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1.
Revista de Educacion y Derecho ; 27, 2023.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2312535

ABSTRACT

El modo físico y la educación superior en todo el mundo se recuperan durante la pandemia de covid-19. Todas las actividades educativas se convirtieron al modo en línea, donde especialmente los sectores de educación superior no estaban preparados y, simultáneamente, nuevas técnicas pedagógicas se incorporaron a la posibilidad de impartir clases en línea. El propósito de este estudio fue el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas pedagógicas y su implementación en los sectores de educación superior. La pandemia de covid-19 nos enseñó cómo usar la nueva tecnología y el avance en la educación superior y lo que puede ser mejor para esta sociedad. Para cumplir con este objetivo, realizamos una encuesta en la que preguntamos sobre el impacto de las nuevas herramientas pedagógicas en los sectores de educación superior y sus opiniones sobre diferentes aspectos de la educación en línea durante los períodos de pandemia. El cuestionario se preparó y distribuyó en los sectores de educación superior y analizó los puntos de vista de los encuestados y sus opiniones sobre las herramientas pedagógicas y los datos. Los siguientes datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 2.0 para el estudio. Los encuestados procedían de los siguientes datos en varias regiones del norte de la India. Se distribuyeron un total de 350 cuestionarios;de los cuales se recibieron 320. Se utilizó la Escala Likert de 5 puntos, donde 01 representaba "totalmente en desacuerdo" y una puntuación de 5 representaba "Totalmente de acuerdo".

2.
Structure ; 31(7): 801-811.e5, 2023 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318034

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecular features of neutralizing epitopes is important for developing vaccines/therapeutics against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. We describe three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated from COVID-19 recovered individuals during the first wave of the pandemic in India. These mAbs had publicly shared near germline gene usage and potently neutralized Alpha and Delta, poorly neutralized Beta, and failed to neutralize Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 variants. Structural analysis of these mAbs in complex with trimeric spike protein showed that all three mAbs bivalently bind spike with two mAbs targeting class 1 and one targeting a class 4 receptor binding domain epitope. The immunogenetic makeup, structure, and function of these mAbs revealed specific molecular interactions associated with the potent multi-variant binding/neutralization efficacy. This knowledge shows how mutational combinations can affect the binding or neutralization of an antibody, which in turn relates to the efficacy of immune responses to emerging SARS-CoV-2 escape variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Epitopes , Neutralization Tests
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(11): e1010983, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309396

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009885.].

4.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Digital surveillance has shown mixed results as a supplement to traditional surveillance. Google Trends™ (GT) (Google, Mountain View, CA, United States) has been used for digital surveillance of H1N1, Ebola and MERS. We used GT to correlate the information seeking on COVID-19 with number of tests and cases in India. METHODS: Data was obtained on daily tests and cases from WHO, ECDC and covid19india.org. We used a comprehensive search strategy to retrieve GT data on COVID-19 related information-seeking behavior in India between January 1 and May 31, 2020 in the form of relative search volume (RSV). We also used time-lag correlation analysis to assess the temporal relationships between RSV and daily new COVID-19 cases and tests. RESULTS: GT RSV showed high time-lag correlation with both daily reported tests and cases for the terms "COVID 19," "COVID," "social distancing," "soap," and "lockdown" at the national level. In 5 high-burden states, high correlation was observed for these 5 terms along with "Corona." Peaks in RSV, both at the national level and in high-burden states corresponded with media coverage or government declarations on the ongoing pandemic. CONCLUSION: The correlation observed between GT data and COVID-19 tests/cases in India may be either due to media-coverage-induced curiosity, or health-seeking curiosity.

5.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(1): 1, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282221

ABSTRACT

India was severely affected by several waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection that occurred during April-June 2021 (second wave) and December 2021-January 2022 (third wave) and thereafter, resulting in >10 million new infections and a significant number of deaths. Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data database was used to collect the sequence information of ~10,000 SARS-CoV-2 patients from India and our sequence analysis identified three variants B.1.1.7 (alpha, α), B1.617.2 (delta, Δ), B.1.1.529 (Omicron, Oo) and one Omicron sub-variant BA.2.75 as the primary drivers for SARS-CoV-2 waves in India. Structural visualization and analysis of important mutations of alpha, delta, Omicron and its sub-variants of SARS-CoV-2 Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) was performed and our analysis clearly shows that mutations occur throughout the RBD, including the RBD surface responsible for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2) receptor-binding. A comparison between alpha, delta and omicron variants/sub-variants reveals many omicron mutations in the hACE-2 binding site and several other mutations within 5 Å of this binding region. Further, computational analysis highlights the importance of electrostatic interactions in stabilizing RBD-hACE-2-binding, especially in the omicron variant. Our analysis explores the likely role of key alpha, delta and omicron mutations on binding with hACE-2. Taken together, our study provides novel structural insights into the implications of RBD mutations in alpha, delta and omicron and its sub-variants that were responsible for India's SARS-CoV-2 surge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 845: 157221, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267496

ABSTRACT

Among the various emerging contaminants, pharmaceuticals (PhACs) seem to have adverse effects on the quality of water. Even the smallest concentration of PhACs in ground water and drinking water is harmful to humans and aquatic species. Among all the deaths reported due to COVID-19, the mortality rate was higher for those patients who consumed antibiotics. Consequently, PhAC in water is a serious concern and their removal needs immediate attention. This study has focused on the PhACs' degradation by collaborating photocatalysis with membrane filtration. TiO2-based photocatalytic membrane is an innovative strategy which demonstrates mineralization of PhACs as a safer option. To highlight the same, an emphasis on the preparation and reinforcing properties of TiO2-based nanomembranes has been elaborated in this review. Further, mineralization of antibiotics or cytostatic compounds and their degradation mechanisms is also highlighted using TiO2 assisted membrane photocatalysis. Experimental reactor configurations have been discussed for commercial implementation of photoreactors for PhAC degradation anchored photocatalytic nanomembranes. Challenges and future perspectives are emphasized in order to design a nanomembrane based prototype in future for wastewater management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Catalysis , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Titanium , Wastewater , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
7.
Heliyon ; : e11744, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179018

ABSTRACT

Over the past two decades, many countries that have reported a steady decline in reported cases of malaria and a few countries like China have been declared malaria-free by the World Health Organization. In 2020, global total malaria cases 108 malaria-endemic countries as in 2000, while the number of deaths from malaria has declined since 2000. COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected overall public health efforts and thus it is feasible that there might be resurgence of malaria. COVID-19 and malaria share some similarities in the immune responses of the patient and these two diseases also share overlapping early symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, and muscle pain/fatigue. In the absence of early diagnostics there can be a misdiagnosis of the infection(s) that can pose additional challenges due to delayed treatment. In both SARS-CoV-2 and Plasmodium infections there is a rapid release of cytokines/chemokines that play a key role in disease pathophysiology. In this review, we have discussed the cytokine/chemokine storm observed during COVID-19 and malaria. We observe that: (1) Severity in malaria and COVID-19 is likely a consequence primarily of an uncontrolled 'cytokine storm'; (2) five pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, type I IFN and IFN-γ) are significantly increased in severe/critically ill patients in both diseases; (3) Plasmodium and SARS-CoV-2 share some similar clinical manifestations and thus may result in fatal consequences if misdiagnosed during onset.

8.
Neurol India ; 70(6): 2432-2436, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201576

ABSTRACT

Context: Effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown on road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Chhattisgarh, India. Background: Most neurosurgical emergencies are from brain and spine trauma. RTA is the leading cause of such injuries. While the nationwide lockdown was an extreme measure to control the COVID pandemic, it influenced the overall road traffic dynamics and neurotrauma. Objective: This study aims to assess the impact of the lockdown on neurotrauma. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included all patients with brain and spine injuries who were admitted between January 17th and May 31st, 2020. The study population was divided into prelockdown (PL) and lockdown (L) groups. Results: Of the 668 patients, 436 were placed in the PL and 232 in the L group. The mean ages were 36.34 (SD = 17.96) and 35.98 (SD = 16.93), respectively. Male to female ratios were 82.3:17.7 in the PL group and 79.7:20.3 for the L group. RTA-related injuries were significantly lower during the lockdown period (n = 335 PL vs. 162 L [P = 0.048]). During the lockdown, there were more mild injuries (25.91% PL vs. 36.63% L) and less severe injuries (33.25% PL vs. 18.96% L [P = 0.0002]). Mortality was significantly less (P = 0.029) during the lockdown (n = 48 L vs. 124 PL). The proportion of RTA-related neurotrauma cases increased (33.33% L1, 57.14% L2, 73.13% L3, and 80.39% L4) with each phase of lockdown (L1-L4). Conclusions: During the lockdown period, the number of trauma cases had decreased, with a significant decrease in RTA-related admissions, along with their severity and mortality. The number of trauma cases and their severity increased gradually with each phase of lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spinal Injuries , Humans , Male , Female , Pandemics , Accidents, Traffic , Retrospective Studies , Communicable Disease Control/methods
9.
Rajagiri Journal of Social Development ; 14(1):32-37, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2156855

ABSTRACT

As the most significant contributor to the worlds migrant population, India witnessed a massive reverse migration during the COVID-19 pandemic. The unprecedented return of international and internal migrants to their domicile challenged the Indian economy. Integration of returnees was a colossal task for the government. Against this backdrop, this study analysed the extent of reverse migration, the socioeconomic challenges faced by migrants during the repatriation, the government response to reverse migration and the economic integration of returnees. By reviewing relevant literature, this study exposed the inability of the Indian economic sectors to absorb the reverse migrants and the limited power of migration to bring about a structural transformation in the Indian economy.

10.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(12): e1010994, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162605

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 necessitates unremitting efforts to discover novel therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we report an extremely potent mAb named P4A2 that can neutralize all the circulating variants of concern (VOCs) with high efficiency, including the highly transmissible Omicron. The crystal structure of the P4A2 Fab:RBD complex revealed that the residues of the RBD that interact with P4A2 are a part of the ACE2-receptor-binding motif and are not mutated in any of the VOCs. The pan coronavirus pseudotyped neutralization assay confirmed that the P4A2 mAb is specific for SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs. Passive administration of P4A2 to K18-hACE2 transgenic mice conferred protection, both prophylactically and therapeutically, against challenge with VOCs. Overall, our data shows that, the P4A2 mAb has immense therapeutic potential to neutralize the current circulating VOCs. Due to the overlap between the P4A2 epitope and ACE2 binding site on spike-RBD, P4A2 may also be highly effective against a number of future variants.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Mice, Transgenic , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
11.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(9): 5479-5484, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144214

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The ongoing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a huge mental health impact on people, especially the infected population. They are at greater risk of developing psychological symptoms due to the fear of death and developing severe disability, lack of proper treatment and social restrictions, stigma, and discrimination. The early psychological symptoms, if ignored, may have long-term consequences on the health and well-being of COVID patients. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the mental health services have been impacted negatively, and the need for technology-based psychological interventions has been identified as an alternative treatment method. Hence, the Telephone-Based Brief Psycho-Social interventions (TBPSI) will be developed for COVID-19 patients. Materials and Method: A five-session tele psychosocial intervention including rapport establishment and assessment, supportive counselling, activity scheduling, relaxation technique, and post-assessment will be developed based on the extensive review of the literature. Face and content validation of the intervention package will be done by the mental health experts. Further, the feasibility of the intervention program will be tested on COVID-19 patients in the Dharwad district, and later, the same will be implemented across the COVID hospitals of Karnataka state. Discussion and Conclusion: The study results may bring new insights into the culturally sensitive technology-oriented interventions during this pandemic in the country. The paradigm may be shifted from routine treatment to cost-effective and time-based intervention in the public health system in India. The telephonic brief psychosocial interventions can be utilised as a mainstream treatment during non-emergency situations as well.

12.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 26(11): 1184-1191, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100191

ABSTRACT

Background: Emergency authorization and approval were given for the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccines. The efficacy reported after phase III trials were 70.4% and 78% for Covishield and Covaxin, respectively.In this study, we aim to analyze the risk factors, which were associated with mortality in critically ill COVID-19-vaccinated patients admitted into intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and methods: This study was conducted from April 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021 across five centers in India. Patients who had received either one or two doses of any of the COVID vaccines and developed COVID-19 were included. The ICU mortality was a primary outcome. Results: A total of 174 patients with COVID-19 illness were included in the study. The mean age was 57 years standard deviation (SD 15). Acute physiology, age and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score were 14 (8-24.5) and 6 (4-8), respectively. Multiple variable logistic regression showed patients who have received a single dose [odds ratio (OR): 2.89, confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 7.08], neutrophil:lymphocyte (NL) ratio (OR: 1.07, CI: 1.02,1.11), and SOFA score (OR: 1.18, CI: 1.03,1.36) were associated with higher mortality. Conclusion: The mortality in the vaccinated patients admitted to the ICU was 43.68% due to COVID illness. The mortality was lower in patients who had received two doses. How to cite this article: Havaldar AA, Prakash J, Kumar S, Sheshala K, Chennabasappa A, Thomas RR et al. Demographics and Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19-vaccinated Patients Admitted to ICU: A Multicenter Cohort Study from India (PostCoVac Study-COVID Group). Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(11):1184-1191.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 948506, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089855

ABSTRACT

Background: A pressing challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond is to provide accessible and scalable mental health support to isolated older adults in the community. The Telehealth Intervention Program for Older Adults (TIP-OA) is a large-scale, volunteer-based, friendly telephone support program designed to address this unmet need. Methods: A prospective cohort study of 112 TIP-OA participants aged ≥60 years old was conducted in Quebec, Canada (October 2020-June 2021). The intervention consisted of weekly friendly phone calls from trained volunteers. The primary outcome measures included changes in scores of stress, depression, anxiety, and fear surrounding COVID-19, assessed at baseline, 4 and 8-weeks. Additional subgroup analyses were performed with participants with higher baseline scores. Results: The subgroup of participants with higher baseline depression scores (PHQ9 ≥10) had significant improvements in depression scores over the 8-week period measured [mean change score = -2.27 (±4.76), 95%CI (-3.719, -0.827), p = 0.003]. Similarly, participants with higher baseline anxiety scores (GAD7 ≥10) had an improvement over the same period, which, approached significance (p = 0.06). Moreover, despite peaks in the pandemic and related stressors, our study found no significant (p ≥ 0.09) increase in stress, depression, anxiety or fear of COVID-19 scores. Discussion: This scalable, volunteer-based, friendly telephone intervention program was associated with decreased scores of depression and anxiety in older adults who reported higher scores at baseline (PHQ 9 ≥10 and GAD7 ≥10).

14.
Sci Adv ; 8(40): eadd2032, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053092

ABSTRACT

In this study, by characterizing several human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from single B cells of the COVID-19-recovered individuals in India who experienced ancestral Wuhan strain (WA.1) of SARS-CoV-2 during early stages of the pandemic, we found a receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific mAb 002-S21F2 that has rare gene usage and potently neutralized live viral isolates of SARS-CoV-2 variants including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron sublineages (BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5) with IC50 ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 µg/ml. Structural studies of 002-S21F2 in complex with spike trimers of Omicron and WA.1 showed that it targets a conformationally conserved epitope on the outer face of RBD (class 3 surface) outside the ACE2-binding motif, thereby providing a mechanistic insights for its broad neutralization activity. The discovery of 002-S21F2 and the broadly neutralizing epitope it targets have timely implications for developing a broad range of therapeutic and vaccine interventions against SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron sublineages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 38(Suppl 1): S148-S149, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024764
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e368-e379, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In locations where few people have received coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, health systems remain vulnerable to surges in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Tools to identify patients suitable for community-based management are urgently needed. METHODS: We prospectively recruited adults presenting to 2 hospitals in India with moderate symptoms of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 to develop and validate a clinical prediction model to rule out progression to supplemental oxygen requirement. The primary outcome was defined as any of the following: SpO2 < 94%; respiratory rate > 30 BPM; SpO2/FiO2 < 400; or death. We specified a priori that each model would contain three clinical parameters (age, sex, and SpO2) and 1 of 7 shortlisted biochemical biomarkers measurable using commercially available rapid tests (C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, interleukin 6 [IL-6], neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio [NLR], procalcitonin [PCT], soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 [sTREM-1], or soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]), to ensure the models would be suitable for resource-limited settings. We evaluated discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility of the models in a held-out temporal external validation cohort. RESULTS: In total, 426 participants were recruited, of whom 89 (21.0%) met the primary outcome; 257 participants comprised the development cohort, and 166 comprised the validation cohort. The 3 models containing NLR, suPAR, or IL-6 demonstrated promising discrimination (c-statistics: 0.72-0.74) and calibration (calibration slopes: 1.01-1.05) in the validation cohort and provided greater utility than a model containing the clinical parameters alone. CONCLUSIONS: We present 3 clinical prediction models that could help clinicians identify patients with moderate COVID-19 suitable for community-based management. The models are readily implementable and of particular relevance for locations with limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Models, Statistical , Patient Discharge , Patient Safety , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 47(5): 1565-1602, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a less common but devastating complication of COVID-19 disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the most common CT imaging features of AMI in COVID-19 and also provide an updated review of the literature on symptoms, treatment, histopathological and operative findings, and follow-up of these patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search of four databases: Pubmed, EMBASE, WHO database, and Google Scholar, was performed to identify all the articles which described abdominal CT imaging findings of AMI in COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies comprising 75 patients were included in the final review. Small bowel ischemia (46.67%) was the most prevalent abdominal CT finding, followed by ischemic colitis (37.3%). Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI; 67.9%) indicating microvascular involvement was the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Bowel wall thickening/edema (50.9%) was more common than bowel hypoperfusion (20.7%). While ileum and colon both were equally involved bowel segments (32.07% each), SMA (24.9%), SMV (14.3%), and the spleen (12.5%) were the most commonly involved artery, vein, and solid organ, respectively. 50% of the patients receiving conservative/medical management died, highlighting high mortality without surgery. Findings on laparotomy and histopathology corroborated strikingly with CT imaging findings. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients with AMI, small bowel ischemia is the most prevalent imaging diagnosis and NOMI is the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Contrast-enhanced CT is a powerful decision-making tool for prompt diagnosis of AMI in COVID-19, thereby potentially improving time to treat as well as clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenteric Ischemia , Abdomen , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemia/complications , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
20.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S86-S89, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792219

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the trend of prevalence of symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, some studies have been conducted outside India, but for Indian patients, there is no such study available. Therefore, this study was designed to analyze the trends of symptoms in Indian patients during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients (73 males, 24 females, and 3 transgenders) admitted under institutional isolation at a tertiary care center in India using a self-designed survey-based questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of results done based on age and sex. RESULTS: COVID incidence recorded is high in male (73%) as compared to female (24%), yet female patients have a higher prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. CONCLUSION: Male patients are more as far as COVID incidence is concerned, while female patients show high prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. Patients presenting with COVID-positive report suffer a significant burden of symptoms, and timely recognition of symptoms and their management can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19.

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