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J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-17, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517682


COVID-19, for which no confirmed therapeutic agents are available, has claimed over 48,14,000 lives globally. A feasible and quicker method to resolve this problem may be 'drug repositioning'. We investigated selected FDA and WHO-EML approved drugs based on their previously promising potential as antivirals, antibacterials or antifungals. These drugs were docked onto the nsp12 protein, which reigns the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of SARS-CoV-2, a key therapeutic target for coronaviruses. Docked complexes were reevaluated using MM-GBSA analysis and the top three inhibitor-protein complexes were subjected to 100 ns long molecular dynamics simulation followed by another round of MM-GBSA analysis. The RMSF plots, binding energies and the mode of physicochemical interaction of the active site of the protein with the drugs were evaluated. Suramin, Penciclovir, and Anidulafungin were found to bind to nsp12 with similar binding energies as that of Remdesivir, which has been used as a therapy for COVID-19. In addition, recent experimental evidences indicate that these drugs exhibit antiviral efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. Such evidence, along with the significant and varied physical interactions of these drugs with the key viral enzyme outlined in this investigation, indicates that they might have a prospective therapeutic potential in the treatment of COVID-19 as monotherapy or combination therapy with Remdesivir.

BMJ ; 372: n311, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083594


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation was associated with decreased risk of death among patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the United States. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated national healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: All 4297 patients admitted to hospital from 1 March to 31 July 2020 with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and without a history of anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was 30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes were inpatient mortality, initiating therapeutic anticoagulation (a proxy for clinical deterioration, including thromboembolic events), and bleeding that required transfusion. RESULTS: Of 4297 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19, 3627 (84.4%) received prophylactic anticoagulation within 24 hours of admission. More than 99% (n=3600) of treated patients received subcutaneous heparin or enoxaparin. 622 deaths occurred within 30 days of hospital admission, 513 among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation. Most deaths (510/622, 82%) occurred during hospital stay. Using inverse probability of treatment weighted analyses, the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30 days was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 13.1% to 15.5%) among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation and 18.7% (15.1% to 22.9%) among those who did not. Compared with patients who did not receive prophylactic anticoagulation, those who did had a 27% decreased risk for 30 day mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.81). Similar associations were found for inpatient mortality and initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation. Receipt of prophylactic anticoagulation was not associated with increased risk of bleeding that required transfusion (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.71 to 1.05). Quantitative bias analysis showed that results were robust to unmeasured confounding (e-value lower 95% confidence interval 1.77 for 30 day mortality). Results persisted in several sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation among patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 was associated with a decreased risk of 30 day mortality and no increased risk of serious bleeding events. These findings provide strong real world evidence to support guidelines recommending the use of prophylactic anticoagulation as initial treatment for patients with covid-19 on hospital admission.

Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/virology , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology