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1.
Digital Innovation for Healthcare in COVID-19 Pandemic: Strategies and Solutions ; : 331-350, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2027767

ABSTRACT

Deep learning involves using deep neural networks with multiple hierarchical hidden layers of nonlinear processing of input to allow complex patterns to be discovered from vast volumes of raw data. Performance is improved through adjusting, optimizing, and regulating hyperparameters. An unsupervised study can find patterns in the data when there are no labels or distribution of probability in data. The study of genomic sequencing and genome expression is typically characterized by deep learning. Prediction of genomic profiles is based on around 1000 programs of the NIH Integrated Network (LINCS) that have dramatically surpassed linear regression in both RNA-seq findings and microarrays in terms of predictive precision. To predict the transcription factor binding sites, inputs taken from Deep CNN have been encrypted. By retrieving higher levels from those in raw nucleotides, the deeper model would make categorization more accurate. Genetic variations may affect the transcription of DNA and mRNA. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2.
JBRA Assisted Reproduction ; 01:01, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975276

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has emerged as the biggest pandemic of the world of all times. Its death toll is rising globally. COVID-19 mostly affects the lungs because the virus enters the host cells via the receptor for the ACE2 enzyme, which is also present in other organs of the human body. ACE2 plays the main role in the degradation of Ang II, resulting in the formation of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) which maintains the level of Ang II. This communication gives an assessment of reproductive system functioning and its effects by the COVID-19 exposure. It is important to maintain the wellbeing for healthy nourishment of the fetus and safe delivery along with post health issues. ACE2 enzyme metabolism is expressed in the female reproductive system, and it may be potential target of COVID-19 exposure.

4.
International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations ; 26(3):231-248, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875143

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has shifted everyone to remote work. The paper discusses how employees have overcome various challenges to make most of the benefits of remote work. The benefits of remote work are flexible work arrangements, ease of working, access to global opportunities and positive impact on diversity hiring. The challenges of remote work are access to technology, tackling virtual distance and managing productivity. Exploratory research was conducted with a sample size of 93. Data was analysed using SPSS. The sample comprised of professionals who were working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study verified the hypothesis using Spearman rank order correlation. The respondents are ready to overcome the challenges of remote work because of the benefits which remote work provides. Data verifies that hybrid workplace would enable to open doors for women on career break to reenter workforce. © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

5.
Open Bioinformatics Journal ; 15(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847028

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has mutated rapidly, enabling it to adapt and evade the immune system of the host. Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants with crucial mutations pose a global challenge in the context of therapeutic drugs and vaccines developing globally. There are currently no specific therapeutics or vaccines available to combat SARS-CoV-2 devastation. Concerning this, the current study aimed to identify and characterize the mutations found in the Nsp13 of SARS-CoV-2 in Indian isolates. Methods: In the present study, the Clustal omega tool was used for mutational analysis. The impact of mutations on protein stability, flexibility, and function was predicted using the DynaMut and PROVEAN tools. Furthermore, B-cell epitopes contributed by Nsp13 were identified using various predictive immunoinformatic tools. Results: Non-structural protein Nsp13 sequences from Indian isolates were analyzed by comparing them with the firstly reported Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) protein sequence in Wuhan, China. Out of 825 Nsp13 protein sequences, a total of 38 mutations were observed among Indian isolates. Our data showed that mutations in Nsp13 at various positions (H164Y, A237T, T214I, C309Y, S236I, P419S, V305E, G54S, H290Y, P53S, A308Y, and A308Y) have a significant impact on the protein's stability and flexibility. Moreover, the impact of Nsp13 mutations on protein function was predicted based on the PROVEAN score that indicated 15 mutants as neutral and 23 mutants as deleterious effects. Immunological parameters of Nsp13, such as antigenicity, allergenicity, and toxicity, were evaluated to predict the potential B-cell epitopes. The predicted peptide sequences were correlated with the observed mutants. Our predicted data showed that there are seven high-rank linear epitopes as well as 18 discontinuous B-cell epitopes based on immunoinformatic tools. Moreover, it was observed that out of the total 38 identified mutations among Indian SARS-CoV-2 Nsp13 protein, four mutant residues at positions 142 (E142), 245 (H245), 247 (V247), and 419 (P419) were localised in the predicted B cell epitopic region. Conclusion: Altogether, the results of the present in silico study might help to understand the impact of the identified mutations in Nsp13 protein on its stability, flexibility, and function. © 2022 Kumari et al.

6.
Library Philosophy and Practice ; : 1-15, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1772456

ABSTRACT

This paper attempts to highlight the growth and development of Covid-19 Vaccine literature and make the quantitative and qualitative assessment by way of analyzing various features of research output and Citations impact based on the Web of Science database. A total of 433 publications were published on Covid-19 Vaccine, which received 52567 Citations during 1989-2020. The average number of citations per publication was 121.4. The research was peaked in 2020 with 97(Which received a minimum of 500 Citations) Publications and the highest number of citations (14623) were received in 2020. USA had the highest share 229 ofpublications and received 29027 Citations followed by the Peoples Republic of China with 13798 Citations for 114 publications, the UK with 4314 Citations for 35 publications, Germany with 3404 Citations for 33 publications, the Netherlands with 28 Citations for 28 publications. The study found that India has recorded 705 Citations for 9 Publications. The highly productive Institutions were: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases from the USA with 39 publications and received 6076 Citations followed by University N Carolina- the USA with 31 publications and 4118 citations, University Hong Kong- China with 23 publications and 3546 citations, New York Blood Centre with 21 publications and 2931 citations. The highly productive (Citations) journals are JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY with 5724 Citations for 53 Publications, SCIENCE with 4163 Citations for 13 publications, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA with 3113 Citations for 20 publications, NATURE with 2250 Citations for 13 publications, and LANCET with 1528 Citations for 8 publications. This may be attributed to a new field for research to demystify the phenomena of Covid-19 Vaccine. There were 18 single Author publications by the scientists and 2906 multi-Author collaborative publications. The Collaboration Index is 7.05 and Citing Articles 15055.

7.
ProQuest Central;
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-328267

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (CoVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 has affected more than 100 million lives. Severe CoVID-19 infection may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome and death of the patient, and is associated with hyperinflammation and cytokine storm. The broad spectrum immunosuppressant corticosteroid, dexamethasone, is being used to manage the cytokine storm and hyperinflammation in CoVID-19 patients. However, the extensive use of corticosteroids leads to serious adverse events and disruption of the gut-lung axis. Various micronutrients and probiotic supplementations are known to aid in the reduction of hyperinflammation and restoration of gut microbiota. The attenuation of the deleterious immune response and hyperinflammation could be mediated by short chain fatty acids produced by the gut microbiota. Butyric acid, the most extensively studied short chain fatty acid, is known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Additionally, butyric acid has been shown to ameliorate hyperinflammation and reduce oxidative stress in various pathologies, including respiratory viral infections. In this review, the potential anti-inflammatory effects of butyric acid that aid in cytokine storm depletion, and its usefulness in effective management of critical illness related to CoVID-19 have been discussed.

8.
Journal of Young Pharmacists ; 13(3):S101-S107, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1667581

ABSTRACT

Background: Covid-19 is a significant global health burden. The pulmonary morbidity and mortality of Covid-19 is well described, however, there is mounting evidence of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, which may be of paramount significance. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of global literature of the peripheral and central neurological manifestations of Covid-19, using bibliometric methods. Methods: The study downloaded publications on this topic from the Scopus database using a well-defined research strategy. The search strategy was initially based on using different keywords related to Covid-19 in "Keyword" and "Title" search tags of Scopus database. The search was subsequently restricted to "Neurosciences" subject, yielding 5245 global records. Results: The 5245 global publications were published on `Covid-19 and Neurosciences" as covered in Scopus database and they have received 5245 citations, averaging 13.46 citations per paper. Of these 5245 publications, 24.54% (1287) received external funding support from 150+ agencies and averaged 20.17 citations per paper. 160 countries participated in global research on this topic, with USA, U.K. and Italy contributing the largest publication share (26.43%, 12.14% and 10.51%) and China (23.8 and 1.78), Spain (9.13 and 0.68) and Italy (8.56 and 0.64) registering the highest citation impact, based on citations per paper and relative citation index. "Adults", among population age groups, contributed the largest share (30.31%), followed by "Aged" (9.48%), "Middle Aged" (9.02%), "Children"(4,73%) and "Adolescents" (2.71%). "Stroke", "Multiple Sclerosis" and "Headache" among type of neurological diseases impacted by Covid-19, contributed the largest global publication share (6.31%, 6.22% and 6.06%), followed by "Seizure", "Parkinson's Disease", Cerebrovascular Accident", "Anosmia", "Guillain-Barre Syndrome" and "Epilepsy" (from 4.39% to 5.62%), etc. "Clinical Studies", among various types of research, contributed the largest publication share (29.38%) in total output impacted by Covid-19, followed by "Complications" (16.03%), "Treatment" (13.99%), "Pathophysiology" 12.18), "Risk Factors"(10.79%), "Epidemiology" (9.38%) and "Genetics". Among participating organizations, Harvard Medical School, USA, University of Toronto, Canada and INSERM, France contributed the largest output (with 142, 101 and 99 papers) and University of Cambridge, U.K. (72.97 and 5.46), King's College London, U.K. (49.97 and 3.74), University College London, U.K. (47.58 and 3.56) registered the largest citation impact. Among participating authors, J. Sterer (24 papers), F.A. Scorza (20 papers) and E. Moro (14 papers) contributed the largest number of papers and Z. Liu (169.7 and 12.7), M.L.R. Neto (54.92 and 4.11) and G. Tsivgoulis (45.54 and 3.41) registered the highest citation impact. Among journals participating on this theme, Psychiatry Research (311 papers), The Lancet Psychiatry (175 papers) and Frontiers in Neurology (172 papers) contributed the largest number of papers and Brain, Behavior and Immunity (61.35), The Lancet Psychiatry (54.58) and Nature Human Behavior (44.37) registered the largest citation impact per paper. Conclusion: This paper evaluates the rapidly evolving literature on the neurological manifestations of Covid-19, which will help to inform and improve decision-making among physicians treating Covid-19 and scholars conducting research on this area. It will also aid in the recognition of significant extra-pulmonary manifestations of the disease among attending front-line clinicians and consulting neurologists and also help them in understanding the pandemic's broader impact on chronic disease management.

9.
Journal of Young Pharmacists ; 13(3):S13-S18, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1667568

ABSTRACT

Background: The study analyzed and evaluated the scientific research on "Covid-19 and Aged People" to find out the current status of research and to identify significant players (countries, organizations and authors) and important topics from the 469 high-cited publications receiving 100 and more citations using bibliometric methods. Methods: High-cited publications published from December 2019 to June 2021 were identified and analyzed. A list keywords were identified for Covid-19 ("Covid 19" or "2019 novel Coronavirus" or "Coronavirus 2019" or "Coronavirus disease 2019" or "2019-novel CoV" OR "2019 ncov" or "Covid 2019" or "Covid-19" or "Corona virus 2019" or "ncov-2019" or "ncov2019" or "nCoV 2019" or "2019-ncov" or "covid-19" or "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" or "SARS-CoV-2") and Aged People ("Aged" or "Elderly" or "Old" or "Very Elderly") and these keywords are used for search on the topic of study (the title, , keywords). Results: A total of 469 high-cited publications were obtained on this topic, which registered 449.5 citations per paper and witnessed the participation of 64 countries, with China, USA and U.K. leading in global publication productivity (with 189, 162 and 70 publications each) and China (687.25), Singapore (409.20) and Switzerland (396.41) leading in citation impact per paper. The 2123 organizations and 5896 authors participated in these 469 high-cited publications. Huazong University of Science and Technology, China, Wuhan University, China and University of Oxford, U.K. leads in publications productivity (with 66, 37 and 20 publications each) and Capital Medical University, China, University of Hong Kong (1454.6) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China leads in citations impact per paper. L. Liu, J. Chen and Y. Hu leads in publications productivity (with 16, 13 and 13 publications each) and Y. Liu (17100.5), Y.Hu (15395.5) and L. Zhang (15079.0) leads in citations impact per paper. New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet and JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association leads in both publication productivity and citations impact per paper. The keywords that appeared most were "Covid-19" and "Aged People" which had a strong links with "mortality", "hospitalization", "hypertension", "respiratory failure", "diabetes mellitus", "chronic kidney failure", "anxiety:, "depression" and "mental health". Conclusion: The current bibliometric analysis provides information about the quantity and quality of research in this area based on published literature. It provides information on current status of research in this area to decision-makers and practicing scholars and provides important clues about upcoming research topics for future research.

10.
Journal of Young Pharmacists ; 13(3):S7-S12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1667567

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The rapid production of a large volume of literature during the last 2-3 phases of the Covid-19 disease outbreak created a substantial burden for clinicians and scientists. Therefore, this paper provides a bibliometric overview on the high-cited papers indexed in the ESI database in the field of Covid-19, during 2020-21, focusing on the research domain and keywords, main actors (countries, organizations and authors) and main sources of publications. Methods: The Essential Science Indicators (ESI) database is widely used to assess scientific outputs. ESI include high-cited papers that have received enough citations to place them in the top 1% when compared to all other papers published in the same year in the same field. High-cited papers are defined as papers receiving 100 or more citations since their publication. Therefore, high-cited papers included in ESI database are of high-quality in each field and therefore used in this study. A bibliometric analysis based on 848 high-cited papers extracted from the Essential Science Indicators database was carried out to provide insights into performances and research characteristics of Covid-19 literature. Indicators were applied to evaluate the influence of the most productive journals, countries/territories, organizations and authors. Social network analysis was performed to evaluate and visualize the interaction among productive countries/territories, organizations, authors and keywords using VOSviewer software. Results: The results showed that the 848 high-cited papers received 244699 citations were from 9734 authors employed at 2607 organizations based in 101 countries/territories. The papers were published in 369 journals in the field. The top 5 core journals ranked based on: (i) total papers were New England Journal of Medicine (37), Science of the Total Environment (35), Science (28), The Lancet (21) and Nature (18) and (ii) total citations were New England Journal of Medicine (28173), Lancet (17128), JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association (9603), International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (5865) and Nature Medicine (5659). The top 5 organizations ranked on (i) total papers were Huazhong University of Science & Technology (42), Harvard Medical School, USA (41), University of Oxford, U.K. (31), University of Cambridge, U.K. (25) and London Global University (UCL)(25) and (ii) total citations were Huazhong University of Science & Technology, China (32563), University of Hong Kong (17868), Tsinghua University, China (15827), University of Oxford (13802) and Guanzhou Medical University, China (13155). The top 5 authors ranked on: (i) total papers were Y. Zhang (15), Y. Hu (14), L. Liu (14), J,. Wang (14) and Y. Liu (13) and (ii) total citations were Y. Liu (23285), J. Xiang (.20391), Y. Hu (18804) and Y. Zhang (16495). The top five countries ranked on : (I) total papers were USA (336), China (222), U.K. (153), Italy (90) and Germany (74) and (ii) total citations were China (114620), USA (88474), U.K. (46535), Italy (24546) and Germany (24028).Based on network map using VOSviewer, there were micro, meso and macro level collaborations based on common interests in a specific topic. Analysis of all keywords showed that the research was distributed into 6 clusters. Conclusion: Results obtained from this study can provide valuable information for researchers to better identify present and future hotspots in Covid-19-related fields. The most relevant literature on the Covid-19 pandemic will also provide information relevant to the evidence-based decision-making process and future studies are essential to gain precise knowledge on Covid-19 infection across various human organs and various sub-fields and sectors.

11.
Eur J Dent ; 16(3): 478-487, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596468

ABSTRACT

Limiting the spread of virus during the recent pandemic outbreak was a major challenge. Viral loads in saliva, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were the major cause for droplet transmission and aerosols. Saliva being the major contributor for the presence of viral load is the major key factor; various mouthwashes and their combination were analyzed and utilized in health care centers to hamper the spread of virus and decrease viral load. The compositions of these mouthwashes to an extent affected the viral load and thereby transmission, but there is always a scope for other protocols which may provide better results. Here we evaluated the potential of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in decreasing the viral load of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through an in silico work and evidence from other studies. This narrative review highlighted a brief nonsystematic methodology to include the selected articles for discussion. Accessible electronic databases (Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO, and PubMed) were used to find studies that reported the salivary viral load of SARS-CoV-2 published between December 2019 and June 2021. The following keywords were utilized for brief searching of the databases: "saliva," "viral load," and "SARS-CoV-2." Articles in English language, in vitro cell-line studies, ex vivo studies, and clinical trials explaining the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva and strategies to decrease viral load were included in this review. The search was complemented by manual searching of the reference lists of included articles and performing a citation search for any additional reviews. The antiviral potential of cationic host defense peptide LL-37 was evaluated using computational approaches providing in silico evidence. The analysis of docking studies and the display of positive interfacial hydrophobicity of LL-37 resulting in disruption of COVID-19 viral membrane elucidate the fact that LL-37 could be effective against all variants of SARS-CoV-2. Further experimental studies would be needed to confirm the binding of the receptor-binding domain with LL-37. The possibility of using it in many forms further to decrease the viral load by disrupting the viral membrane is seen.

12.
Communications on Pure and Applied Analysis ; 0(0):24, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1534306

ABSTRACT

Since the start of COVID-19 pandemic, the definition of normal life has changed drastically. The number of cases of this pandemic is rising everyday across the globe. In this study, we propose a compartmental model, which considers the isolation factor of Coronavirus infected individuals. The model consists of five compartments: susceptible (S), exposed (E), Infected (I), Isolated (L) and recovered (R). We have estimated the parameters of the model system and the expression of the basic reproduction number R-0 using real data set. The exact value of the basic reproduction number is computed for India, Brazil and Peru. The local and global stability analysis of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium points is carried out. The forecasting of the pandemic is done using real data. It has been observed that to understand the pandemic the time frame has to be divided into small intervals as the parameters of the pandemic are changing with time. Within a time frame of approximately four months (i.e. from July to October 2020), the transmission rate of India has been reduced by approximately 84%. Whereas the transmission rate in Brazil and Peru has increased by 79% and 45% respectively. The sensitivity of various parameters involved in the model has been analyzed. We have presented a complete analysis to check the existence of backward bifurcation.

13.
Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine ; 22(1-2):6-11, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1444800

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Psychological issues of COVID-19 suspect and positive patients in isolation and quarantine facilities can be addressed using mHealth. Methodology: mHealth telecounselling framework for COVID-19 inpatients was established using existing manpower and standardised operating procedures. Separate WhatsApp groups were used to obtain contact data of consenting patients, allocate patients to counsellors, and clinical discussion. Telecounselling was documented in real-time in a Google form database and remotely monitored for adherence to the standard of care. Pilot anonymised scale based client satisfaction feedback was obtained from discharged patients using a Google form link shared on WhatsApp. Results: 2918 telecounselling sessions were conducted between 21 March and 25 June 2020 for 643 inpatients (280 COVID-19 positive and 363 COVID suspect but later determined negative;mean age 49.57 years ± 15.23;male: female = 404: 239). Psychological issues included anxiety (43.54%), low mood (9.79%), irritability (9.33%), insomnia (8.39%) boredom (8.24%), frustration (7.46%), fearfulness (3.57%) anger (1.24%) and Delusion of pregnancy in one non-compliant psychotic patient. Interventions provided were supportive psychotherapy (57.69%), psychoeducation (52.72%), counselling regarding testing protocol (41.21%), sleep hygiene (20.06%), relaxation techniques (14.61%), activity scheduling (6.22%). Only 9 (1.39%) patients needed pharmacotherapy. Most respondents expressed satisfaction on pilot anonymised feedback (n = 115: M: F = 73: 42) with 83% recommending the programme for other COVID-19 settings despite concerns for possible lack of privacy and confidentiality (31.1%). Conclusion: Telemental Health Counselling Programme is a low cost, feasible, culturally acceptable, and sustainable mHealth initiative which can be easily transposed in other COVID-19 settings. © 2021, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine. All rights reserved.

14.
Library Philosophy and Practice ; 2021:1-14, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1361108

ABSTRACT

This study analyses Covid-19 and Emergency Medicine research output during 2020-2021 on different parameters including global publications share, citation impact, contribution of authors and patterns of research communication in most productive and preferred journals. Web of Science Citation Database has been used to retrieve the data for 2 years (2020-2021) with 991 publications using the combined search of Covid-19 with topic field and Emergency Medicine with using Web of Science Subject Categories. The USA tops the list, with a publications share of 38.6%(383) followed far by Italy and UK ranks second with 7.7%(76), Canada with 7.6% and India ranks 14th positions with global publications share of 1.7 %(17)). The most productive Institutions are: Harvard Medical University lead with 34 Publications and received 134 Citations followed by University Toronto with 29 (96 Citations), Massachusetts Gen Hospital with 26 (86 Citations), Monash University with 22 (92 Citations), Columbia University and University Ottawa with 18 publications. The top most 5 preferred Journals are: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE (IF: 1.70 with 141 publication followed far by ANNALS OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE (IF: 5.35) with 97 publications, RESUSCITATION (IF: 4.57) with 77, WESTERN JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE (IF: 1.80) with 71 and EMERGENCY MEDICINE JOURNAL (IF: 2.04) with 64. But its average annual publication growth rate and global publication share is high and Citation quality as reflected in Average Citations Per Paper is less. Concludes that the research needs to increase its output and bring about improvement in the quality of its research efforts. This can be done by investing much more international collaboration and by modernizing and strengthening its research infrastructure in the field of Medicines. © 2021. All Rights Reserved.

15.
Eurasian Journal of Medicine and Oncology ; 5(2):163-180, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1326060

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been the current global pandemic concern. With a high transmission rate, especially through direct contact, this disease spreads from person to person, and this has in turn led to a huge number of infections on a global scale. Methods: In present study, comparative genomic analysis was performed using 151 gene sequences of the viral spike protein retrieved from NCBI and along with its translated nucleotide sequences using MEGAX software. Variation in the nucleotide and amino acid positions were identified. Results: Our analysis revealed that 22 nucleotide variations observed in positions 13, 141, 162, 233, 284, 328, 455, 459, 716, 773, 784, 882, 1686, 1715, 1749, 1841, 2031, 2076, 2383, 2520, 2533, 3300 and 17 amino acid variations observed in position 5, 54, 78, 90, 95, 152, 153, 239, 258, 262, 572, 583, 614, 684, 677, 795 and 845. Further, phylogenetic analysis was used to uncover the patterns of spread of the virus across the affected countries. Although, certain strains showed patterns of transmission within communities, a vast majority revealed an evident mosaic pattern. Conclusion: The data obtained provides a clear understanding of variations in the nucleotide and translated nucleotide sequences, which can be targeted towards drug designing and to study evolutionary analysis.

16.
Mathematical Engineering ; : 101-124, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1184626

ABSTRACT

Italy faced the COVID-19 crisis in the early stages of the pandemic. In the present study, a SEIR compartment mathematical model has been proposed. The model considers four stages of infection: susceptible(S), exposed (E), infected (I) and recovered (R). Basic reproduction number R0 which estimates the transmission potential of a disease has been calculated by the next-generation matrix technique. We have estimated the model parameters using real data for the Coronavirus transmission. To get a dipper insight into the transmission dynamics, we have also studied four of the most pandemic affected regions of Italy. Basic reproduction number stood differently for different regions of Italy i.e. Lombardia (2.1382), Veneto (1.7512), Emilia Romagna (1.6331), Piemonte (1.9099) and for Italy at 2.0683. The sensitivity of R0 corresponding to various disease transmission parameters has also been demonstrated via numerical simulations. Besides, it has been demonstrated with the help of simulations that earlier lockdown and rapid isolation of infective individuals would have been helpful in a dual way;by substantially reducing the number of susceptible people on one hand and preponing the end of the pandemic on the other. This paper also includes complete theoretical analysis of the proposed model including the epidemic feasibility of the model and existence of endemic equilibrium point. We have also derived the conditions under which the disease became endemic. Since the existence of an endemic equilibrium point refers to the possibility of backward bifurcation, we have given a detailed analysis regarding the same. All the theoretical analysis is supported by detailed numerical simulations to understand the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 While analyzing different regions of Italy it was found that Lombardia was the hardest hit and had the highest number of infectives. We have also forecasted the future scenario of the pandemic in Italy. The model predicts that the COVID-19 epidemic shall die out from the worst affected Lombardia region by approximately by November 2020. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

17.
International Journal of Current Research and Review ; 12(18):35-41, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-822785

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus condition (COVID-19) is a contagious illness brought on by a freshly discovered Coronavirus. Most individuals contaminated with the COVID-19 infection will certainly experience moderate to modest respiratory system health problems and recoup without needing unique therapy. Older people and those with underlying clinical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetic issues, persistent respiratory conditions, and cancer are more likely to create a significant health problem. Aim and Objective: This paper gives the best way to prevent and reduce transmission is to be well educated about the COVID-19 infection, its causes, and its spread. Protect your own and others from infection by cleaning your hands or using an alcohol-based rub frequently and not touching your face. The COVID-19 infection spreads out primarily via beads of saliva or dis-charge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it is vital that you additionally exercise breathing rules (for instance, by coughing right into a flexed elbow joint). Right now, there are no detailed vaccinations or therapies for COVID-19. Nevertheless, there are several ongoing professional trials assessing capacity treatments. Method: The study aimed to develop a statistical model to predict how the cases are growing exponentially in various parts of the world. Even after starting from a low base, there is no proper statistical analysis of cases we can expect. It is an ambiguous thing that numbers of cases are exponentially increasing. We have analyzed the mortality rate, the number of deaths per country, and the number of recovery cases. Conclusion: By comparing the statistical analysis of confirmed cases vs. deaths within a short period, nCov-19 affected the most compared with Zoonotic viruses. The coronavirus disease remains to spread out throughout the globe, adhering to a trajec-tory that is challenging to predict. The health, altruistic, and socio-economic policies have taken on by nations will certainly figure out the rate and stamina of the healing. There has to be a global human-centred reaction that is based on solidarity. © IJCRR.

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