Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 72
Filter
1.
South African Journal of Botany ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1815147

ABSTRACT

The widespread COVID-19 pandemic, caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has emanated as one of the most life-threatening transmissible diseases. Currently, the repurposed drugs such as remdesivir, azithromycine, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine are being employed in the management of COVID-19 but their adverse effects are a matter of concern. In this regard, alternative treatment options i.e., traditional medicine, medicinal plants, and their phytochemicals, which exhibit significant therapeutic efficacy and show a low toxicity profile, are being explored. The current review aims at unraveling the promising medicinal plants, phytochemicals, and traditional medicines against SARS-CoV-2 to discover phytomedicines for the management of COVID-19 on the basis of their potent antiviral activities against coronaviruses, as demonstrated in various biochemical and computational chemical biology studies. The review consists of integrative and updated information on the potential traditional medicines against COVID-19 and will facilitate researchers to develop traditional medicines for the management of COVID-19.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334376

ABSTRACT

Deep learning is very effectively used in the medical field to predict diseases such as pneumonia classification , cancer, and so on. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is used to classify the chest X-rays of humans in normal and COVID-19 infected cases. To build a model, pre-trained models and transfer learning is used. In this paper, four pre-trained models VGG16, VGG19, ResNet50, and InceptionV3 are ensemble and build a new ensemble model. To train and test a model, a dataset of as many as 720 X-ray images has been used. Less number of images makes us apply image augmentation. The ensemble models such as VGG19 and ResNet50, VGG16 and ResNet50, VGG16 and InceptionV3, and VGG19 and InceptionV3 yield 96.53%, 98.61%, 99.31%, and 100% accuracy respectively.

3.
Journal of healthcare engineering ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787264

ABSTRACT

In this paper, modifications in neoteric architectures such as VGG16, VGG19, ResNet50, and InceptionV3 are proposed for the classification of COVID-19 using chest X-rays. The proposed architectures termed “COV-DLS” consist of two phases: heading model construction and classification. The heading model construction phase utilizes four modified deep learning architectures, namely Modified-VGG16, Modified-VGG19, Modified-ResNet50, and Modified-InceptionV3. An attempt is made to modify these neoteric architectures by incorporating the average pooling and dense layers. The dropout layer is also added to prevent the overfitting problem. Two dense layers with different activation functions are also added. Thereafter, the output of these modified models is applied during the classification phase, when COV-DLS are applied on a COVID-19 chest X-ray image data set. Classification accuracy of 98.61% is achieved by Modified-VGG16, 97.22% by Modified-VGG19, 95.13% by Modified-ResNet50, and 99.31% by Modified-InceptionV3. COV-DLS outperforms existing deep learning models in terms of accuracy and F1-score.

4.
Multimedia Tools and Applications ; : 1-18, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782025

ABSTRACT

The latest threat to global health is the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To prevent COVID-19, recognizing and isolating the infected patients is an essential step. The primary diagnosis method is Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test. However, the sensitivity of this test is not satisfactory to successfully control the COVID-19 outbreak. Although there exist many datasets of chest X-rays (CXR) images, but few COVID-19 CXRs are presently accessible owing to privacy of patients. Thus, many researchers have utilized data augmentation techniques to augment the datasets. But, it may cause over-fitting issues, as the existing data augmentation techniques include small modifications to CXRs. Therefore, in this paper, an efficient deep convolutional generative adversarial network and convolutional neural network (DGCNN) is designed to diagnose COVID-19 suspected subjects. Deep convolutional generative adversarial network (DGAN) consists of two networks trained adversarially such that one generates fake images and the other differentiates between them. Thereafter, convolutional neural network (CNN) is utilized for classification purpose. Extensive experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed DGCNN. Performance analysis demonstrates that DGCNN can highly improves the diagnosis performance.

5.
3 Biotech ; 12(4): 87, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782998

ABSTRACT

The Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, located on the S1 subunit, plays a vital role in the virus binding and its entry into the host cell through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Therefore, understanding the dynamic effects of mutants on the SARS-CoV-2 RBD is essential for discovering drugs to inhibit the virus binding and disrupt its entry into the host cells. A recent study reported a double mutant of SARS-CoV-2, L452R-E484Q, located in the RBD region. Thus, this study employed various computational algorithms and methods to understand the structural impact of both individual variants L452R, E484Q, and the double mutant L452R-E484Q on the native RBD of spike glycoprotein. The effects of the mutations on native RBD structure were predicted by in silico algorithms, which predicted changes in the protein structure and function upon the mutations. Subsequently, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to understand the conformational stability and functional changes on the RBD upon the mutations. The comparative results of MD simulation parameters displayed that the double mutant induces significant conformational changes in the spike glycoprotein RBD, which may alter its biological functions. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-022-03151-0.

6.
J Educ Health Promot ; 11: 58, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world is worsely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Increased mortality has been observed in older adults with multiple comorbidities. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD) at admission can help us to guide the requirement of oxygen during hospital stay that can be used to determine which patient can be managed at home. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a prospective observational study conducted on COVID-19 patients admitted at AIIMS, New Delhi, from October to December 2020. Patients aged more than 60 years were included in the study and underwent 6-min walk tests. Polypharmacy and multimorbidity were also assessed along with dyspnea which was measured on BORG scale. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical software STATA (version 14.2) was used for all the analyses. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 68.76 (7.4). Oxygen saturation prior to the 6-MWT was normal and has significantly higher than the post test (P ≤ 0.001). 6MWD was significantly correlated with pre values of oxygen saturation. 6MWD was observed more in patients who did not require oxygen during hospital stay. Self-reported dyspnea, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with the patients who had an oxygen requirement during the hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Self-reported dyspnea after 6MWT was found to be associated with oxygen requirement during hospital stay. Patients who have covered more distance in 6-min walk test have less oxygen requirement during hospital stay hence can be managed at home. This will reduce the health-care burden and will help to tackle the outburst during the ongoing pandemic.

7.
Process Biochem ; 115: 70-79, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692953

ABSTRACT

The increased infectivity and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 new variants were contributed largely by increase binding of receptor binding domain (RBD) domain of the Spike (S) protein to its cellular receptor ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2). Several studies have indicated that heparin and its derivatives interact to SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD and inhibits the binding of ACE2 which blocks the viral invasion. However, it is largely unclear how these SARS-CoV-2 variants affects ACE2 binding in the presence of heparin. Herein, using the molecular docking and interaction energy analysis, we showed that N501Y, L452R-E484Q, and E484K mutations bind strongly with heparin in the range of - 7.4 to - 8.0 kcal/mol. The triple mutations, K417N-E484K-N501Y, and K417T-E484K-N501Y displayed weaker binding affinity to heparin (-6.6 kcal/mol). Further, we showed that most of the RBD mutations increased the binding affinity of ACE2 in the absence of heparin, with the maximum increase observed for N501Y (-13.7 kcal/mol). Also, in the presence of heparin, ACE2 binds strongly to the mutant RBD as compared to WT RBD. The strong RBD/ACE2 interaction was observed in case of triple variants (-11.3 kcal/mol) whereas, N501Y showed weakest binding of RBD/ACE2 in the presence of heparin (-9.2 kcal/mol). The strong binding of ACE2 to RBD-heparin complex in these variants will leads to strong inhibition of their entry into host cells.

8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689935

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIC-S) is a hyperinflammatory manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Information on the long-term outcome of MIS-C is limited. This study was conducted to describe the long-term outcome of MIS-C from a tertiary care center in North India. Children admitted with MIS-C from September 2020 to January 2021 were followed up after discharge until June 2021. The details during the acute phase (clinical features, investigations, treatment, and outcome) and follow-up (symptoms, echocardiographic findings, ongoing treatment, and outcome) were collected retrospectively. During the acute phase, 40 children presented at median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 7 (5-10) years with fever, mucocutaneous, gastrointestinal, and respiratory symptoms. The majority (66.7%) of the children had positive SARS-CoV-2 serology and elevated inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, D-dimer, and fibrinogen), lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Eighty percent had shock, 72.5% had myocardial dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction <55%), and 22.5% had coronary artery dilatation or aneurysm. Treatment included pediatric intensive care unit admission (85%), intravenous immunoglobulin (100%), steroids (85%), aspirin (80%), vasoactive drugs (72.5%), and invasive mechanical ventilation (22.5%). Two (5%) children died because of refractory shock. Thirty-four children were followed up with until a median (IQR) of 5 (3-6) months. During the follow-up, a majority were asymptomatic, myocardial function returned to normal in all, and only one had coronary artery aneurysm. Prednisolone and aspirin were given for a median (IQR) of 3 (2-4) weeks and 4 (4-6) weeks after discharge, respectively. There was one readmission and no death during the follow-up. To conclude, the long-term outcome of MIS-C is generally favorable with resolution of cardiovascular manifestations (myocardial dysfunction and coronary artery changes) in the majority of children during follow-up.

9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328860

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a life-threatening, opportunistic, deep fungal infection frequently evident in patients with moderate to severe forms of COVID-19. It is usually detected within 2-8 weeks after the onset of symptoms and is categorized into six types depending on its location. The rhinocerebral form is most prevalent and involves orofacial structures. The fulminant nature of Mucormycosis necessitates rapid diagnosis and aggressive multidisciplinary treatment planning. This report presents a case of post-COVID-19 rhinocerebral Mucormycosis, where the failure to identify the disease by the dentist led to treatment delay. The patient was successfully managed by a combined approach of surgical debridement and systemic antifungal drug administration. The function and esthetics were restored by prosthetic rehabilitation. Etiopathogenesis of post-COVID-19 Mucromycosis and the dentist’s role in the diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis following COVID-19 infection is discussed.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323919

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the effect of firm environmental performance on firm financing during the COVID-19 outbreak. Crises in multiple forms curtail Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) stability and the livelihood of hundreds of millions of people who derive their living from these activities. The way in which MSMEs deal with crises and the extent to which environmental performance is beneficial when the market suffers a negative shock is relatively unexplored in the literature. We consider three aspects of financing -- firm level liquidity, bank credit and bankruptcy probabilities -- and argue that it pays for firms to show commitment to environmental responsibilities in a global pandemic. Through an examination of 3,356 MSMEs, we find that firms with better environmental performance reduce their probability of bankruptcies and their liquidities decreasing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, analysis shows that the impact of a firm’s environmental performance is more pronounced in sensitive industries (hospitality and retail). The results are robust based on a series of robustness checks, including propensity score matching and the Heckman two-stage sample selection model. Our study suggests that the trust between a firm and its stakeholders, if it is grounded on environmental performance, pays off when the overall level of trust in markets suffers a negative shock. JEL Classification : F64;G01;Q14

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319324

ABSTRACT

The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells requires the activation of its spike protein by host cell proteases. The serine protease, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and cysteine proteases, cathepsins B, L (CTSB/L) activate spike protein and enabling SARS-CoV-2 entry to the host cell through two completely different and independent pathways. Given that the uncertainty of how SARS-CoV-2 infects and kills, the need for a deep understanding of SARS-CoV-2 biology is imperative. Herein, we performed genomic-guided meta-analysis to identify upstream regulatory elements altering the expression of TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L genes. Further, drugs and medicinal compounds were identified based on their effects on gene expression signatures of the modulators of TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L genes. Using this strategy, estradiol and retinoic acid have been identified as putative SARS-CoV-2 alleviation agents. Further, we analysed drug-gene and gene-gene interaction network using 332 human targets of SARS-CoV-2 proteins. The network results indicate that out of 332 human proteins, estradiol interacts with 135 (41%) and retinoic acid interacts with 40 (12%) proteins. Interestingly, a combination of both estradiol and retinoic acid interacts with 153 (46%) of human proteins acting as SARS-CoV-2 targets and affect the functions of nearly all of the SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, indicating the therapeutic benefits of drug combination therapy. Finally, molecular docking analysis suggest that both the drugs binds to TMPRSS2 and CTSL with the nanomolar to low micromolar affinity. This study, for the first time, reports the molecules like estradiol and retinoic acid as candidate drugs against both the host proteases, TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L. We here thus suggest that these antiviral drugs alone or in combination can simultaneously target both the entry pathways and thus can be considered as a potential treatment option for COVID-19.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319323

ABSTRACT

It has been said that COVID-19 is a generational challenge in many ways. But, at the same time, it becomes a catalyst for collective action, innovation, and discovery. Realizing the full potential of artificial intelligence (AI) for structure determination of unknown proteins and drug discovery are some of these innovations. Potential applications of AI include predicting the structure of the infectious proteins, identifying drugs that may be effective in targeting these proteins, and proposing new chemical compounds for further testing as potential drugs. AI and machine learning (ML) allow for rapid drug development including repurposing existing drugs. Algorithms were used to search for novel or approved antiviral drugs capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2. This paper presents a survey of AI and ML methods being used in various biochemistry of SARS-CoV-2, from structure to drug development, in the fight against the deadly COVID-19 pandemic. It is envisioned that this study will provide AI/ML researchers and the wider community an overview of the current status of AI applications particularly in structural biology, drug repurposing and development and motivate researchers in harnessing AI potentials in the fight against COVID-19.

13.
Murhekar, Manoj, Bhatnagar, Tarun, Thangaraj, Jeromie Wesley Vivian, Saravanakumar, V.; Kumar, Muthusamy Santhosh, Selvaraju, Sriram, Rade, Kirankumar, Kumar, C. P. Girish, Sabarinathan, R.; Turuk, Alka, Krishnan, Nivethitha, Robinson, Aby, Srinivasan, Nivetha, Asthana, Smita, Balachandar, Rakesh, Bangar, Sampada Dipak, Bansal, Avi Kumar, Bhat, Jyothi, Chopra, Vishal, Das, Dasarathi, Deb, Alok Kumar, Devi, Kangjam Rekha, Dwivedi, Gaurav Raj, Khan, Muhammad Salim, Kumar, Sunil, Laxmaiah, Avula, Madhukar, Major, Mahapatra, Amarendra, Rangaraju, Chethana, Turuk, Jyotirmayee, Yadav, Suresh, Anand, P. K.; Andhalkar, Rushikesh, Arlappa, Nimmathota, Bashir, Khalid, Baradwaj, Dinesh Kumar, Bharti, Pravin, Bhattacharya, Debdutta, Behera, Sthita Pragnya, Chahal, Ashrafjit, Chakraborty, Debjit, Chaudhury, Anshuman, Deval, Hirawati, Dhatrak, Sarang, Dhikav, Vikas, Dayal, Rakesh, Giridharan, Prathiksha, Haq, Inaamul, Jagjeevan, Babu, Jain, Agam, Kalliath, Arshad, Kanungo, Srikanta, Karunakaran, T.; Kshatri, Jaya Singh, Kumar, Niraj, Kumar, Vijay, Kumar, V. G. Vinod, Lakshmi, Gangeti Gandhi Jayanthi Naga, Mehta, Ganesh, Mitra, Anindya, Nagbhushanam, K.; Nirmala, A. R.; Palo, Subrat Kumar, Pandey, Ashok Kumar, Prasad, Ganta Venkata, Pucha, Uday Kumar, Qurieshi, Mariya Amin, Sabaharwal, Vikas, Sahay, Seema, Sangwan, Ramesh Kumar, Saxena, Rochak, Sekar, Krithikaa, Shukla, Vijay Kumar, Singh, Hari Bhan, Singh, Prashant Kumar, Singh, Pushpendra, Singh, Rajeev, Thakor, Mahendra, Varma, Dantuluri Sheethal, Viramgami, Ankit, Menon, Pradeep, Yadav, Rajiv, Yadav, Surabhi, Singh, Manjula, Chakrabarti, Amit, Das, Aparup, Dutta, Shanta, Kant, Rajni, Khan, A. M.; Narain, Kanwar, Narasimhaiah, Somashekar, Padmapriyadarshini, Chandrasekaran, Pandey, Krishna, Pati, Sanghamitra, Rajkumar, Hemalatha, Ramesh, T.; Sharma, Arun Kumar, Sharma, Y. K.; Singh, Shalini, Panda, Samiran, Reddy, D. C. S.; Bhargava, Balram.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317589

ABSTRACT

Background: India witnessed a severe second wave of COVID-19 during March and June 2021. We did the fourth nationwide serosurvey to estimate prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the general population aged >=6 years and health care workers (HCWs). Methods: We did a cross-sectional study between 14 June and 6 July 2021 in 700 clusters in the same 70 districts across 21 states/Union Territory. From each district, a minimum of 400 individuals aged >=6 years from general population and 100 HCWs from the district public health facilities were included. The serum samples were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies against S1-RBD and nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 using chemiluminescence immunoassay. We estimated the weighted and test adjusted seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against S1-RBD and/or nucleocapsid protein along with 95% CI. Findings: Of the 28,975 sera tested, the weighted and test adjusted prevalence of IgG antibodies against S1-RBD and/or nucleocapsid protein among the general population aged >=6 years was 67.6% (95% CI: 66.4 – 68.7). The seroprevalence increased with age and was not different in rural and urban areas. Compared to unvaccinated adults (62.3%, 95% CI: 60.9 – 63.7), seroprevalence was significantly higher among individuals who received one (81.0%, 95% CI: 79.6 - 82.3) and two doses (89.8%, 95% CI: 88.4 - 91.1). The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies among 7,252 health care workers was 85.2% (95% CI: 83.5 - 86.7). Interpretation: Nearly one third of the population is still seronegative. It is necessary to accelerate the coverage of COVID-19 vaccination among adults and continue adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions.Funding: Indian Council of Medical Research. Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The Institutional Human Ethics Committee of the ICMR National Institute ofEpidemiology, Chennai approved the study protocol.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311853

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus pandemic has highlighted the many challenges faced by the healthcare, public safety, and economic systems when confronted with a surge in patients that require intensive treatment and a population that must be quarantined or shelter in place. The most obvious and pressing challenge is taking care of acutely ill patients while managing spread of infection within the care facility, but this is just the tip of the iceberg if we consider what could be done to prepare in advance for future pandemics. Beyond the obvious need for strengthening medical knowledge and preparedness, there is a complementary need to anticipate and address the engineering challenges associated with infectious disease emergencies. Robotic technologies are inherently programmable, and robotic systems have been adapted and deployed, to some extent, in the current crisis for such purposes as transport, logistics, and disinfection. As technical capabilities advance and as the installed base of robotic systems increases in the future, they could play a much more significant role in future crises. This report is the outcome of a virtual workshop co-hosted by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the Computing Community Consortium (CCC) held on July 9-10, 2020. The workshop consisted of over forty participants including representatives from the engineering/robotics community, clinicians, critical care workers, public health and safety experts, and emergency responders. It identifies key challenges faced by healthcare responders and the general population and then identifies robotic/technological responses to these challenges. Then it identifies the key research/knowledge barriers that need to be addressed in developing effective, scalable solutions. Finally, the report ends with the following recommendations on how to implement this strategy.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308087

ABSTRACT

Background: India was quick to implement a complete lockdown to prevent the transmission of the novel coronavirus, which had a significant impact on the migrant labourers. The Government responded quickly to the situation by providing them food and shelter. However, there is absence of scientifically collected data regarding the knowledge, practice and perception of the migrant labourers related to the crisis from Delhi, India. The present survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, practice and perception of the migrant labourers and their family members about COVID-19 pandemic and sudden lockdown. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted by the department of Geriatric Medicine, AIIMS, New Delhi in association with Healthy Aging India, a non-profit organization registered under the Indian Societies Act, 1860, from 1 May to 30 June 2020, after receiving ethical clearance from AIIMS (IEC/411/4/2020). Data was collected from the migrant labourers living in urban slums using qualitative probes and quantitative questionnaires. Findings: The survey included 220 respondents with their mean age as 31.99 ± 10.81 years. The majority were well informed about the importance of wearing masks (90.9%) and maintaining physical distancing 90.45%. While 91.36% agreed that it was important to avoid going out of their home, 88.18% knew that every individual could be a potential source of infection. As per the qualitative response, the respondents were bothered about food, employment and returning to their native places. Interpretation: This survey emphasized the need of community engagement and participation in handling the pandemic.Funding Statement: No funding was received for this survey.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: Clearance from the institute ethics committee, was obtained prior to the commencement of the study (IEC/411/4/2020).

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314695

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is causing major turmoil around the globe, and the clinical trial industry is likely to face unprecedented challenges to health and business sectors. In an effort to find a suitable treatment and prevention options for COVID-19, several COVID-19 clinical trials are being planned and initiated, while a large number of clinical trials for non- COVID-19 indications are suffering delays. With over more than 1000 trials being disrupted and more trials being added to this category daily, there is a direct impact on trial site activation and patient enrolment. This analysis deals with the specific impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical trial and pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study is to provide an updated information of the disrupted clinical trials and its impact on various therapeutic areas and different drugs. Among the severely affected clinical trials, oncology and CNS trials are the hardest hit therapy areas.This article will certainly emphasize the need for advanced and innovative approaches to maintain the health of the clinical trial ecosystem by continuing the existing trials and the start of the new studies. We have to take and follow necessary actions to guarantee that the initiatives will not be locked during the COVID-19 pandemic, both for the treatment of patients and for the researchers to conduct decision-relevant clinical trials.

17.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653353

ABSTRACT

Toll-like receptors were discovered as proteins playing a crucial role in the dorsoventral patterning during embryonic development in the Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) almost 40 years ago. Subsequently, further research also showed a role of the Toll protein or Toll receptor in the recognition of Gram-positive bacterial and fungal pathogens infecting D. melanogaster. In 1997, the human homolog was reported and the receptor was named the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) that recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the Gram-negative bacteria as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). Identification of TLR4 in humans filled the long existing gap in the field of infection and immunity, addressing the mystery surrounding the recognition of foreign pathogens/microbes by the immune system. It is now known that mammals (mice and humans) express 13 different TLRs that are expressed on the outer cell membrane or intracellularly, and which recognize different PAMPs or microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and death/damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to initiate the protective immune response. However, their dysregulation generates profound and prolonged pro-inflammatory immune responses responsible for different inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. This chapter provides an overview of TLRs in the control of the immune response, their association with different diseases, including TLR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), interactions with microRNAs (miRs), use in drug development and vaccine design, and expansion in neurosciences to include pain, addiction, metabolism, reproduction, and wound healing.

18.
Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence ; : 1-11, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1612258
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 743003, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581124

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has revealed existing health inequalities in racial and ethnic minority groups in the US. This work investigates and quantifies the non-uniform effects of geographical location and other known risk factors on various ethnic groups during the COVID-19 pandemic at a national level. To quantify the geographical impact on various ethnic groups, we grouped all the states of the US. into four different regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West) and considered Non-Hispanic White (NHW), Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Asian (NHA) as ethnic groups of our interest. Our analysis showed that infection and mortality among NHB and Hispanics are considerably higher than NHW. In particular, the COVID-19 infection rate in the Hispanic community was significantly higher than their population share, a phenomenon we observed across all regions in the US but is most prominent in the West. To gauge the differential impact of comorbidities on different ethnicities, we performed cross-sectional regression analyses of statewide data for COVID-19 infection and mortality for each ethnic group using advanced age, poverty, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes as risk factors. After removing the risk factors causing multicollinearity, poverty emerged as one of the independent risk factors in explaining mortality rates in NHW, NHB, and Hispanic communities. Moreover, for NHW and NHB groups, we found that obesity encapsulated the effect of several other comorbidities such as advanced age, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. At the same time, advanced age was the most robust predictor of mortality in the Hispanic group. Our study quantifies the unique impact of various risk factors on different ethnic groups, explaining the ethnicity-specific differences observed in the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings could provide insight into focused public health strategies and interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
20.
Sustainability ; 13(24):13642, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1572607

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused drastic changes across the globe, affecting all areas of life. This paper provides a comprehensive study on the influence of COVID-19 in various fields such as the economy, education, society, the environment, and globalization. In this study, both the positive and negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on education are studied. Modern technologies are combined with conventional teaching to improve the communication between instructors and learners. COVID-19 also greatly affected people with disabilities and those who are older, with these persons experiencing more complications in their normal routine activities. Additionally, COVID-19 provided negative impacts on world economies, greatly affecting the business, agriculture, entertainment, tourism, and service sectors. The impact of COVID-19 on these sectors is also investigated in this study, and this study provides some meaningful insights and suggestions for revitalizing the tourism sector. The association between globalization and travel restrictions is studied. In addition to economic and human health concerns, the influence of a lockdown on environmental health is also investigated. During periods of lockdown, the amount of pollutants in the air, soil, and water was significantly reduced. This study motivates researchers to investigate the positive and negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in various unexplored areas.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL