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1.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 47(5): 1565-1602, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a less common but devastating complication of COVID-19 disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the most common CT imaging features of AMI in COVID-19 and also provide an updated review of the literature on symptoms, treatment, histopathological and operative findings, and follow-up of these patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search of four databases: Pubmed, EMBASE, WHO database, and Google Scholar, was performed to identify all the articles which described abdominal CT imaging findings of AMI in COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies comprising 75 patients were included in the final review. Small bowel ischemia (46.67%) was the most prevalent abdominal CT finding, followed by ischemic colitis (37.3%). Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI; 67.9%) indicating microvascular involvement was the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Bowel wall thickening/edema (50.9%) was more common than bowel hypoperfusion (20.7%). While ileum and colon both were equally involved bowel segments (32.07% each), SMA (24.9%), SMV (14.3%), and the spleen (12.5%) were the most commonly involved artery, vein, and solid organ, respectively. 50% of the patients receiving conservative/medical management died, highlighting high mortality without surgery. Findings on laparotomy and histopathology corroborated strikingly with CT imaging findings. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients with AMI, small bowel ischemia is the most prevalent imaging diagnosis and NOMI is the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Contrast-enhanced CT is a powerful decision-making tool for prompt diagnosis of AMI in COVID-19, thereby potentially improving time to treat as well as clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenteric Ischemia , Abdomen , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemia/complications , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
2.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S86-S89, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792219

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the trend of prevalence of symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, some studies have been conducted outside India, but for Indian patients, there is no such study available. Therefore, this study was designed to analyze the trends of symptoms in Indian patients during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients (73 males, 24 females, and 3 transgenders) admitted under institutional isolation at a tertiary care center in India using a self-designed survey-based questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of results done based on age and sex. RESULTS: COVID incidence recorded is high in male (73%) as compared to female (24%), yet female patients have a higher prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. CONCLUSION: Male patients are more as far as COVID incidence is concerned, while female patients show high prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. Patients presenting with COVID-positive report suffer a significant burden of symptoms, and timely recognition of symptoms and their management can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19.

3.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S90-S94, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Health-care professionals (HCPs) are the frontline warriors in the time of this uncertain and unpredictable crisis of COVID. They face many challenges while caring for these patients, yet they are expected to cope with it and deliver their duties for the betterment of humankind. Our primary aim was to identify and assess the concerns of HCPs working in COVID area in a tertiary institutional isolation center. METHODOLOGY: An online Google-based questionnaire survey was distributed through various social media platforms after approval of the institutional review board to a total of 100 HCPs who were treating and managing COVID-positive patients. RESULTS: Of 100 responses, 72% were concerned about the risk of infection to self and family, while 46% reported disruption of their daily activities at a personal level. At the institutional level, 17% were concerned about inadequate personal protective equipment-related challenges. 20% had inadequate knowledge and training about COVID. 16% of participants were anxious all the time, 11% feared all the time, and 12% had stress all the time while treating COVID patients. Connectedness and communication with family and friends, word of appreciation, music, and TV were few strategies to cope up with these challenges. CONCLUSION: There is a need to identify and address the concerns and challenges faced by HCPs and to develop a comprehensive strategy and guideline to provide a holistic care and to ensure their security in the workplace.

4.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S99-S105, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792216

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization has declared severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a pandemic. The interventions employed by various health authorities in combating the infection may help in eliminating the threat; however, they have long-term cognitive and mental health effects on the population. AIMS: The primary objective was to assess the prevalent concerns and coping strategies and perspectives in persons suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection under institutional quarantine in India during the period from April 2020 to May 2020. SETTING AND DESIGN: Its a cross-sectional observational study conducted in the National Cancer Institute, Jhajjar, India. METHODOLOGY: After ethical clearance, convenience sampling was done. Relevant demographic details were obtained. Health-care professionally administered questionnaire to assess psychological concerns and coping mechanisms. All statistics are deemed to be descriptive only. RESULTS: The most common physical concern was fever seen in 37% of respondents, followed by cough in 31% and sore throat in 29%. In terms of emotional concerns, 55.3% of respondents were worried and 43% were anxious and 33% were sad. About 80.6% of participants selected support from family and friends helped them cope during the institutional quarantine. 57% maintained a daily routine, 70% selected praying, and 45% used music as a coping strategy. Only 2% felt that they were unable to cope. CONCLUSION: It highlights that the psychological impact of illness on affected individuals should not be overlooked as it may have the potential to cause major psychiatric morbidity. It also provides a crucial assessment of their coping mechanisms.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In locations where few people have received COVID-19 vaccines, health systems remain vulnerable to surges in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Tools to identify patients suitable for community-based management are urgently needed. METHODS: We prospectively recruited adults presenting to two hospitals in India with moderate symptoms of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in order to develop and validate a clinical prediction model to rule-out progression to supplemental oxygen requirement. The primary outcome was defined as any of the following: SpO2 < 94%; respiratory rate > 30 bpm; SpO2/FiO2 < 400; or death. We specified a priori that each model would contain three clinical parameters (age, sex and SpO2) and one of seven shortlisted biochemical biomarkers measurable using commercially-available rapid tests (CRP, D-dimer, IL-6, NLR, PCT, sTREM-1 or suPAR), to ensure the models would be suitable for resource-limited settings. We evaluated discrimination, calibration and clinical utility of the models in a held-out temporal external validation cohort. RESULTS: 426 participants were recruited, of whom 89 (21.0%) met the primary outcome. 257 participants comprised the development cohort and 166 comprised the validation cohort. The three models containing NLR, suPAR or IL-6 demonstrated promising discrimination (c-statistics: 0.72 to 0.74) and calibration (calibration slopes: 1.01 to 1.05) in the validation cohort, and provided greater utility than a model containing the clinical parameters alone. CONCLUSIONS: We present three clinical prediction models that could help clinicians identify patients with moderate COVID-19 suitable for community-based management. The models are readily implementable and of particular relevance for locations with limited resources.

6.
Schwartz, Ken, Madan, Robert, Kates, Nick, Kates, Nick, Rajji, Tarek, Rajji, Tarek, Kates, Nick, Aelick, Katelynn, Bretzlaff, Monica, Colborne, Debbie Hewitt, Judd, Teresa, McConnell, Jillian, Seguin, Jacquie, Turcotte, Kylie, Liu, Linda, Colborne, Debbie Hewitt, Fortin, Natasha, McConnell, Jillian, Lesiuk, Nancy, Glover, Terri, Koop, Jennifer, Judd, Teresa, Madan, Robert, Schwartz, Kenneth, Colman, Sarah, Tau, Michael, Stanley, Claire, Colman, Sarah, Stanley, Claire, Tau, Michael, Colman, Sarah, Seitz, Dallas, Checkland, Claire, Benjamin, Sophiya, Bruneau, Marie-Andree, Cappella, Antonia, Cassidy, Beverley, Conn, David, Grief, Cindy, Keng, Alvin, Iaboni, Andrea, Grigorovich, Alisa, Kontoa, Pia, Astell, Arlene, McMurray, Josephine, Chu, Charlene, Rodrigues, Kevin, Barned, Claudia, Dementia Isolation Toolkit, Team, Thoo, Vanessa, Giddens-Zuker, Leslie, Benjamin, Sophiya, Ho, Joanne, Carthew, Julie, Cox, Lindsay, Rofaiel, Rymon, Burhan, Amer, Guseva, Elena, Iaboni, Andrea, Herrmann, Nathan, Seitz, Dallas, Burhan, Amer M.; Lanctot, Krista, Lim, Andrew, Wilchesky, Machelle, Iaboni, Andrea, Spasojevic, Sofija, Newman, Kristine, Schindel-Martin, Lori, Ye, Bing, Soltan, Aurelia, Blair, Mervin, McGregor, Carolyn, Burhan, Amer M.; Skosireva, Anna, Gobessi, Linda, Douglass, Alan, Kirkham, Julia, Seitz, Dallas, Goodarzi, Zahra, Denis, Emily St, Malvern, Riley, Sivanthanan, Saskia, Christie, Nathan, Canfield, Amanda, Rowa, Karen, Cassidy, Beverley, Eskes, Gail, Wilson, Ryan, Cassidy, Beverley, Wilton, Steven, Zamora, Nick, Alders, Ashley, Cassidy, Beverley, Wilton, Steven, Checkland, Claire, Zamora, Nick, Alders, Ashley, Kirkham, Julia, Freeland, Alison, Wilkes, Chris, Urness, Doug, Conn, David, Rabheru, Kiran, Checkland, Claire, Cassidy, Keri-Leigh, Rabheru, Kiran, Conn, David, Checkland, Claire, Seitz, Dallas, Abdool, Petal, Mulsant, Benoit H.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Kinjal, Patel, Thitiporn, Supasitthumrong, Seitz, Dallas, Rej, Soham, Clemens, Sara, Heer, Carrie, Devitt, Audrey, Yu, Song Yang, Rostas, Aviva, Cumberbatch, Simonne, Tafler, Melissa, Iroanyah, Ngozi Faith, Sivananthan, Saskia, Apostolides, Haridos, Jaggers, Kaitlyn, Badali, Jocelyn, Guimond, Josée, Sivananthan, Saskia, Martin-Zement, Isabelle, Nadeau-Lessard, Marie-Isabelle, Davies, Kelly, Schryburt-Brown, Kim, Benjamin, Sophiya, Morrison, Adam, Kay, Kelly, Young, Kevin, Kim, Doyoung, Kiss, Alex, Bronskill, Susan E.; Lanctot, Krista L.; Herrmann, Nathan, Gallagher, Damien, Kumar, Sanjeev, Joseph, Shaylyn, Patterson, Rachel, Wang, Wei, Blumberger, Daniel, Rajji, Tarek, Nunes, Paula Villela, Haidar, Atmis Medeiros, Mancine, Livia, Neves, Beatriz Astolfi, Leite, Renata Elaine Paraizo, Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto, Lafer, Beny, Salvini, Rogerio, Suemoto, Claudia Kimie, King, Annalee, Daniel, Geoff, Hooper, Nancy, Easson-Bruno, Sandra, Lennard, Tamara Nowak, Greco, Martina, Greco, Martina, Veri, Sabrina, Bol, Alexa, Mullaly, Laura, Ostrom, Caroline, Huynh, Dan, Kong, Alice, Thorpe, Lilian, Payne, Sarah, Saperson, Karen, Brown, Michael, Levinson, Anthony, Levinson, Anthony, Payne, Sarah, Hategan, Ana, Esliger, Mandy, Singh, Kathleen, Hickey, Catherine, Chisholm, Terry, Sokoloff, Lisa, Checkland, Claire, Guraya, Jasmeen, Conn, David, Rabheru, Kiran, Seitz, Dallas, Feldman, Sid, Ewa, Vivian, Hunter, Andrea, Conn, David, Rabheru, Kiran, Checkland, Claire, Lee-Cheong, Stephen, Amanullah, Shabbir, Jarvie, Ann, Van Berkum, Amy, Graf, Shauna, Mansour, Reham, Amanallah, Shabbir, Golas, Angela C.; Elgallab, Bishoy M.; Abdool, Petal S.; Bowie, Christopher R.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Cuperfain, Ari, Furqan, Zainab, Sinyor, Mark, Shulman, Kenneth, Zaheer, Juveria, Wathra, Rafae, Mulsant, Benoit, Reynolds, Charles, Lenze, Eric, Karp, Jordan, Daskalakis, Zafiris, Blumberger, Daniel, Gough, Amy, Cassidy, Keri-Leigh, Vallis, Michael, Robinson-Dexter, Jean, Jasrai, Ashitija, Amanullah, Shabbir, Bolshin, Lisa, Khatri, Nasreen, Ryan, Jennifer.
Canadian geriatrics journal : CGJ ; 25(1):88-109, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749133
7.
The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry ; 30(4, Supplement):S53, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1739848

ABSTRACT

Introduction Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) is a prodromal stage to Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). Improving prefrontal cortical function in individuals with MCI could prevent progression from aMCI to AD. A key mechanism that has been linked to memory formation and thus may underlie this progression is cortical plasticity. Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS) is an intervention that uses transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to enhance cortical plasticity. When delivered to the prefrontal cortex in individuals with AD, it has shown promise to improve prefrontal cortical plasticity and working memory. PAS-MCI is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that aims to assess: (1) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plasticity in individuals with aMCI and compare it to cognitively unimpaired control participants, (2) the efficacy of PAS delivered for 10 days bilaterally to the DLPFC of individuals with aMCI in enhancing their DLPFC plasticity, working memory, and executive function, and (3) whether changes in DLPFC plasticity mediate changes in working memory and executive function. Methods 100 aMCI and 50 cognitively unimpaired (CU) control participants will be assessed clinically and cognitively, and then undergo a baseline PAS combined with electroencephalography (PAS-EEG) to characterize left DLPFC plasticity. The aMCI participants are randomized (1:1) to receive 10 daily sessions of either active or sham PAS delivered to the left and right DLPFC. On Day 0, 7, and 28 following the 10-day PAS course, participants undergo repeat cognitive testing and PAS-EEG to assess changes in working memory, executive function, and left DLPFC plasticity. Results Recruitment started on October 12, 2020 and as of October 16, 2021, we have already consented 9 aMCI and 7 CU participants. Of the 16 participants, 4 MCI and 4 CU participants were enrolled and 3 MCI and 4 CU completed the study (1 MCI participant is still active). Among the 5 participants who did not enroll, 3 were excluded because of: a contraindication for TMS (n = 1), having dementia and not MCI (n = 1), and having non-amnestic MCI (n = 1);1 withdrew before enrolment due to fatigue;and 1 is still undergoing eligibility assessments. Among the 3 CU participants who did not enroll, 2 were excluded because of low cognitive scores and 1 is still undergoing eligibility assessments. Conclusions Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, we were able to initiate recruitment over the past year. If successful, this RCT will establish the short-term efficacy of PAS, a new TMS approach to enhance prefrontal cortical function in individuals with aMCI. A follow-up longer-term trial will be then needed to assess whether PAS could prevent cognitive decline and progression to AD. This research was funded by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Project Grant # 201809 (PI: Rajji)

8.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 27, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713166

ABSTRACT

Soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) immunogens are a prime constituent of candidate vaccines designed to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies. Several lines of evidence suggest that enhancing Env immunogen thermostability can improve neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Here, we generated BG505 SOSIP.v9 trimers, which displayed virtually no reactivity with non-neutralizing antibodies and showed increased global and epitope thermostability, compared to previous BG505 SOSIP versions. Chemical crosslinking of BG505 SOSIP.v9 further increased the melting temperature to 91.3 °C, which is almost 25 °C higher than that of the prototype SOSIP.664 trimer. Next, we compared the immunogenicity of a palette of BG505-based SOSIP trimers with a gradient of thermostabilities in rabbits. We also included SOSIP.v9 proteins in which a strain-specific immunodominant epitope was masked by glycans to redirect the NAb response to other subdominant epitopes. We found that increased trimer thermostability correlated with increased potency and consistency of the autologous NAb response. Furthermore, glycan masking steered the NAb response to subdominant epitopes without decreasing the potency of the autologous NAb response. In summary, SOSIP.v9 trimers and their glycan masked versions represent an improved platform for HIV-1 Env based vaccination strategies.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314681

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a serious pandemic situation which the world is going through since the beginning of the year 2020. Given this, the infected countries are constantly increasing their lockdown period and therefore, experiencing an adverse impact on their socio-economic structure. With these motivations, this paper is an attempt to estimate the time that a country would take more to recover from COVID-19 situation. In this work, for curve fitting, the polynomial model has been used deliberately for easier interpretation of the technique. The methodology captures the characteristic trends of the already flattened curves from recovered countries and utilizes them to estimate the curve flattening time for the infected countries. The approach requires only the minimum set of data, i.e., the number of infected persons per day for a given country.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296589

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background In locations where few people have received COVID-19 vaccines, health systems remain vulnerable to surges in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Tools to identify patients suitable for community-based management are urgently needed. Methods We prospectively recruited adults presenting to two hospitals in India with moderate symptoms of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in order to develop and validate a clinical prediction model to rule-out progression to supplemental oxygen requirement. The primary outcome was defined as any of the following: SpO 2 < 94%;respiratory rate > 30 bpm;SpO 2 /FiO 2 < 400;or death. We specified a priori that each model would contain three clinical parameters (age, sex and SpO 2 ) and one of seven shortlisted biochemical biomarkers measurable using near-patient tests (CRP, D-dimer, IL-6, NLR, PCT, sTREM-1 or suPAR), to ensure the models would be suitable for resource-limited settings. We evaluated discrimination, calibration and clinical utility of the models in a temporal external validation cohort. Findings 426 participants were recruited, of whom 89 (21·0%) met the primary outcome. 257 participants comprised the development cohort and 166 comprised the validation cohort. The three models containing NLR, suPAR or IL-6 demonstrated promising discrimination (c-statistics: 0·72 to 0·74) and calibration (calibration slopes: 1·01 to 1·05) in the validation cohort, and provided greater utility than a model containing the clinical parameters alone. Interpretation We present three clinical prediction models that could help clinicians identify patients with moderate COVID-19 suitable for community-based management. The models are readily implementable and of particular relevance for locations with limited resources. Funding Médecins Sans Frontières, India. RESEARCH IN CONTEXT Evidence before this study A living systematic review by Wynants et al. identified 137 COVID-19 prediction models, 47 of which were derived to predict whether patients with COVID-19 will have an adverse outcome. Most lacked external validation, relied on retrospective data, did not focus on patients with moderate disease, were at high risk of bias, and were not practical for use in resource-limited settings. To identify promising biochemical biomarkers which may have been evaluated independently of a prediction model and therefore not captured by this review, we searched PubMed on 1 June 2020 using synonyms of “SARS-CoV-2” AND [“biomarker” OR “prognosis”]. We identified 1,214 studies evaluating biochemical biomarkers of potential value in the prognostication of COVID-19 illness. In consultation with FIND (Geneva, Switzerland) we shortlisted seven candidates for evaluation in this study, all of which are measurable using near-patient tests which are either currently available or in late-stage development. Added value of this study We followed the TRIPOD guidelines to develop and validate three promising clinical prediction models to help clinicians identify which patients presenting with moderate COVID-19 can be safely managed in the community. Each model contains three easily ascertained clinical parameters (age, sex, and SpO 2 ) and one biochemical biomarker (NLR, suPAR or IL-6), and would be practical for implementation in high-patient-throughput low resource settings. The models showed promising discrimination and calibration in the validation cohort. The inclusion of a biomarker test improved prognostication compared to a model containing the clinical parameters alone, and extended the range of contexts in which such a tool might provide utility to include situations when bed pressures are less critical, for example at earlier points in a COVID-19 surge. Implications of all the available evidence Prognostic models should be developed for clearly-defined clinical use-cases. We report the development and temporal validation of three clinical prediction models to rule-out progression to supplemental oxygen req irement amongst patients presenting with moderate COVID-19. The models are readily implementable and should prove useful in triage and resource allocation. We provide our full models to enable independent validation.

12.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295218

ABSTRACT

India started its vaccination program at the beginning of 2021, the main beneficiaries being health workers and frontline workers including police, paramilitary forces, sanitation workers, and disaster management volunteers in the first phase. By the time, the second wave of Covid-19 impacted India, approximately 14 million healthcare and frontline workers, including dentists had been vaccinated. Aim To study the effectiveness of vaccination on a subset of high-risk healthcare workers i.e. dentists in preventing Covid-19 during the second wave of the pandemic. Study design A questionnaire based pan-India online survey was carried out to record the Covid-related experiences of dentists prior to and after vaccination. Result The sample size for this survey was 4493 respondents from across India. During the second wave, 9.18% (n=364) respondents became positive in spite of the vaccine, while 14.69%(n=78) became positive in the unvaccinated group. A chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the relation between vaccination and the Covid positivity rate in all age groups. The relation between these variables was highly significant, [ X2 (1, N = 4493) = 15 . 9809, p= . 000064 ]. Conclusion Our pan-India online survey inferred that vaccination has a definitive role to play in reducing the positivity rate amongst dentists during the second wave of the pandemic across all age groups.

13.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(5): 394-402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547558

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is spreading like wildfire with no specific recommended treatment in sight. While some risk factors such as the presence of comorbidities, old age, and ethnicity have been recognized, not a lot is known about who the virus will strike first or impact more. In this hopeless scenario, exploration of time-tested facts about viral infections, in general, seems to be a sound basis to prop further research upon. The fact that immunity and its various determinants (e.g., micronutrients, sleep, and hygiene) have a crucial role to play in the defense against invading organisms, may be a good starting point for commencing research into these as yet undisclosed territories. Herein, the excellent immunomodulatory, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory roles of Vitamin D necessitate thorough investigation, particularly in COVID-19 perspective. This article reviews mechanisms and evidence suggesting the role Vitamin D plays in people infected by the newly identified COVID-19 virus. For this review, we searched the databases of Medline, PubMed, and Embase. We studied several meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials evaluating the role of Vitamin D in influenza and other contagious viral infections. We also reviewed the circumstantial and anecdotal evidence connecting Vitamin D with COVID-19 emerging recently. Consequently, it seems logical to conclude that the immune-enhancing, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and lung-protective role of Vitamin D can be potentially lifesaving. Hence, Vitamin D deserves exhaustive exploration through rigorously designed and controlled scientific trials. Using Vitamin D as prophylaxis and/or chemotherapeutic treatment of COVID-19 infection is an approach worth considering. In this regard, mass assessment and subsequent supplementation can be tried, especially considering the mechanistic evidence in respiratory infections, low potential for toxicity, and widespread prevalence of the deficiency of Vitamin D affecting many people worldwide.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunity/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/adverse effects
14.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(41): 4197-4211, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547089

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by a newly identified coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since its inception in late December 2019, COVID-19 has led to a tremendous loss of human life worldwide. To overcome the unprecedented challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic to the public and economic health, strengthening the healthcare system is of utmost need. In this regard, research communities are putting efforts into developing an advanced healthcare system that could reduce the severe impacts of this pandemic. Nanotechnology is an advanced technology that has contributed significantly to produce powerful arsenals for the frontline warriors in this battle against COVID-19. It has offered opportunities for the development of fast and accurate point-of-care testing, efficient therapeutics and vaccines, potent sanitizers, facemasks, and personal protective equipment against SARS-CoV-2. However, associated toxicity, lengthy procedures of clinical trials, and uncertain health risks are some points that are still debatable. The present paper provides an overview of COVID-19 specific therapeutics and vaccines with an emphasis on nano-based strategies, which are significantly contributing towards the success of mitigation measures and strategies against COVID-19. Furthermore, the associated challenges, current limitations, and opportunities in this field are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Nanotechnology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 33(11): 1135-1144, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Appropriate screening is integral to the early diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's Dementia (AD). The Paired Associates Learning (PAL) task is a digital cognitive task that is free of cultural, language, and educational biases. This study examined the association between the PAL task performance and global cognition and the usefulness of the PAL task as a screening tool for AD. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Academic hospital. METHODS: Twenty-five participants with AD and 22 healthy comparators (HC) were included. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery PAL task and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were used to assess cognition. We assessed the relationship between the PAL task and MoCA performance using Pearson correlation and linear regression. We also examined the PAL task's ability to distinguish between AD and HC participants using Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. MEASUREMENTS: MoCA Total Score had a strong positive correlation with PAL Stages Completed score (r = 0.8, p < 0.001), and a strong negative correlation with PAL Total Errors (adjusted) score (r = -0.9, p < 0.001). Further, PAL Total Errors (adjusted) score predicted the MoCA Total Score (F (4, 46) = 37.2, p < 0.001). On ROC analysis, PAL Total Errors (adjusted) score cut-off of 54 errors had 92% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect AD. CONCLUSIONS: Performance on the PAL task is highly associated with global cognition. Further, the PAL task can differentiate patients with AD from HCs with high sensitivity and specificity. Thus, the PAL task may hold potential usage as an easy-to-administer screening tool for AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neuropsychological Tests , ROC Curve
16.
COVID-19 in the Environment ; : 309-324, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1520580

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of coronavirus has affected all the aspects of human lives. In order to control the spread it was recommended to avoid social contact with each other and so most of the affected countries imposed lockdown. During lockdown, major anthropogenic activities were put on hold that resulted in decrease in pollution level. The improvement in air quality, water quality and noise levels were due to restriction on various pollution sources like vehicles, factories, mining etc. There were certain adverse effects on environment amid Covid-19 due to more solid waste production and medical waste. The chapter gives an insight into the qualitative and quantitative effect of lockdown amid covid-19 on the quality of air and water in different parts of the world.

17.
COVID-19 in the Environment ; : 3-16, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1520575

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 [Corona virus diseases] has emerged as one of the most critical global disaster over the last few years. Numerous research are going on to ascertain the various dynamics of evolution and spread of the disease. There are evidences that bats were host of similar kind of viruses, previously. The remarkable resemblance of the RNA of the SARS-CoV-2 virus with the RNA of bat coronavirus. The chief mode of transmission of the virus is droplets form an infected patient via cough, sneezing or talking. Different measures were taken to control the spread of the virus including lockdown in the various parts of the affected countries. Few medications also helped to treat the infected patients. However, trials of vaccinations are still in progress. The pandemic has affected all aspects of life be it social, economical, health or environment.

18.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(11): 1320-1321, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515611

ABSTRACT

Pradhan S, Kumar N, Kumar S. Severe COVID-19 along with Cytokine Storm in Pemphigus Vulgaris Managed Successfully with Dexamethasone Pulse Therapy. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(11):1320-1321.

19.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 47(5): 1565-1602, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a less common but devastating complication of COVID-19 disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the most common CT imaging features of AMI in COVID-19 and also provide an updated review of the literature on symptoms, treatment, histopathological and operative findings, and follow-up of these patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search of four databases: Pubmed, EMBASE, WHO database, and Google Scholar, was performed to identify all the articles which described abdominal CT imaging findings of AMI in COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies comprising 75 patients were included in the final review. Small bowel ischemia (46.67%) was the most prevalent abdominal CT finding, followed by ischemic colitis (37.3%). Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI; 67.9%) indicating microvascular involvement was the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Bowel wall thickening/edema (50.9%) was more common than bowel hypoperfusion (20.7%). While ileum and colon both were equally involved bowel segments (32.07% each), SMA (24.9%), SMV (14.3%), and the spleen (12.5%) were the most commonly involved artery, vein, and solid organ, respectively. 50% of the patients receiving conservative/medical management died, highlighting high mortality without surgery. Findings on laparotomy and histopathology corroborated strikingly with CT imaging findings. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients with AMI, small bowel ischemia is the most prevalent imaging diagnosis and NOMI is the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Contrast-enhanced CT is a powerful decision-making tool for prompt diagnosis of AMI in COVID-19, thereby potentially improving time to treat as well as clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenteric Ischemia , Abdomen , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemia/complications , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
20.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X211045586, 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a widespread adoption of telehealth (phone and video consultations) in cancer care worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine patient satisfaction with telehealth consultations with their medical oncologist at a tertiary cancer centre in Sydney, Australia. METHODS: Patients who attended a routine telehealth appointment at the medical oncology outpatient clinic were recruited to complete a questionnaire containing 16 items, each on a 5-point Likert scale regarding satisfaction levels in various aspects of telehealth and their willingness to continue telehealth after the pandemic. Patients were also invited to provide suggestions for improvement. RESULTS: In total, 150 patients were invited to participate, and 103 valid questionnaires were returned. Median age was 63 years (range: 25-90), 49% of patients were male, 63% of patients had advanced cancer and 81% were on active treatment. In total, 95% of participants indicated that they were satisfied (score ≥4) with telehealth. 82% of participants preferred to continue telehealth consultations after the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, but ideally with a mix of telehealth and in-person consultations. Phone appointments (vs. video, p < 0.002), patients with advanced cancer (vs. early, p < 0.036) and pre-chemotherapy/immunotherapy/targeted therapy treatment reviews (vs. follow-up appointments, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with a willingness to continue telehealth. DISCUSSION: Patients were overwhelmingly satisfied with telehealth during the study period and were willing to continue telehealth for some appointments beyond the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. More research into the effectiveness, safety and implementation of telehealth to compliment traditional face-to-face services for patient-centred cancer care is required.

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