatment strategy for COVID-19. Herein, we review COVID-19, the viral replication, and its effect on promoting pulmonary fibro-inflammation via immune cell-mediated cytokine storms in humans. Several clinical trials are currently ongoing for anti-viral drugs, vaccines, and neutralizing antibodies against COVID-19. Viral clearance is the result of effective innate and adaptive immune responses. The pivotal role of interleukin (IL)-15 in viral clearance involves maintaining the balance of induced inflammatory cytokines and the homeostatic responses of natural killer and CD8+ T cells. This review presents supporting evidence of the impact of IL-15 immunotherapy on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Interleukin-15/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/physiology
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