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1.
Fractals ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2020338

ABSTRACT

Currently, the entire planet is suffering from a contagious epidemic infection, 2019-nCOV due to newly detected coronavirus. This is a lethal infectious virus that has destroyed thousands of lives all over the world. The important aim of this study is to investigate a susceptible-infected-treatment-recovered (SITR) model of coronavirus (2019-nCOV) with bi-modal virus spread in a susceptible population. The considered 2019-nCOV model is analyzed by two fractional derivatives: the Caputo and Atangana–Baleanu–Caputo (ABC). For the Caputo model, we present a few basic mathematical characteristics such as existence, positivity, boundedness and stability result for disease-free equilibria. The fixed-point principle is used to establish the existence and uniqueness conditions for the ABC model solution. We employed the Adams–Bashforth–Moulton (ABM) numerical technique for the Caputo model solution and the Toufik–Atangana (TA) numerical approach for the ABC model solution. Finally, using MATLAB, the simulation results are shown to highlight the impact of arbitrarily chosen fractional-order and model parameters on infection dynamics. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Fractals is the property of World Scientific Publishing Company and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Current Research in Microbial Sciences ; : 100162, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007638

ABSTRACT

Corona virus is pandemic and responsible for more than 5.6 million deaths. It was observed that its severity was reported in varied ways in different countries and even in different states of India. This variation was critically evaluated in the area with high contamination of Arsenic (As) to understand the arsenic toxicity and Covid epidemiology and associated health effects in the human population. It was reported that the area with low arsenic contamination has a very high incidence rate of Corona infection in the world. Even in the Indian scenario, high As-contaminated states like West Bengal, Jharkhand and Bihar, the incidence rate is 1.994%, 1.114% and 0.661%, respectively. In contrast, states with the least arsenic contamination have a very high corona incidence rate like 6.308, 17.289 and 4.351, respectively. It was evident that Arsenic inhibits the RdRp complex, which leads to the inhibition of viral genome replication. The PAMP associated pathway was activated by Arsenic and effectively bound with viral spike proteins leading to effective clearance of virus through activation of TNF alpha and IL-1. It finally leads to increased production of IgE, IgG and IGA. Arsenic also enhances inflammatory response against the virus through increased production of cytokine. The high arsenic level also induces apoptosis in viral infected cells through Bax/Bak pathway. It activates cytochrome-c and caspase-3 activity, inducing apoptosis in viral infected cells through PARP activation in the nucleus. These combined findings suggest that high arsenic contamination causes replication inhibition, activates an inflammatory response, increases antibody production, and finally leads to apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. People residing in arsenic hit areas are at a very low threat of corona infection.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(654): eabo2652, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949955

ABSTRACT

Hyperinflammation triggered by SARS-CoV-2 is a major cause of disease severity, with activated macrophages implicated in this response. OP-101, a hydroxyl-polyamidoamine dendrimer-N-acetylcysteine conjugate that specifically targets activated macrophages, improves outcomes in preclinical models of systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, adaptive phase 2a trial, we evaluated safety and preliminary efficacy of OP-101 in patients with severe COVID-19. Twenty-four patients classified as having severe COVID-19 with a baseline World Health Organization seven-point ordinal scale of ≥5 were randomized to receive a single intravenous dose of placebo (n = 7 patients) or OP-101 at 2 (n = 6), 4 (n = 6), or 8 mg/kg (n = 5 patients). All study participants received standard of care, including corticosteroids. OP-101 at 4 mg/kg was better than placebo at decreasing inflammatory markers; OP-101 at 4 and 8 mg/kg was better than placebo at reducing neurological injury markers, (neurofilament light chain and glial fibrillary acidic protein). Risk for the composite outcome of mechanical ventilation or death at 30 and 60 days after treatment was 71% (95% CI: 29%, 96%) for placebo and 18% (95% CI: 4%, 43%; P = 0.021) for the pooled OP-101 treatment arms. At 60 days, 3 of 7 patients given placebo and 14 of 17 OP-101-treated patients were surviving. No drug-related adverse events were reported. These data show that OP-101 was well tolerated and may have potential to treat systemic inflammation and neuronal injury, reducing morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dendrimers , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dendrimers/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Journal of education and health promotion ; 11, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940104

ABSTRACT

While battling the life-threatening complications of COVID-19, its effect on the menstrual cycle and infertility has been somewhat ignored. This brief review aims on highlighting the importance of menstrual abnormalities being experienced during the post-COVID period and to make the clinicians aware about what to expect in regard of menstrual abnormalities by learning from various studies that have been conducted worldwide. This review article was written with systematic literature review with the help of data search machine such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. A search strategy leads to the extraction of 160 related articles that after the removal of inappropriate and duplicate articles, 33 articles were selected for the review. To find other potentially relevant articles, the references of the extracted articles were thoroughly examined. The search was carried out using keywords including “COVID-19,” “Menstrual abnormalities,” and “Infertility.” Using OR and AND, the keywords mentioned above were combined and then utilized in the search box of the databases. Articles published from January 2020 to September 2021 were included in this study. It includes worldwide data ranging from studies done in China, India, Ireland, Turkey, Jordan, and Germany. During the post-COVID period, there is a significant alteration in the sex hormones of females infected by COVID-19 which may manifest as menstrual cycle abnormalities such as decreased cycle length or prolonged menstrual cycle bleeding. It may also manifest as infertility due to ovarian failure due to suppression of ovarian function COVID-19 a novel coronavirus which is presently a pandemic has affected the world in manner reminding the world of 1918 Spanish flu. However, while battling the deadly pandemic, the clinicians should also be aware of the repercussions of the effect this infection has on multiple organs such as ovarian suppression leading to infertility, oligomenorrhea, or menorrhagia.

6.
J Glob Infect Dis ; 14(2): 90, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934415
7.
J Emerg Trauma Shock ; 15(2): 112-113, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934365
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11431, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921707

ABSTRACT

Emergent application of antimicrobial strategies as symptomatic treatment in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and linkage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 with microbial infections, has created colossal demand for antimicrobials. For the first time, this communication explore the physicochemical, antifungal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic properties of biogenic magnesium nanoparticles (MgNPs), synthesized using essential oil of Cymbopogon flexuosus's as an efficient multifunctional reducing and stabilizing/capping reagent. It is observed that MgNPs (ranging in size: 8-16 nm) of varying phytochemical compositions (MgS1, MgS2, MgS3) exhibited various useful physicochemical, antimicrobial, and photocatalytic properties. FTIR outcomes highlight the functional biomolecules-assisted reduction of Mg from Mg+ to Mg0. Among all, MgS3-Nps owing to the smallest particle size exhibited superior photocatalytic efficacy (91.2%) for the methylene blue degradation upon direct exposure to the sunlight for 3 h without using any reducing agents. Fabricated MgNPs also exhibited excellent antifungal (against Fusarium oxysporum) and antibacterial (versus Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) efficacies compared to state-of-the-art antimicrobial agents deployed for the treatment of infectious diseases. Based on this investigated greener approach, imperative from economic and environmental viewpoint, such essential oil based-MgNPs can be a potential nanosystem for various industrial applications where photocatalytic, and biomedical attributes are the key requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Oils, Volatile , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Escherichia coli , Humans , Magnesium , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
9.
Blockchain Applications for Healthcare Informatics ; : 447-470, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1898030

ABSTRACT

Due to this epidemic of COVID-19, the everyday lives, welfare, and wealth of a country are affected. Inefficiency, a lack of medical diagnostics, and inadequately trained healthcare professionals are among the most significant barriers to arresting the development of this disease. Blockchain offers enormous promise for providing consistent and reliable real time and smart health facilities offsite. The infected patients with COVID-19 have shown they often have a lung infection upon arrival. It can be detected and analyzed using CT scan images. Unfortunately, though, it is time-consuming and liable to error. Thus, the assessment of chest CT scans must be automated. The proposed method uses transfer deep learning techniques to analyze CT scan images automatically. Transfer deep learning can improve the parameters of networks on huge databases, and pretrained networks can be used effectively on small datasets. We proposed a model built on VGGNet19, a convolutional neural network to classify individuals infected with coronavirus utilizing images of CT radiographs. We have used a globally accessible CT scan database that included 2500 CT pictures with COVID-19 infection and 2500 CT images without COVID-19 infection. An extensive experiment has been conducted using three deep learning methods such as VGG19, Xception Net, and CNN. Experiment findings indicate that the proposed model outperforms the other Xception Net and CNN models considerably. The results demonstrate that the proposed models have an accuracy of up to 95% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve up to 95%.

10.
IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior ; 21(2):99-116, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1887928

ABSTRACT

Rapid changes are taking place in organizations due to the Covid-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, most of the employees worked from home. To face disruptions, organizations require an agile workforce. An agile workforce is proactive and adaptive, and has a positive attitude towards learning and self-development. During disruptive situations, organizations ought to adopt modern methods for imparting training to develop and manage the agility of their workforce. This study is a themes-based content analysis of workforce agility attained through e-training during Covid-19 in a power plant located in Himachal Pradesh, India. Focus group interview method was used to collect information. The focus group interviewed consisted of 14 employees (9 executives and 5 non-executives) who attended e-training programs. Seven themes, viz., adaptability, flexibility, collaborative, developmental, competent, speed, and informative, were identified from the literature. The questions were framed based on the themes. The content analysis results of the themes showed that through e-training employees perceived improved performance, knowledge, personal well-being, work flexibility, change adaption, motivation, communication, and analytical skills as significant outcomes. The findings of this study showed that e-training during disruptive situations worked effectively in enhancing employees' agility.

11.
Environ Res ; 213: 113665, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885760

ABSTRACT

More than 320 million people worldwide were affected by SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, which already caused more than 5.5 million deaths. COVID-19 spreads through air when an infected person breathes, coughs, or sneezes out droplets containing virus. Emerging variants like Omicron with positivity rate of 16 (highest among others) present a greater risk of virus spread, so all types of indoor environments become critically important. Strategically adopted Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) approach can significantly reduce the virus spread by early removal of contaminated aerosolized droplets. We modeled different HVAC configurations to characterize the diffusion of contaminated droplets cloud through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of sneeze in standard hospital room as indoor scenario. Injection of saliva droplets with characteristics of exhaled air from lungs was applied to mimic real sneeze. CFD simulations have been performed for three HVAC configurations at two Air Change per Hour (ACH) rates; 6 and 15 ACH. For the first time, use of air curtain at low flow rate has been examined. Simulations provide high fidelity spatial and temporal droplets cloud diffusion under different HVAC configurations, showing spread in room indoor environment up to 360 s. Over 92% of ejected sneeze mass is removed from room air within seconds while the remaining 8% or less becomes airborne with droplets (<50 µm size) and tends to spread uniformly with regular HVAC configuration. Low-speed air curtain accelerates decontamination by efficiently removing aerosolized 1-50 µm size droplets. Study investigates role of droplets removal mechanisms such as escape, evaporation, and deposition on surfaces. Interestingly, results show presence of contaminated droplets even after 5 min of sneeze, which can be effectively removed using low-speed air curtain. Study finds that high ventilation rate requirements can be optimized to modify earlier and new hospital designs to reduce the spread of airborne disease.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Decontamination , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sneezing
12.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(5): 2045-2050, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875941

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has toppled the world since first case noted in 2019, and the cases have been increasing there after. This grave effect is caused by the cytokine storm induced inflammation produced by the noxious virus. As it is an inflammatory state, various acute phase reactants are expected to raise; thus serum ferritin is contemplated to increase. Here we aim to anchor serum ferritin as a way marker for diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients and study its role as a prognostic marker. Another aspect is the association of COVID-19 with the N: L ratio; observation has stated that higher N: L ratio results in more severe outcome. The study aimed to establish a correlation of COVID-19 severity with serum ferritin in the form of HRCT Score, N: L Ratio and Clinical Outcome in the patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit. Result: Out of 200 patients who were admitted in the intensive care unit with COVID-19, the association of serum ferritin with N: L Ratio and HRCT Score was significant, and the association of serum ferritin with clinical outcome in terms of discharged and expired was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Serum ferritin was found to be a potent marker for clinical outcome in intensive care unit patients in terms of death versus treated. HRCT Score and N:L ratio were found to be correlated with serum ferritin. Therefore, we conclude that serum ferritin may determine the severity of COVID-19 infection and it can be used as a marker for Clinical Outcome thereby making it an often neglected biomarker for predicting prognosis in COVID-19 with most of the physicians focusing mostly on interleukin 6, C Reactive protein and d dimer as a marker of severe COVID infection.

13.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-24, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860591

ABSTRACT

This work deals with the synthesis and characterization of copper(II) complex [Cu(salen)(H2O)](1) of salen-type Schiff base ligand derived from the condensation of 5-bromo-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde and ethylenediamine in EtOH. This complex was characterized by different spectroscopic and physicochemical methods. Single crystal X-ray crystallography study revealed that Cu(II) in complex (1) is five-coordinate and adopts a distorted square pyramidal geometry. A DFT calculation was employed to evaluate the optimized electronic structure, HOMO-LUMO, energy gap, and global parameters. A detailed structural and non-covalent interaction on the complex is investigated by single crystal structure analysis and computational approaches. The strength of the interaction and 3D topology of the crystal packing are visualized through an energy framework. Hirshfeld surface and 2D fingerprint plots have been explored in the crystal structure of the complex. The anticancer properties of copper(II) complex was studied against the selected cancerous cell lines of breast cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, molecular docking and MD simulations was performed on the complex to predict the binding mode and interactions between the ligand and the main protease of the SARS-CoV-2 (PDB ID: 7CBT and 7D1M). The molecular docking calculations of the complex (1) with SARS-CoV-2 virus revealed the binding energy of -8.1 kcal/mol and -7.5 kcal/mol with an inhibition constant of 3.245 µM and 2.318 µM at inhibition binding site of receptor towards 7CBT and 7D1M main protease (Mpro), respectively. Besides this, molecular docking results (-7.6 kcal/mol, 3.196 µM) towards Escherichia coli PBP2 targets (PDB ID: 6G9S) was also studied. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

15.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt C): 113363, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814402

ABSTRACT

The rapid generation of biomedical waste (BMW) due to covid-19 pandemic has created burden on the existing municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system in both developed and developing countries. The substantial influx of covid patients in Maharashtra, India has influenced the pattern of BMW generation, especially for the yellow category of BMW and incineration facilities. The objective of the study was to estimate the daily face mask consumption (DFM) and BMW generation from May 2020 to August 2021 in Maharashtra, India. The study was carried out based on the confirmed covid 19 cases, population forecast, urban population (%), BMW generation rate (kg/bed/day), and so on. The data set for the each paramters were collected from web-portals, published reports based on previous studies. These data sets were further regrouped, processed and analyised using mathematical equations. The study also revealed that Mumbai, Pune, and Thane districts, India has contributed ≥ 60% of the DFM and BMW generation. It was found that the DFM by non-covid patients was higher compared to the covid patients (DCFM). Further, it was revealed that BMW generated in the months of July 2020 (152 tons/day), August 2020 (228 tons/day), September 2020 (364 tons/day), October 2020 (177 tons/day), March 2021 (405 tons/day), April 2021 (1,102 tons/day), May 2021 (705 tons/day), June 2021 (194 tons/day), and July 2021 (149 tons/day), exceeded the existing BMW treatment capcity of 132 tons/day. The sudden spike in covid-19 cases has influenced the pattern of DFM and BMW generation, espeicllay for the yellow category of BMW (BMWCY) and has increased the burden on BMW incineration facilities. The daily emission rates from BMW-incineration was in the order PM10> NO2> CO>SO2, with maximum emission of PM10 (85.61 kg of pollutant/day). The F-test was performed using one-way ANOVA to understand the influence of covid cases on daily face mask consumption. It was found that F-satistic of DCFM and BMWCY is more than the F-critical i.e., increase in covid cases had a significant effect on mass consumption rate and BMW generation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Solid Waste
16.
Lung India ; 39(3): 247-253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810866

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypoxia in patients with COVID-19 is one of the strongest predictors of mortality. Silent hypoxia is characterised by the presence of hypoxia without dyspnoea. Silent hypoxia has been shown to affect the outcome in previous studies. Methods: This was a retrospective study of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were hypoxic at presentation. Clinical, laboratory and treatment parameters in patients with silent hypoxia and dyspnoeic hypoxia were compared. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify the factors predicting mortality. Results: Among 2080 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital, 811 patients were hypoxic with SpO2 <94% at the time of presentation. Among them, 174 (21.45%) did not have dyspnoea since the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Further, 5.2% of patients were completely asymptomatic for COVID-19 and were found to be hypoxic only on pulse oximetry. The case fatality rate in patients with silent hypoxia was 45.4% as compared to 40.03% in dyspnoeic hypoxic patients (P = 0.202). The odds ratio of death was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.41-2.97) in the patients with silent hypoxia after adjusting for baseline characteristics, laboratory parameters, treatment and in-hospital complications, which did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.851). Conclusion: Silent hypoxia may be the only presenting feature of COVID-19. As the case fatality rate is comparable between silent and dyspnoeic hypoxia, it should be recognised early and treated as aggressively. Because home isolation is recommended in patients with COVID-19, it is essential to use pulse oximetry in the home setting to identify these patients.

17.
IFPRI - Discussion Papers|2022. (2110):vii + 34 pp. 49 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1789321

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has decimated the lives and livelihoods of people around the world. The impact of COVID-19 has been especially devastating for low-income families in rural areas of India. Food insecurity became pervasive in rural areas soon after the nationwide lockdown was announced, as many families relied on daily wage work to fund basic necessities. By providing cash transfers and the additional foodgrains, Indian policymakers acted swiftly to reduce the financial impact on family income and consumption. This paper investigates the factors affecting the participation of rural families in the cash transfer program and the effect of government cash transfers on food insecurity. Results indicate that the government cash transfer program in India decreased moderate food insecurity by 2.4% and severe food insecurity by about 0.92%.

18.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(2): 799-801, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776492

ABSTRACT

We report a young female having severe pallor and breathlessness on presentation, being diagnosed as a case of megaloblastic anemia, which was confirmed on bone marrow biopsy. On detailed history taking, she was revealed to have anorexia nervosa precipitated due to extreme fear of COVID-19 along with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Thus, a psychiatric disorder presenting due to simple phobia of COVID-19 can also have a fatal outcome in the young. Therefore, psychiatric health needs urgent attention by physicians, governments, and policymakers across the globe to prevent the surge of mental illness during the ongoing pandemic.

19.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(2): 802-806, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776470

ABSTRACT

Partial Hemolysis, elevation of liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome is a leading cause of maternal mortality. With the exceeding spread of COVID-19, leading to increasing number of COVID-19 infected cases there has been a emergence of an overlap of COVID-19 with HELLP Syndrome. Multiple factors are associated with the thrombocytopenia witnessed in COVID-19 somewhat similar to what is witnessed in preeclampsia and HELLP Syndrome. We Describe a case series of two ante natal cases who presented with a picture of HELLP syndrome and upon investigations turned out to be COVID-19 thus trying to establish an association between the two.

20.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330913

ABSTRACT

Selection of reference genes in quantitative PCR is critical to determine accurate and reliable mRNA expression. Despite this knowledge, not a single study has investigated the expression stability of housekeeping genes to determine their suitability to act as reference gene in SARS-CoV-2 or Covid19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) infections. Herein, we address these gaps by investigating the expression stability of nine most commonly used housekeeping genes including TBP, CypA, B2M, 18S, PGC-1α, GUSB, HPRT-1, β-ACTIN and GAPDH in the patients of varying severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe). We observed significant differences in the expression of candidate genes across the disease spectrum. Next, using various statistical algorithms (delta Ct, Normfinder, Bestkeeper, RefFinder and GeNorm), we observed that CypA demonstrated the most consistent expression across the patients of varying severity and emerged as the most suitable gene in Covid19, and CAM infections. Incidentally, the most commonly used reference gene GAPDH showed maximum variations and found to be the least suitable. Lastly, comparative evaluation of expression of NRF2 is performed following normalization with GAPDH and CypA to highlight the relevance of an appropriate reference gene. Our results reinforce the idea of a selection of housekeeping genes only after validation especially during infections.

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