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1.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(6): 499-510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Till now, no meta-analysis is available to address the clinical profile, risk factors, different interventions, and outcomes among COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (C-ROCM) cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight literature databases were screened using appropriate keywords from November 1, 2019, to June 30, 2021. The objectives were to analyze the clinical and microbiological profile, risk factor/comorbidity, intervention, and outcome. "R-metafor package" was used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies were included. The mean age of presentation of C-ROCM was 54.6 years. The most common presentation was ptosis (72.7%), lid edema (60.6%), proptosis (60.6%), ophthalmoplegia (57.3%), loss of vision (53.7%), facial edema (34.7%), and nasal-blockage (11.8%). Evidence of intracranial spread was seen in 42.8% of cases. Rhizopus was the most common fungus (57.1%) isolated in fungal culture. Among C-ROCM patients, diabetes was the commonest comorbid condition, and the use of corticosteroids related to COVID-19 treatment was the most common risk factor (85.75%). Compared to controlled diabetics, C-ROCM was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetics (odds ratio [OR] 0.15, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 0.041-0.544, P = 0.0010). However, no significant association was seen between C-ROCM and COVID-19 severity (OR 0.930, 95% C.I. 0.212-4.087, P = 0.923). For treatment, amphotericin-B was the most common antifungal drug used which was followed by surgical options. However, mortality was high (prevalence 0.344, 95% C.I. 0.205-0.403) despite treatment. CONCLUSION: Although local rhino-orbito symptoms were the first to appear, rapid intracranial extension was seen in a significant number of C-ROCM cases. Uncontrolled diabetes and excessive use of corticosteroid were the most common risk factors present among the C-ROCM cases. High index clinical suspicion is imperative (specifically among COVID-19 patients with diabetes), and routine screening may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Nose Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Maedica (Bucur) ; 16(3): 439-444, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597803

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the method of learning in medical education and forced us to switch over to the online mode of learning. The aim of the present study was to assess students' opinion on online learning in the time of COVID-19. Method:This is a descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted among undergraduate medical students. The closed, open-ended and validated questionnaires were administered to students to get feedback on utility, feasibility, suitability, effectiveness online learning as well as problems faced during e-learning and suggested solutions to them. Results:About 62.7% of undergraduates had internet access. Sixty seven percent of undergraduates were willing to actively communicate with their classmates and instructors electronically, whereas 64.9% of students were communicating online comfortably. Also, 82.20% of students were able to clear their doubt from teacher whenever required. Only 38 (20.5%) of students had equated online learning from home to conventional lectures in a lecture hall. However, 28.6% of students felt comfortable to learn from home in the pandemic era. Students (66.5%) wanted proper breaks, which would enable them to get sufficient time to think about the topic and frame their questions to clear their doubts. About 80% of students wanted that a sufficient number of questions should be asked to transform online learning sessions into interactive approaches. They highlighted distractions during online learning at home, problems of network accessibility, connectivity, lack of synchrony between audio and video, and audio disturbance. Conclusions:More than half of our students prefer classroom learning because it facilitates better teacher-student interactions, stimulates understanding, provides a distraction-free environment, and permits an appropriate pace of learning, encouraging interactivity and independence from technology.

3.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci ; 13(3): 331-332, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547571
4.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(12): 1037-1046, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interferon-ß, as with several other anti-viral agents, has been investigated as a treatment option for COVID-19 as a repurposed drug. The present study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of interferon-ß to determine its efficacy among moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search was done using relevant terms for 'COVID-19' and 'interferon-ß'. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy of interferon-ß in COVID-19 were included. Data were extracted for outcome measures, namely mortality, time to clinical improvement and length of hospital stay. Random effects meta-analysis was performed using RevMan V.5.4.1 to calculate overall effect estimate as odds ratio/hazard ratio for categorical variables and mean difference for continuous variable. RESULT: Eight RCTs were eligible for qualitative synthesis and seven for meta-analysis. The overall effect estimate (odds ratio [OR] 0.59; 95 % CI 0.91, 1.12) and (mean difference [MD] - 1.41; 95 % CI - 2.84, 0.02) indicated no statistically significant difference between effect of IFN-ß and that of control on mortality and length of hospital stay, respectively. However, the overall effect estimate (hazard ratio [HR] 1.95; 95 % CI 1.36, 2.79) denoted a favourable effect of INF-ß on reducing the time to clinical improvement in moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Addition of interferon-ß to standard of care resulted in significant reduction in time to clinical improvement but no significant benefit in terms of reduction in mortality and length of hospital stay in moderate-to-severe cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Crit Care ; 67: 172-181, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521256

ABSTRACT

Ferritin is a known inflammatory biomarker in COVID-19. However, many factors and co-morbidities can confound the level of serum ferritin. This current metaanalysis evaluates serum ferritin level in different severity levels in COVID-19. Studies evaluating serum ferritin level in different clinical contexts (COVID-19 vs. control, mild to moderate vs. severe to critical, non-survivor vs. survivor, organ involvement, ICU and mechanical ventilation requirement) were included (total 9 literature databases searched). Metaanalysis and metaregression was carried out using metaphor "R" package. Compared to control (COVID-19 negative), higher ferritin levels were found among the COVID-19 patients [SMD -0.889 (95% C.I. -1.201, -0.577), I2 = 85%]. Severe to critical COVID-19 patients showed higher ferritin levels compared to mild to moderate COVID-19 patients [SMD 0.882 (0.738, 1.026), I2 = 85%]. In meta-regression, high heterogeneity was observed could be attributed to difference in "mean age", and "percentage of population with concomitant co-morbidities". Non-survivors had higher serum ferritin level compared to survivors [SMD 0.992 (0.672, 1.172), I2 = 92.33%]. In meta-regression, high heterogeneity observed could be attributed to difference in "mean age" and "percentage of male sex". Patients requiring ICU [SMD 0.674 (0.515 to 0.833), I2 = 80%] and mechanical ventilation [SMD 0.430 (0.258, 0.602), I2 = 32%] had higher serum ferritin levels compared to those who didn't. To conclude, serum ferritin level may serve as an important biomarker which can aid in COVID-19 management. However, presence of other co-morbid conditions/confounders warrants cautious interpretation.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Ferritins/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Regression Analysis
6.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505760

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 is a transmissible disease and has caused havoc throughout the world. The present study identifies the novel potential antiviral inhibitors against the nucleocapsid C-terminal domain that aids in RNA-binding and replication. A total of 485,629 compounds were screened, and MD was performed. The trajectory analysis (DCCM & PCA), structural integrity, and degree of compaction depicted the protein-ligand complex stability (PDB-PISA and Rgyr). Results obtained from screening shortlists 13 compounds possessing high Docking score. Further, seven compounds had a permissible RMSD limit (3 Å), with robust RMSF. Post-MD analysis of the top two compounds (204 and 502), DCCM & PCA analysis show a positive atomic displacements correlation among residues of active sites-dimer (Chain A and Chain B) & residual clustering. The ΔGint of RNA-bound (-83.5 kcal/mol) and drug-bound N-CTD-204 (-40.8 kcal/mol) and 502(-39.7 kcal/mol) as compared to Apo (-35.95 kcal/mol) suggests stabilization of protein, with less RNA-binding possibility. The Rgyr values depict the loss of compactness on RNA-binding when compared to the drug-bound N-CTD complex. Further, overlapping the protein complexes (0 ns and 100 ns) display significant changes in RMSD of the protein (204-2.07 Å and 502-1.89 Å) as compared to the Apo (1.72 Å) and RNA-bound form (1.76 Å), suggesting strong interaction for compound 204 as compared to 502. ADMET profiling indicates that these compounds can be used for further experiments (in vitro and pre-clinical). Compound 204 could be a promising candidate for targeting the N-protein-RNA assembly and viral replication.

7.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18845, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485463

ABSTRACT

Osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB) accounts for almost 10% of all extrapulmonary TB cases. In the majority of cases, the spine, knee, hip, and large bones are involved; other sites like the sternoclavicular joint, elbow, wrist, and smaller joints are infrequently involved. Uncommon locations of extrapulmonary TB pose a challenge in diagnosis due to lack of clinical suspicion, non-availability of samples, and unavailability of suitable diagnostic modalities. Here we report a case of uncommon location of osteoarticular TB diagnosed through microchip-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

8.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-7, 2021 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474134

ABSTRACT

During this COVID-19 pandemic, except steroid, none of the therapeutic measures have showed any evidence of efficacy. Traditionally jala-neti using lukewarm salted water remains a yogic way of maintaining upper airway hygiene. Saline irrigation decreases the concentration of inflammatory mediators (e.g. histamine, leukotriene etc.) in nasal secretions, reduces the severity and frequency of sinusitis, reduce need of antibiotic therapy and restores competency of nasal mucosa. Jala-neti is an integral part of six cleansing techniques of yogic kriyas practised in India since thousands of years. Jala-neti can clean the upper airways, prevents colonization of infectious agents, removes foreign bodies, prevents stasis of mucous and subsequently enhances the drainage of paranasal sinuses and maintain health. Regular practice of Jala neti improves nasal symptoms and overall health status of patients with sinusitis. Jala-neti sample can even be used for COVID-19 diagnosis. Povidone iodine (PVP-I) has been utilized as a time tested antimicrobial agent with broad spectrum coverage against wide range of bacteria and viruses. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 action of PVP-I was seen at a concentration as low as 0.45%. PVP-I is generally well tolerated upto 5%, however nasal ciliotoxicity is reported at this concentration, however, this toxicity is not reported with lower concentrations(1.25% and 0.5%). So, theoretically, by using neti-kriya with povidone iodine (0.5-1%) as irrigation solution can combine and enhance the protection against COVID-19 and this can be an important armor in the fight against COVID-19. However, this hypothesis needs to be validated in real life clinical trial scenario before implementing.

9.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17405, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has till now affected about 110 million people globally. It has not spared any country and has led to 24 lakh deaths. As a result, the testing had to be increased manifold leading to depletion in the number of the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) kits. Point-of-care rapid antigen-based tests were developed in order to meet the increasing demands. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a rapid chromatographic test (index test) with a gold standard test (RT-qPCR). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was done at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Paired samples were taken from all patients reporting to the clinic for antigen-based rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) and RT-qPCR. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated to evaluate the performance of the RDT. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of the RDT were observed to be 53.6% (39.7-67.0) and 97.35% (94.6-98.9), respectively. In symptomatic individuals, the sensitivity was higher 61.0% (44.5-75.8). The test positivity rates of RDT were found to be higher at a ​​cycle threshold value ≤20. CONCLUSION: RDT can be used as a screening test to rule in the infection especially in symptomatic patients who are more prone to spread the disease. It is an important weapon in the armamentarium of public healthcare for the containment of COVID-19.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18126, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406407

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has emerged as global pandemic with largest damage to the public health, economy and human psyche.The genome sequence data obtained during the ongoing pandemic are valuable to understand the virus evolutionary patterns and spread across the globe. Increased availability of genome information of circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains in India will enable the scientific community to understand the emergence of new variants and their impact on human health. The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Chambal region of Madhya Pradesh state in mid of March 2020 followed by multiple introduction events and expansion of cases within next three months. More than 5000 COVID-19 suspected samples referred to Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh were analyzed during the nation -wide lockdown and unlock period. A total of 136 cases were found positive over a span of three months that included virus introduction to the region and its further spread. Whole genome sequences employing Oxford nanopore technology were generated for 26 SARS-CoV-2 circulating in 10 different districts in Madhya Pradesh state of India. This period witnessed index cases with multiple travel histories responsible for introduction of COVID-19 followed by remarkable expansion of virus. The genome wide substitutions including in important viral proteins were identified. The detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed the circulating SARS-CoV-2 clustered in multiple clades including A2a, A4 and B. The cluster-wise segregation was observed, suggesting multiple introduction links and subsequent evolution of virus in the region. This is the first comprehensive whole genome sequence analysis from central India, which revealed the emergence and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 during thenation-wide lockdown and unlock.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , India , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
11.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(4): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367965

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of a new mutant strain of SARS-coronavirus (CoV-2) is enormously essential to identify a targeted drug and for the development of the vaccine. In this article, we systematically reviewed the different mutation strains (variant of concern [VOC] and variant of interest [VOI]) which were found in different countries such as the UK, Singapore, China, Germany, Vietnam, Western Africa, Dublin, Ireland, Brazil, Iran, Italy, France, America, and Philippines. We searched four literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, NATURE, and Willey online library) with suitable keywords and the time filter was November 2019 to June 16, 2021. To understand the worldwide spread of variants of SARS-CoV-2, we included a total of 27 articles of case reports, clinical and observational studies in the systematic review. However, these variants mostly spread because of their ability to increase transmission, virulence, and escape immunity. So, in this paper is we found mutated strains of SARS-CoV-2 like VOCs that are found in different regions across the globe are ALPHA strain in the U.K, BETA strain in South Africa, GAMMA strain in Brazil, Gamma and Beta strains in European Countries, and some VOIs like Theta variant in the Philippines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genotype , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(4): 317-327, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367964

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, parallel opportunistic infections have also been emerging as another disease spectrum. Among all these opportunistic infection, mucormycosis has become a matter of concern with its rapid increase of cases with rapid spread as compared to pre-COVID-19 era. Cases have been reported in post-COVID-19-related immune suppression along with the presence of comorbidity which adds on the deadly outcome. There is no systematic review addressing the issue of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. This is the first systematic review of published studies of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19. The aim was to analyze the real scenario of the disease statement including all the published studies from first November 2019 to 30th June to analyze the contemporary epidemiology, clinical manifestations, risk factor, prognosis, and treatment outcome of COVID-19 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis. A comprehensive literature search was done in following databases, namely, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and EMBASE using keywords mucormycosis, rhino orbital cerebral mucormycosis, COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 (from November 01, 2019 to June 30, 2021). Our study shows that, while corticosteroids have proved to be lifesaving in severe to critical COVID-19 patients, its indiscriminate use has come with its price of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis epidemic, especially in India especially in patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus with higher mortality. Corticosteroid use should be monitored and all COVID-19 patients should be closely evaluated/monitored for sequelae of immunosuppression following treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/immunology , Meningitis, Fungal/mortality , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/immunology , Mucormycosis/mortality , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/immunology , Nose Diseases/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/immunology , Orbital Diseases/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4456-4484, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355898

ABSTRACT

Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , India , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
14.
Cureus ; 13(7): e16206, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332350

ABSTRACT

Background The advent of the second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India caused a new range of challenges in diagnosing the virus. Various point-of-care tests have been introduced for rapid diagnosis. Although rapid antigen tests are the most commonly used, the false-negative rates are high. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the positivity rate of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing in rapid antigen-negative cases of COVID-19 during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology This was an observational study conducted in the Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Gorakhpur. Results In total, 2,168 patients were tested. The percentage positivity rate of the RT-PCR tests among the antigen-negative samples was 4.34% in the first wave of the pandemic whereas it was 8.08% in the second wave. Conclusions The main conclusion of this study was that antigen tests should never be used alone for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Instead, they should be confirmed with a RT-PCR test.

15.
Journal of Psychosocial Research ; 16(1):127-142, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1326162

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to examine the impact of technology on different aspects of human life during the covid-19 pandemic. Data from 212 people were collected using a survey. Majority of participants were males 59.4%, unmarried 64.2%, within the age group (21-29) 44.8%, post graduate 42.9% and students 40.6%. The results showed that there was a drastic increase in screen time during the pandemic. Further, the participants found technology useful in connecting with people and in maintaining their physical and mental well-being, but their relations were affected due to excessive use of technology. Participants had also found technology useful in continuing work or studies from online mode and in keeping skills up to date. This study has helped us understand how technology is affecting our life, when we ourselves are under the constraints put on by the pandemic like uncertainty, social distancing, lockdowns and living under the confinements of home.

16.
J Adv Pharm Technol Res ; 12(3): 215-221, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323363

ABSTRACT

Search for an effective and safe vaccine to prevent transmission of current pandemic is an unmet need. This study reviews and compares the available early phase clinical data of vaccine candidates which have reached phase 3 of clinical development. The latest update of "DRAFT landscape of coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 candidate vaccines (October 2, 2020)" released by the World Health Organization was accessed to identify the potential vaccine candidates. The full text articles (published and/or preprint) of data of early clinical trials of the selected vaccines were accessed from the links provided in the same document, PubMed and/or medRxiv.com. After extraction and synthesis, the data were critically evaluated for the study efficacy and safety outcomes. Of the total 193 candidate vaccines 10 were found to reach phase 3 of the clinical development. Nine of these were included in the evaluation process. In all of the included studies, immunogenicity and serious adverse events/local or systemic adverse events/laboratory parameters abnormality was considered as efficacy and safety outcomes respectively. Immunogenicity response with most of the vaccines was either higher than or similar to the respective controls except one (recombinant adenovirus type 26 COV2 [Ad26.COV2.S]) for which it was less than that in control. Overall adverse events (related and/or unrelated) were more with vaccines than those with respective control(s) in three studies, in other two, these were similar whereas in one study, the events were less in the vaccine group than in control group and in the rest, data described were descriptive only without any mention for the same for the control. In conclusion all studies showed immunogenic response to target protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 and which was higher than the respective control except for Ad26.CoV2.S. Many of the vaccines caused more adverse events than the controls, however most were mild and transient and/or manageable.

17.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4456-4484, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270486

ABSTRACT

Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , India , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
18.
Bull Emerg Trauma ; 9(2): 60-66, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the restructuring in-hospital systems of care at a Level -1 trauma center in India and to analyze an injury volume and patterns for future preparedness as well as to establish a specific injuries preventive measures during health emergencies like COVID-19. METHODS: Data was extracted from a prospectively managed trauma registry at level-1 trauma center in India. We have compared the data in lockdown period with the same day's number from the pre-lockdown period. Patients were categorized according to age, gender, injury cause, injury place, injury severity, and injury outcome to compare the statistical analysis between two periods. RESULTS: Total emergency department (ED) trauma footfall decreased significantly by 73% during lockdown period. The injuries result increased significantly due to blunt forces. There was a significant decrease in the major injury of the patient's percentage. The road traffic injuries (RTIs) in individuals were less than the reported falls number, which increased significantly during lockdown. The less number of patients significantly presented without receiving primary care. Majority of the patients had been transferred by using private cars, police vehicle, and two wheelers during lockdown; however, patients' less number were transferred significantly by three wheelers as expected. The comparative analysis between quantitative data points shows significant differences in median Injury Severity Score (ISS) and length of stay during lockdown. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted that the preparedness should not focus solely on the response to treat infectious disease during health emergencies but also on ensuring access and provision of reasonable quality of care for non-infectious illnesses especially acute conditions like trauma.

19.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci ; 13(2): 163-171, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261396

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A number of research articles has been published evaluating safety and efficacy of drugs against COVID-19. This study was undertaken to collate and review the information regarding common proposed anti- viral drugs for easy reference. METHODS: The literature was search was done using terms like severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV or COVID-19 in combination with drugs or treatment or pharmaco-therapy using PubMed and google scholar to identify relevant articles. RESULTS: Despite showing good early results, hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir-ritonavir has not shown clinical benefit in randomized controlled trials. However lopinavir in combination with other drugs specially interferon is being investigated. Remdesivir has shown positive effect in terms of clinical improvement and continued to being investigated alone or in combination with other drugs. Favipiravir has shown mixed results and more data from adequately powered study is needed to prove its efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Many drugs which showed positive effect in initial studies could not replicate the same benefit in large randomized controlled trials. There is need to evaluate efficacy and safety of drugs based on high quality evidence before allowing it to be used in general population.

20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 906: 174233, 2021 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260717

ABSTRACT

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of pyrimidone which catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotate to orotate. Orotate is utilized in the biosynthesis of uridine-monophosphate. DHODH inhibitors have shown promise as antiviral agent against Cytomegalovirus, Ebola, Influenza, Epstein Barr and Picornavirus. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 action of DHODH inhibitors are also coming up. In this review, we have reviewed the safety and efficacy of approved DHODH inhibitors (leflunomide and teriflunomide) against COVID-19. In target-centered in silico studies, leflunomide showed favorable binding to active site of MPro and spike: ACE2 interface. In artificial-intelligence/machine-learning based studies, leflunomide was among the top 50 ligands targeting spike: ACE2 interaction. Leflunomide is also found to interact with differentially regulated pathways [identified by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) and reactome pathway analysis of host transcriptome data] in cogena based drug-repurposing studies. Based on GSEA (gene set enrichment analysis), leflunomide was found to target pathways enriched in COVID-19. In vitro, both leflunomide (EC50 41.49 ± 8.8 µmol/L) and teriflunomide (EC50 26 µmol/L) showed SARS-CoV-2 inhibition. In clinical studies, leflunomide showed significant benefit in terms of decreasing the duration of viral shredding, duration of hospital stay and severity of infection. However, no advantage was seen while combining leflunomide and IFN alpha-2a among patients with prolonged post symptomatic viral shredding. Common adverse effects of leflunomide were hyperlipidemia, leucopenia, neutropenia and liver-function alteration. Leflunomide/teriflunomide may serve as an agent of importance to achieve faster virological clearance in COVID-19, however, findings needs to be validated in bigger sized placebo controlled studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Crotonates/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxybutyrates/pharmacology , Leflunomide/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , Toluidines/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Crotonates/adverse effects , Crotonates/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxybutyrates/adverse effects , Hydroxybutyrates/therapeutic use , Leflunomide/adverse effects , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , Nitriles/adverse effects , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Toluidines/adverse effects , Toluidines/therapeutic use
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