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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314696

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in the Wuhan province of China has taken millions of lives worldwide. In this pandemic situation and absence of known drugs and vaccines against novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), there is an urgent need for the repurposing of the existing drugs against it. So, here we have examined a safe and cheap alternative against this virus by screening hundreds of nutraceuticals compounds against known therapeutic targets of SARS-COV-2 by molecular docking .The virtual screening results were then analyzed for binding energy and interactive residues in the best binding pose. All these analyses of this study strongly predicted the potential of Folic acid and its derivates like Tetrahydrofolic acid and 5-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid against SARS-COV-2. The strong and stable binding affinity of this water-soluble vitamin and its derivatives against the SARS-COV-2, indicating that they could be valuable drugs against the management of this COVID-19 pandemic. This study could serve as the starting point for further investigation of these molecules through in-vitro and in-vivo assays.

2.
Biosci Rep ; 41(10)2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510636

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has become a global health emergency. Although new vaccines have been generated and being implicated, discovery and application of novel preventive and control measures are warranted. We aimed to identify compounds that may possess the potential to either block the entry of virus to host cells or attenuate its replication upon infection. Using host cell surface receptor expression (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2)) analysis as an assay, we earlier screened several synthetic and natural compounds and identified candidates that showed ability to down-regulate their expression. Here, we report experimental and computational analyses of two small molecules, Mortaparib and MortaparibPlus that were initially identified as dual novel inhibitors of mortalin and PARP-1, for their activity against SARS-CoV-2. In silico analyses showed that MortaparibPlus, but not Mortaparib, stably binds into the catalytic pocket of TMPRSS2. In vitro analysis of control and treated cells revealed that MortaparibPlus caused down-regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2; Mortaparib did not show any effect. Furthermore, computational analysis on SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) that also predicted the inhibitory activity of MortaparibPlus. However, cell-based antiviral drug screening assay showed 30-60% viral inhibition in cells treated with non-toxic doses of either MortaparibPlus or Mortaparib. The data suggest that these two closely related compounds possess multimodal anti-COVID-19 activities. Whereas MortaparibPlus works through direct interactions/effects on the host cell surface receptors (ACE2 and TMPRSS2) and the virus protein (Mpro), Mortaparib involves independent mechanisms, elucidation of which warrants further studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Mitochondrial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
3.
Biosci Rep ; 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450299

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus has become a global health emergency. Although new vaccines have been generated and being implicated, discovery and application of novel preventive and control measures are warranted. We aimed to identify compound/s that may possess the potential to either block the entry of virus to host cells or attenuate its replication upon infection. Using host cell surface receptor expression (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) analysis as an assay, we earlier screened several synthetic and natural compounds and identified candidates that showed ability to downregulate their expression. Here, we report experimental and computational analyses of two small molecules, Mortaparib and MortaparibPlus that were initially identified as dual novel inhibitors of mortalin and PARP-1, for their activity against SARS-CoV-2. In silico analyses showed that MortaparibPlus, but not Mortaparib, stably binds into the catalytic pocket of TMPRSS2. In vitro analysis of control and treated cells revealed that MortaparibPlus caused downregulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2; Mortaparib did not show any effect. Furthermore, computational analysis on SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) that also predicted the inhibitory activity of MortaparibPlus.  However, cell based anti-virus drug screening assay showed 30~60% viral inhibition in cells treated with non-toxic doses of either MortaparibPlus or Mortaparib. The data suggests that these two closely related compounds possess multimodal anti-COVID 19 activities. Whereas MortaparibPlus works through direct interactions/effects on the host cell surface receptors (ACE2 and TMPRSS2) and the virus protein (Mpro), Mortaparib involves independent mechanisms, elucidation of which warrants further studies.

4.
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology ; 14(8):4035-4039, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1439066

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona Virus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) has happened in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the cases of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is rapidly increasing worldwide. In the absence of specific drugs against COVID-19, the fast and reliable choice would be repurposing of existing drugs. Here, we have chosen one of the crucial enzymes of the SARS-CoV-2, Papain like protease (PLpro) and its mutant C111S for the structure-based in-silico screening of the FDA approved drugs. Firstly, the alignment of the wild type and mutant PLpro was done, and no significant change in the global structure was observed. Then based on the docking study, we have reported the best 3 compounds against a mutant and wild type PLpro. These lead compounds include amikacin and mafenide, which are well-known antibiotics. The binding affinity, as well as number of polar and non-polar interactions, indicates their potential against the PLpro. This computational study strongly suggests the experimental validations of the predicted compounds for a confident claim.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374424

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in December 2019 has caused a global pandemic. The rapid mutation rate in the virus has created alarming situations worldwide and is being attributed to the false negativity in RT-PCR tests. It has also increased the chances of reinfection and immune escape. Recently various lineages namely, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.617.1 (Kappa), B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.617.3 have caused rapid infection around the globe. To understand the biophysical perspective, we have performed molecular dynamic simulations of four different spikes (receptor binding domain)-hACE2 complexes, namely wildtype (WT), Alpha variant (N501Y spike mutant), Kappa (L452R, E484Q) and Delta (L452R, T478K), and compared their dynamics, binding energy and molecular interactions. Our results show that mutation has caused significant increase in the binding energy between the spike and hACE2 in Alpha and Kappa variants. In the case of Kappa and Delta variants, the mutations at L452R, T478K and E484Q increased the stability and intra-chain interactions in the spike protein, which may change the interaction ability of neutralizing antibodies to these spike variants. Further, we found that the Alpha variant had increased hydrogen interaction with Lys353 of hACE2 and more binding affinity in comparison to WT. The current study provides the biophysical basis for understanding the molecular mechanism and rationale behind the increase in the transmissivity and infectivity of the mutants compared to wild-type SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Protein Stability , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Thermodynamics
6.
J Public Aff ; : e2734, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340278

ABSTRACT

Management of COVID-19 largely depends on the reporting of suspected or confirmed positive cases. This study examined public's suspect report intention during COVID-19 using and extending the theory of planned behavior by adding two incident-specific variables such as perceived severity of COVID-19 and fear of retaliation. Direct association of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control with suspect report intention and moderating role of perceived severity of COVID-19 and fear of retaliation were probed. This study also investigated whether the moderation of perceived severity of COVID-19 (primary moderator) varies with different level of fear of retaliation (secondary moderator) using moderated moderation analysis. Analyzing data collected from 554 Indian citizens provides evidence that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were positively associated with suspect report intention. Perceived severity of COVID-19 and fear of retaliation negatively moderated such associations. When fear of retaliation was high, high perceived severity of COVID-19 did not positively moderate the association of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control with suspect report intention. Perceived behavioral control was the most potent facilitator and fear of retaliation was the strongest inhibitor of suspect report intention. Understanding people's suspect report intention can assist in implementing awareness programs to encourage suspect report intention and stop the community spread of COVID-19.

7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 297-312, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265684

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 corona virus has become a global pandemic. In the absence of drugs and vaccine, and premises of time, efforts and cost required for their development, natural resources such as herbs are anticipated to provide some help and may also offer a promising resource for drug development. Here, we have investigated the therapeutic prospective of Ashwagandha for the COVID-19 pandemic. Nine withanolides were tested in silico for their potential to target and inhibit (i) cell surface receptor protein (TMPRSS2) that is required for entry of virus to host cells and (ii) viral protein (the main protease Mpro) that is essential for virus replication. We report that the withanolides possess capacity to inhibit the activity of TMPRSS2 and Mpro. Furthermore, withanolide-treated cells showed downregulation of TMPRSS2 expression and inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, suggesting that Ashwagandha may provide a useful resource for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Withanolides/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Computer Simulation , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Withanolides/chemistry
8.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-14, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165102

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in China in December 2019 and its spread as worldwide pandemic has been a major global health crisis. Extremely high infection and mortality rate has severely affected all sectors of life and derailed the global economy. While drug and vaccine development have been prioritized and have made significant progression, use of phytochemicals and herbal constituents is deemed as a low-cost, safer and readily available alternative. We investigated therapeutic efficacy of eight withanolides (derived from Ashwagandha) against the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) proteins, a target cell surface receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and report results on the (i) computational analyses including binding affinity and stable interactions with ACE2, occupancy of ACE2 residues in making polar and nonpolar interactions with different withanolides/ligands and (2) in vitro mRNA and protein analyses using human cancer (A549, MCF7 and HSC3) cells. We found that among all withanolides, Withaferin-A, Withanone, Withanoside-IV and Withanoside-V significantly inhibited the ACE2 expression. Analysis of withanolides-rich aqueous extracts derived from Ashwagandha leaves and stem showed a higher ACE2 inhibitory potency of stem-derived extracts. Taken together, we demonstrated the inhibitory potency of Ashwagandha withanolides and its aqueous extracts against ACE2.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

9.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143613

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2) has accumulated multiple mutations during its global circulation. Recently, three SARS-CoV-2 lineages, B.1.1.7 (501Y.V1), B.1.351 (501Y.V2) and B.1.1.28.1 (P.1), have emerged in the United Kingdom, South Africa and Brazil, respectively. Here, we have presented global viewpoint on implications of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants based on structural-function impact of crucial mutations occurring in its spike (S), ORF8 and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. While the N501Y mutation was observed in all three lineages, the 501Y.V1 and P.1 accumulated a different set of mutations in the S protein. The missense mutational effects were predicted through a COVID-19 dedicated resource followed by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Current findings indicate that some mutations in the S protein might lead to higher affinity with host receptors and resistance against antibodies, but not all are due to different antibody binding (epitope) regions. Mutations may, however, result in diagnostic tests failures and possible interference with binding of newly identified anti-viral candidates against SARS-CoV-2, likely necessitating roll out of recurring "flu-like shots" annually for tackling COVID-19. The functional relevance of these mutations has been described in terms of modulation of host tropism, antibody resistance, diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic candidates. Besides global economic losses, post-vaccine reinfections with emerging variants can have significant clinical, therapeutic and public health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Virusdisease ; 32(1): 29-37, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061036

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in the Wuhan province of China has taken millions of lives worldwide. In this pandemic situation and absence of known drugs and vaccines against novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), there is an urgent need for the repurposing of the existing drugs against it. So, here we have examined a safe and cheap alternative against this virus by screening hundreds of nutraceuticals compounds against known therapeutic targets of SARS-COV-2 by molecular docking. The virtual screening results were then analyzed for binding energy and interactive residues and compared with some already known hits in the best binding pose. All these analyses of this study strongly predicted the potential of Folic acid and its derivates like Tetrahydrofolic acid and 5-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid against SARS-COV-2. The strong and stable binding affinity of this water-soluble vitamin and its derivatives against the SARS-COV-2, indicating that they could be valuable drugs against the management of this COVID-19 pandemic. This study could serve as the starting point for further investigation of these molecules through in vitro and in vivo assays.

11.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(1): 1-13, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436584

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) initiated in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and became pandemic causing high fatality and disrupted normal life calling world almost to a halt. Causative agent is a novel coronavirus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/2019-nCoV). While new line of drug/vaccine development has been initiated world-wide, in the current scenario of high infected numbers, severity of the disease and high morbidity, repurposing of the existing drugs is heavily explored. Here, we used a homology-based structural model of transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), a cell surface receptor, required for entry of virus to the target host cell. Using the strengths of molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we examined the binding potential of Withaferin-A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester to TPMRSS2 in comparison to its known inhibitor, Camostat mesylate. We found that both Wi-A and Wi-N could bind and stably interact at the catalytic site of TMPRSS2. Wi-N showed stronger interactions with TMPRSS2 catalytic residues than Wi-A and was also able to induce changes in its allosteric site. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of Wi-N on TMPRSS2 expression in MCF7 cells and found remarkable downregulation of TMPRSS2 mRNA in treated cells predicting dual action of Wi-N to block SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells. Since the natural compounds are easily available/affordable, they may even offer a timely therapeutic/preventive value for the management of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We also report that Wi-A/Wi-N content varies in different parts of Ashwagandha and warrants careful attention for their use.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Withanolides/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Serine , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
12.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(11): 3842-3854, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324383

ABSTRACT

The recent novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/2019-nCoV) has caused a large number of deaths around the globe. There is an urgent need to understand this new virus and develop prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. Since drug development is an expensive, intense and time-consuming path, timely repurposing of the existing drugs is often explored wherein the research avenues including genomics, bioinformatics, molecular modeling approaches offer valuable strengths. Here, we have examined the binding potential of Withaferin-A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) (active withanolides of Ashwagandha) and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE, bioactive ingredient of propolis) to a highly conserved protein, Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. We found that Wi-N and CAPE, but not Wi-A, bind to the substrate-binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with efficacy and binding energies equivalent to an already claimed N3 protease inhibitor. Similar to N3 inhibitor, Wi-N and CAPE were interacting with the highly conserved residues of the proteases of coronaviruses. The binding stability of these molecules was further analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energies calculated using MM/GBSA for N3 inhibitor, CAPE and Wi-N were also comparable. Data presented here predicted that these natural compounds may possess the potential to inhibit the functional activity of SARS-CoV-2 protease (an essential protein for virus survival), and hence (i) may connect to save time and cost required for designing/development, and initial screening for anti-COVID drugs, (ii) may offer some therapeutic value for the management of novel fatal coronavirus disease, (iii) warrants prioritized further validation in the laboratory and clinical tests.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Caffeic Acids , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Withanolides
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