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1.
Applied Acoustics ; 194:108809, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821131

ABSTRACT

The aviation industry has seen dramatic growth over the decades till the recent disruption due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, long-haul routes with a distance of more than 4000 km are common for major airlines worldwide. Therefore, aircraft cabin noise assessment is essential, especially in long-haul flights, for passenger and flight crew health wellness. In this paper, the cabin noise of five wide-body aircraft, namely Airbus A330-300ER, A350-900, A380–800, and Boeing B777-200ER and B787-900, was recorded using a calibrated in-house developed smartphone application. The sound pressure levels of in-cabin noise have been measured on two different decibel scales, namely, A-weighted [dB(A)] and C-weighted scales [dB(C)]. The sound pressure levels of Airbus A380–800 were lowest among selected models, while the in-cabin pressure level values of Airbus A350-900 were maximum. However, the difference in decibel levels between the aircraft is minimal as it is within 3 dB.

2.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 12(1): 35-43, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: A novel coronavirus, called the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been found to cause COVID-19 in humans and some other mammals. The nonstructural protein 16 (NSP16) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a significant part in the replication of viruses and suppresses the ability of innate immune system to detect the virus. Therefore, inhibiting NSP16 can be a secure path towards identifying a potent medication against SARS-CoV-2. Tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenols have been reported to exhibit potential treatment options against various viral diseases. METHODS: We conducted molecular docking and structural dynamics studies with a set of 65 Tea bioactive compounds to illustrate their ability to inhibit NSP16 of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, post-simulations end state thermodynamic free energy calculations were estimated to strengthen our results. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Six bioactive tea molecules showed better docking scores than the standard molecule sinefungin. These results were further validated by MD simulations, where Theaflavin compound demonstrated lower binding free energy in comparison to the standard molecule sinefungin. The compound theaflavin could be considered as a novel lead compound for further evaluation by in-vitro and in-vivo studies.

5.
Infect Genet Evol ; 99: 105254, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757665

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), accountable for causing the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19), is already declared as a pandemic disease globally. Like previously reported SARS-CoV strain, the novel SARS-CoV-2 also initiates the viral pathogenesis via docking viral spike-protein with the membranal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) - a receptor on variety of cells in the human body. Therefore, COVID-19 is broadly characterized as a disease that targets multiple organs, particularly causing acute complications via organ-specific pathogenesis accompanied by destruction of ACE2+ cells, including alveolus, cardiac microvasculature, endothelium, and glomerulus. Under such circumstances, the high expression of ACE2 in predisposing individuals associated with anomalous production of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may promote enhanced viral load in COVID-19, which comparatively triggers excessive apoptosis. Furthermore, multi-organ injuries were found linked to altered ACE2 expression and inequality between the ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mitochondrial Ang system (MAS) and renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) in COVID-19 patients. However, the exact pathogenesis of multi-organ damage in COVID-19 is still obscure, but several perspectives have been postulated, involving altered ACE2 expression linked with direct/indirect damages by the virus-induced immune responses, such as cytokinin storm. Thus, insights into the invasion of a virus with respect to ACE2 expression site can be helpful to simulate or understand the possible complications in the targeted organ during viral infection. Hence, this review summarizes the multiple organs invasion by SARS CoV-2 linked with ACE2 expression and their consequences, which can be helpful in the management of the COVID-19 pathogenesis under life-threatening conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330102

ABSTRACT

Main protease (M pro ) of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for its replication/infection and has been recognized as an attractive drug target. In this study, we identified theaflavin 3-gallate as an inhibitor of M pro protein of SARS-CoV-2 with IC 50 value of 18.48 ± 1.29 µM. Compared to theaflavin, theaflavin 3-gallate exhibited superior antiviral activity and at a concentration of 200 µM reduced the viral count by 75% (viral particles reduced from 10 6.7 to 10 6.1 ). Time-dependent analyses of conventional and steered MD-simulations revealed stronger interactions of theaflavin 3-gallate with the active site residues of M pro than the standard molecule GC373 and theaflavin. Taken together, our findings suggest that theaflavin 3-gallate can be developed into a potential lead molecule against SARS-CoV-2.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324369

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that has severely affected mankind and posed a great challenge to the public health system of affected countries. The availability of a safe and effective vaccine is the need of the hour to overcome this crisis. Here, we have developed and assessed the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBV152) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulata). Twenty macaques were divided into four groups of five animals each. One group was administered a placebo while three groups were immunized with three different vaccine candidates at 0 and 14 days. All the macaques were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 fourteen days after the second dose. The protective response was observed with increasing SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibody titers from 3rd-week post-immunization. Viral clearance was observed from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, nasal swab, throat swab, and lung tissues at 7 days post-infection in the vaccinated groups. No evidence of pneumonia was observed by histopathological examination in vaccinated groups, unlike the placebo group which showed features of interstitial pneumonia and localization of viral antigen in the alveolar epithelium and macrophages by immunohistochemistry. Data from this study substantiate the immunogenicity of the vaccine candidates and BBV152 is being evaluated in Phase I clinical trials in India (NCT04471519).

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319776

ABSTRACT

Hand sanitizers are amongst the foremost preventive defence against coronavirus. Ever since the outbreak of this virus in late 2019 the hand sanitizers has become an essential part of our day-to-day life in fight against this contagious disease. The global demand for hand sanitizers has suddenly peaks and reaches record high with ever-increasing market. However, the regular and excessive usage of hand sanitizers, which contains chemical additives and synthetic fragrances, do have serious health and environmental hazards. Thus, due to the evident role of natural phytoconstituents and essential oils against various infectious microorganisms including viruses, they appeared as prospective and viable option for toxic and hazardous chemicals frequently used in hand sanitizers. Here we have developed an alcohol based hand sanitizer formulation supplemented with natural and sustainable ingredients like tea extract and lemon grass essential oil enriched with phenolics and natural flavours respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy of developed hand sanitizer was evaluated and compared with alcohol based hand sanitizers and commercial hand sanitizers. The results of well diffusion assay method and time-kill test have clearly revealed the enhanced effectiveness of hand sanitizer with natural ingredients compared to commercial sample and World Health Organization recommended formulation. Moreover, the herbal origin of these ingredients is very significant since the left over residues on hands after repeated usage might not have any toxicity issues. Hence, it has established that usage of tea extract and lemon grass essential oil in alcoholic hand sanitizer formulation may have positive effects on health and environment.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314688

ABSTRACT

In the unfortunate event of current ongoing pandemic COVID-19, where vaccination development is still at the initial stage, several preventive control measures such as social distancing, hand-hygiene, and personal protective equipment have been recommended by health professionals and organizations. Among them, the safe wearing of facemasks has played a vital role in reducing the likelihood and severity of infectious respiratory disease transmission. The reported research in facemasks has covered many of their material types, fabrication techniques, mechanism characterization, and application aspects. However, in more recent times, the focus has shifted towards the theoretical investigations of fluid flow mechanisms involved in the virus-laden particles prevention by facemasks. This exciting research domain aims to address the complex fluid transport that led to designing a facemask with a better performance. This review paper discusses the recent updates on fluid flow dynamics through the facemasks. Key design aspects such as thermal comfort and flow resistance are discussed. Furthermore, the recent progress in the investigations on the efficacy of facemasks for prevention of COVID 19 spread and the impact of wearing facemasks are presented. Finally, the potential research directions for analyzing the fluid flow behavior are highlighted.

11.
Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1679133
12.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(1): 23-49, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634304

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 is characterised by the COVID-19 pandemic that has quelled more than half a million lives in recent months. We are still coping with the negative repercussions of COVID-19 pandemic in 2021, in which the 2nd wave in India resulted in a high fatality rate. Regardless of emergency vaccine approvals and subsequent meteoric global vaccination drives in some countries, hospitalisations for COVID-19 will continue to occur due to the propensity of mutation in SARS-CoV-2 virus. The immune response plays a vital role in the control and resolution of infectious diseases. However, an impaired immune response is responsible for the severity of the respiratory distress in many diseases. The severe COVID-19 infection persuaded cytokine storm that has been linked with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), culminates into vital organ failures and eventual death. Thus, safe and effective therapeutics to treat hospitalised patients remains a significant unmet clinical need. In that state, any clue of possible treatments, which save patients life, can be treasured for this time point. Many cohorts and clinical trial studies demonstrated that timely administration of immunomodulatory drugs on severe COVID-19 patients may mitigate the disease severity, hospital stay and mortality. This article addresses the severity and risk factors of hypercytokinemia in COVID-19 patients, with special emphasis on prospective immunomodulatory therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Immunity , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination
13.
Comput Biol Med ; 142: 105231, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616436

ABSTRACT

The advent and persistence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic since December 2019 has created the largest public health emergency in over a century. Despite the administration of multiple vaccines across the globe, there continues to be a lack of approved efficacious non-prophylactic interventions for the disease. Flavonoids are a class of phytochemicals with historically established antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties that are effective against cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and even other human coronaviruses. To identify the most promising bioactive flavonoids against the SARS-CoV-2, this article screened a virtual library of 46 bioactive flavonoids against three promising targets in the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle: human TMPRSS2 protein, 3CLpro, and PLpro. By examining the effects of glycosylation and other structural-activity relationships, the presence of sugar moiety in flavonoids significantly reduces its binding energy. It increases the solubility of flavonoids leading to reduced toxicity and higher bioavailability. Through protein-ligand contact profiling, it was concluded that naringin formed more hydrogen bonds with TMPRSS2 and 3CLpro. In contrast, hesperidin formed a more significant number of hydrogen bonds with PLpro. These observations were complimented by the 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy analysis, which showed a considerable stability of docked bioflavonoids in the active site of SARS-CoV-2 target proteins. Finally, the binding affinity and stability of the selected docked complexes were compared with the reference ligands (camostat for TMPRSS2, GC376 for 3CLpro, and GRL0617 for PLpro) that strongly inhibit their respective SARS-COV-2 targets. Overall analysis revealed that the selected flavonoids could be potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2. Naringin showed better affinity and stability for TMPRSS2 and 3CLpro, whereas hesperidin showed a better binding relationship and stability for PLpro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Aniline Compounds , Animals , Benzamides , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , Molecular Docking Simulation , Naphthalenes , SARS-CoV-2
14.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296360

ABSTRACT

Covishield comprises the larger proportion in the vaccination program in India. Hence, it is of utmost importance to understand neutralizing capability of vaccine against the B.1.617.1 variant which is considered to responsible for surge of the cases in India. The neutralizing-antibody (NAb) titer against B.1.167.1 and prototype B.1 variant (D614G) was determined of the vaccine sera (4 weeks after second dose) of COVID-19 naïve subjects (n=43) and COVID-19 recovered subjects (n=18). The results demonstrated that sera of COVID-19 recovered subjects (n=18) who received two doses of Covishield have higher NAb response compared to the COVID-19 naive with a significant difference (p<0.0001) in NAb titer against B.1 and B.1.617.1 In-spite of reduction in the neutralizing titer against B.1.617.1 variant;Covishield vaccine-induced antibodies are likely to be protective to limit the severity and mortality of the disease in the vaccinated individuals.

15.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555015

ABSTRACT

We have developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktail (ZRC-3308) comprising of ZRC3308-A7 and ZRC3308-B10 in the ratio 1:1 for COVID-19 treatment. The mAbs were designed to have reduced immune effector functions and increased circulation half-life. mAbs showed good binding affinities to non-competing epitopes on RBD of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and were found neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.617.2, and B.1.617.2 AY.1 in vitro. The mAb cocktail demonstrated effective prophylactic and therapeutic activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in Syrian hamsters. The antibody cocktail appears to be a promising candidate for prophylactic use and for therapy in early COVID-19 cases that have not progressed to severe disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibody Affinity , Binding Sites , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mesocricetus , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293424

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant and its derivatives has created grave public health problem worldwide. The high transmissibility associated with this variant has led to daily increase in the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Delta variant has slowly dominated the other variants of concern. Subsequently, Delta has further mutated to Delta AY.1 to Delta AY.126. Of these, Delta AY.1 has been reported from several countries including India and considered to be highly infectious and probable escape mutant. Considering the possible immune escape, we had already evaluated the efficacy of the BBV152 against Delta and Delta AY.1 variants. Here, we have evaluated the neutralizing potential of sera of COVID-19 naive vaccinees (CNV) immunized with two doses of vaccine, COVID-19 recovered cases immunized with two doses of vaccine (CRV) and breakthrough infections (BTI) post immunization with two doses of vaccine against Delta, Delta AY.1 and B.1.617.3 using 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50). Our study observed low NAb titer in CNV group against all the variants compared to CRV and BTI groups. Delta variant has shown highest reduction of 27.3-fold in NAb titer among CNV group compared to other groups and variants. Anti-S1-RBD IgG immune response among all the groups was also substantiated with NAb response. Compromised neutralization was observed against Delta and Delta AY.1 compared B.1 in all three groups. However, it provided protection against severity of the disease and fatality.

17.
Psych J ; 11(1): 85-96, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540162

ABSTRACT

The current cross-cultural study examined the construct of workaholism across European and Asian cultures during the pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 2,617 recipients, aged 18-80 years from three Asian countries (China, India, and Indonesia) with higher levels of collectivistic values, and three European countries (Bulgaria, Germany, and Hungary) supposing to have higher individualistic values. The participants completed the online version of the two-dimensional measure, dubbed the Dutch Workaholism Scale (DUWAS). The goal of the study was to demonstrate that during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is the cultural context that mediates and influences the way of change in workaholics' attitudes. The results led to the conclusion that the way in which the COVID-19 crisis affects workaholism and workaholics' behavior depends on cultural and sex differences, and stages of the human life cycle. The data analysis revealed that cultural differences and sex affect the configuration of workaholism (excessive/compulsive): in the Asian sample, unlike the European, there was a significant increase in the level of workaholism compulsive; European female participants reported higher levels of workaholism compulsive and workaholism excessive, but the sex difference was not found in Asian sample. Along with cultural context, and sex differences, age also influences the configuration of workaholism. In this case, the separate stages of the human life cycle contribute in different ways to changes in levels of workaholism excessive and workaholism compulsive.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470888

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a globally leading public health concern over the past two years. Despite the development and administration of multiple vaccines, the mutation of newer strains and challenges to universal immunity has shifted the focus to the lack of efficacious drugs for therapeutic intervention for the disease. As with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and other non-respiratory viruses, flavonoids present themselves as a promising therapeutic intervention given their success in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and more recently, in clinical studies. This review focuses on data from in vitro studies analyzing the effects of flavonoids on various key SARS-CoV-2 targets and presents an analysis of the structure-activity relationships for the same. From 27 primary papers, over 69 flavonoids were investigated for their activities against various SARS-CoV-2 targets, ranging from the promising 3C-like protease (3CLpro) to the less explored nucleocapsid (N) protein; the most promising were quercetin and myricetin derivatives, baicalein, baicalin, EGCG, and tannic acid. We further review promising in silico studies featuring activities of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 and list ongoing clinical studies involving the therapeutic potential of flavonoid-rich extracts in combination with synthetic drugs or other polyphenols and suggest prospects for the future of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Phosphoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Rhinovirus/drug effects , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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