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1.
Brain Disord ; 4: 100021, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1426913

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have emerged as alarming pathogens owing to their inherent ability of genetic variation and cross-species transmission. Coronavirus infection burdens the endoplasmic reticulum (ER.), causes reactive oxygen species production and induces host stress responses, including unfolded protein response (UPR) and antioxidant system. In this study, we have employed a neurotropic murine ß-coronavirus (M-CoV) infection in the Central Nervous System (CNS) of experimental mice model to study the role of host stress responses mediated by interplay of DJ-1 and XBP1. DJ-1 is an antioxidant molecule with established functions in neurodegeneration. However, its regulation in virus-induced cellular stress response is less explored. Our study showed that M-CoV infection activated the glial cells and induced antioxidant and UPR genes during the acute stage when the viral titer peaks. As the virus particles decreased and acute neuroinflammation diminished at day ten p.i., a significant up-regulation in UPR responsive XBP1, antioxidant DJ-1, and downstream signaling molecules, including Nrf2, was recorded in the brain tissues. Additionally, preliminary in silico analysis of the binding between the DJ-1 promoter and a positively charged groove of XBP1 is also investigated, thus hinting at a mechanism behind the upregulation of DJ-1 during MHV-infection. The current study thus attempts to elucidate a novel interplay between the antioxidant system and UPR in the outcome of coronavirus infection.

2.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 5998042, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731358

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary medical image analysis using image processing and deep learning approaches has made remarkable achievements in the diagnosis, prognosis, and severity check of lung diseases. The epidemic of COVID-19 brought out by the novel coronavirus has triggered a critical need for artificial intelligence assistance in diagnosing and controlling the disease to reduce its effects on people and global economies. This study aimed at identifying the various COVID-19 medical imaging analysis models proposed by different researchers and featured their merits and demerits. It gives a detailed discussion on the existing COVID-19 detection methodologies (diagnosis, prognosis, and severity/risk detection) and the challenges encountered for the same. It also highlights the various preprocessing and post-processing methods involved to enhance the detection mechanism. This work also tries to bring out the different unexplored research areas that are available for medical image analysis and how the vast research done for COVID-19 can advance the field. Despite deep learning methods presenting high levels of efficiency, some limitations have been briefly described in the study. Hence, this review can help understand the utilization and pros and cons of deep learning in analyzing medical images.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(11): e1009034, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950851

ABSTRACT

The interferon-induced tetratricopeptide repeat protein (Ifit2) protects mice from lethal neurotropic viruses. Neurotropic coronavirus MHV-RSA59 infection of Ifit2-/- mice caused pronounced morbidity and mortality accompanied by rampant virus replication and spread throughout the brain. In spite of the higher virus load, induction of many cytokines and chemokines in the brains of infected Ifit2-/- mice were similar to that in wild-type mice. In contrast, infected Ifit2-/- mice revealed significantly impaired microglial activation as well as reduced recruitment of NK1.1 T cells and CD4 T cells to the brain, possibly contributing to the lack of viral clearance. These two deficiencies were associated with a lower level of microglial expression of CX3CR1, the receptor of the CX3CL1 (Fractalkine) chemokine, which plays a critical role in both microglial activation and leukocyte recruitment. The above results uncovered a new potential role of an interferon-induced protein in immune protection.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Cell Movement/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Leukocytes/virology , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/immunology , Animals , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/deficiency , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Leukocytes/cytology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia/metabolism , Murine hepatitis virus/metabolism
4.
J Virol ; 94(14)2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823496

ABSTRACT

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a murine betacoronavirus (m-CoV) that causes a wide range of diseases in mice and rats, including hepatitis, enteritis, respiratory diseases, and encephalomyelitis in the central nervous system (CNS). MHV infection in mice provides an efficient cause-effect experimental model to understand the mechanisms of direct virus-induced neural-cell damage leading to demyelination and axonal loss, which are pathological features of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common disabling neurological disease in young adults. Infiltration of T lymphocytes, activation of microglia, and their interplay are the primary pathophysiological events leading to disruption of the myelin sheath in MS. However, there is emerging evidence supporting gray matter involvement and degeneration in MS. The investigation of T cell function in the pathogenesis of deep gray matter damage is necessary. Here, we employed RSA59 (an isogenic recombinant strain of MHV-A59)-induced experimental neuroinflammation model to compare the disease in CD4-/- mice with that in CD4+/+ mice at days 5, 10, 15, and 30 postinfection (p.i.). Viral titer estimation, nucleocapsid gene amplification, and viral antinucleocapsid staining confirmed enhanced replication of the virions in the absence of functional CD4+ T cells in the brain. Histopathological analyses showed elevated susceptibility of CD4-/- mice to axonal degeneration in the CNS, with augmented progression of acute poliomyelitis and dorsal root ganglionic inflammation rarely observed in CD4+/+ mice. Depletion of CD4+ T cells showed unique pathological bulbar vacuolation in the brain parenchyma of infected mice with persistent CD11b+ microglia/macrophages in the inflamed regions on day 30 p.i. In summary, the current study suggests that CD4+ T cells are critical for controlling acute-stage poliomyelitis (gray matter inflammation), chronic axonal degeneration, and inflammatory demyelination due to loss of protective antiviral host immunity.IMPORTANCE The current trend in CNS disease biology is to attempt to understand the neural-cell-immune interaction to investigate the underlying mechanism of neuroinflammation, rather than focusing on peripheral immune activation. Most studies in MS are targeted toward understanding the involvement of CNS white matter. However, the importance of gray matter damage has become critical in understanding the long-term progressive neurological disorder. Our study highlights the importance of CD4+ T cells in safeguarding neurons against axonal blebbing and poliomyelitis from murine betacoronavirus-induced neuroinflammation. Current knowledge of the mechanisms that lead to gray matter damage in MS is limited, because the most widely used animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), does not present this aspect of the disease. Our results, therefore, add to the existing limited knowledge in the field. We also show that the microglia, though important for the initiation of neuroinflammation, cannot establish a protective host immune response without the help of CD4+ T cells.


Subject(s)
Axons/immunology , Axons/metabolism , CD4 Antigens/deficiency , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Poliomyelitis/etiology , Animals , Axons/pathology , Brain/immunology , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Ganglia, Spinal/immunology , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Ganglia, Spinal/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Mice
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