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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542506

ABSTRACT

Internet addiction (IA) is widespread, comorbid with other conditions, and commonly undetected, which may impede recovery. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is widely used to evaluate IA among healthy respondents, with less agreement on its dimensional structure. This study investigated the factor structure, invariance, predictive validity, criterion validity, and reliability of the IAT among Spanish women with eating disorders (EDs, N = 123), Chinese school children (N = 1072), and Malay/Chinese university students (N = 1119). In school children, four factors with eigen values > 1 explained 50.2% of the variance, with several items cross-loading on more than two factors and three items failing to load on any factor. Among 19 tested models, CFA revealed excellent fit of a unidimensional six-item IAT among ED women and university students (χ2(7) = 8.695, 35.038; p = 0.275, 0.001; CFI = 0.998, 981; TLI = 0.996, 0.960; RMSEA = 0.045, 0.060; SRMR = 0.0096, 0.0241). It was perfectly invariant across genders, academic grades, majors, internet use activities, nationalities (Malay vs. Chinese), and Malay/Chinese female university students vs. Spanish women with anorexia nervosa, albeit it was variant at the scalar level in tests involving other EDs, signifying increased tendency for IA in pathological overeating. The six-item IAT correlated with the effects of internet use on academic performance at a greater level than the original IAT (r = -0.106, p < 0.01 vs. r = -0.78, p < 0.05), indicating superior criterion validity. The six-item IAT is a robust and brief measure of IA in healthy and diseased individuals from different cultures.

2.
Fermentation ; 7(4):202, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1438566

ABSTRACT

Vitamin K deficiency is evident in severe and fatal COVID-19 patients. It is associated with the cytokine storm, thrombotic complications, multiple organ damage, and high mortality, suggesting a key role of vitamin K in the pathology of COVID-19. To support this view, we summarized findings reported from machine learning studies, molecular simulation, and human studies on the association between vitamin K and SARS-CoV-2. We also investigated the literature for the association between vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and the prognosis of COVID-19. In addition, we speculated that fermented milk fortified with bee honey as a natural source of vitamin K and probiotics may protect against COVID-19 and its severity. The results reported by several studies emphasize vitamin K deficiency in COVID-19 and related complications. However, the literature on the role of VKA and other oral anticoagulants in COVID-19 is controversial: some studies report reductions in (intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality), others report no effect on mortality, while some studies report higher mortality among patients on chronic oral anticoagulants, including VKA. Supplementing fermented milk with honey increases milk peptides, bacterial vitamin K production, and compounds that act as potent antioxidants: phenols, sulforaphane, and metabolites of lactobacilli. Lactobacilli are probiotic bacteria that are suggested to interfere with various aspects of COVID-19 infection ranging from receptor binding to metabolic pathways involved in disease prognosis. Thus, fermented milk that contains natural honey may be a dietary manipulation capable of correcting nutritional and immune deficiencies that predispose to and aggravate COVID-19. Empirical studies are warranted to investigate the benefits of these compounds.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438622

ABSTRACT

Despite extensive investigations of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) since its development in 1995, its factor structure and other psychometric properties still need to be firmly established, with several calls for revising its item structure. Employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study examined the factor structure of the DASS-21 and five shortened versions of the DASS-21 among psychiatric patients (N = 168) and the general public (N = 992) during the COVID-19 confinement period in Saudi Arabia. Multigroup CFA, Mann Whitney W test, Spearman's correlation, and coefficient alpha were used to examine the shortened versions of the DASS-21 (DASS-13, DASS-12, DASS-9 (two versions), and DASS-8) for invariance across age and gender groups, discriminant validity, predictive validity, item coverage, and internal consistency, respectively. Compared with the DASS-21, all three-factor structures of the shortened versions expressed good fit, with the DASS-8 demonstrating the best fit and highest item loadings on the corresponding factors in both samples (χ2(16, 15) = 16.5, 67.0; p = 0.420, 0.001; CFI = 1.000, 0.998; TLI = 0.999, 0.997; RMSEA = 0.013, 0.059, SRMR = 0.0186, 0.0203). The DASS-8 expressed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across age and gender groups. Its internal consistency was comparable to other versions (α = 0.94). Strong positive correlations of the DASS-8 and its subscales with the DASS-21 and its subscales (r = 0.97 to 0.81) suggest adequate item coverage and good predictive validity of this version. The DASS-8 and its subscales distinguished the clinical sample from the general public at the same level of significance expressed by the DASS-21 and other shortened versions, supporting its discriminant validity. Neither the DASS-21 nor the shortened versions distinguished patients diagnosed with depression and anxiety from each other or from other psychiatric conditions. The DASS-8 represents a valid short version of the DASS-21, which may be useful in research and clinical practice for quick identification of individuals with potential psychopathologies. Diagnosing depression/anxiety disorders may be further confirmed in a next step by clinician-facilitated examinations. Brevity of the DASS-21 would save time and effort used for filling the questionnaire and support comprehensive assessments by allowing the inclusion of more measures on test batteries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Anxiety/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Mental Health , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
BioMed ; 1(1):11-40, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1334995

ABSTRACT

The tremendously rising numbers of aged populations are associated with a heightened risk for motor and functional declines. Sarcopenia is an active age-related process that involves progressive losses of skeletal muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function. Muscle failure is a major cause of frailty, disability, falls, hospitalization, dependency, institutionalization, and low quality of life in older seniors. Therefore, sarcopenia considerably heightens the annual cost of care worldwide. This narrative review elaborates on sarcopenia as a deleterious condition in old age while spotting the light on its association with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It discusses its pathophysiology and the most possible options for preventing and treating sarcopenia. The literature shows that the dynamic of sarcopenia is complex, involving multifaceted physiological alterations relevant to aging, unhealthy behaviors (e.g., undernutrition or inadequate dietary intake and physical inactivity/immobility or sedentary lifestyle), and multiple pathogenic conditions such as metabolic, inflammatory, and endocrinal disorders. Frail individuals express nutritional deficiencies, immune deficit, oxidative stress, metabolic alterations, gut microbial alterations, neurological insult, etc. Such physiological dysfunctions are closely linked to increased vulnerability to COVID-19 among older adults and people with non-communicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, and obesity. Available studies report higher occurrence of severe COVID-19 and COVID-19-related complications (ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality) among frail compared with non-frail and prefrail individuals. Effective pharmacological treatments of sarcopenia are not currently available. However, physical activity and nutritional interventions (e.g., fast digestive proteins, vitamin D, and natural products such as bee products) may prevent the development of sarcopenia in early stages of the disease or limit disease progress. Such interventions may also lower vulnerability to COVID-19.

5.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2021: 5563960, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247434

ABSTRACT

Although the numbers of aged populations have risen considerably in the last few decades, the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has revealed an extensive vulnerability among these populations. Sarcopenia is an age-related disorder that increases hospitalization, dependencies, and mortality in older adults. It starts to develop in midlife or even earlier as a result of unbalanced diet/poor nutrition and low levels of physical activity, in addition to chronic disorders such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. Given that social isolation is adopted as the most protective measure against COVID-19, the level of physical activity and the intake of adequate diet have considerably declined, especially among older adults-denoting an increased possibility for developing sarcopenia. Research also shows a higher vulnerability of sarcopenic people to COVID-19 as well as the development of wasting disorders such as sarcopenia and cachexia in a considerable proportion of symptomatic and recovering COVID-19 patients. Muscular wasting in COVID-19 is associated with poor prognosis. Accordingly, early detection and proper management of sarcopenia and wasting conditions in older adults and COVID-19 patients may minimize morbidity and mortality during the current COVID-19 crisis. This review explored different aspects of screening for sarcopenia, stressing their relevance to the detection of altered muscular structure and performance in patients with COVID-19. Current guidelines recommend prior evaluation of muscle strength by simple measures such as grip strength to identify individuals with proven weakness who then would be screened for muscle mass loss. The latter is best measured by MRI and CT. However, due to the high cost and radiation risk entailed by these techniques, other simpler and cheaper techniques such as DXA and ultrasound are given preference. Muscle loss in COVID-19 patients was measured during the acute phase by CT scanning of the pectoralis muscle simultaneously during a routine check for lung fibrosis, which seems to be an efficient evaluation of sarcopenia among those patients with no additional cost. In recovering patients, muscle strength and physical performance have been evaluated by electromyography and traditional tests such as the six-minute walk test. Effective preventive and therapeutic interventions are necessary in order to prevent muscle loss and associated physical decline in COVID-19 patients.

6.
Diagn Pathol ; 16(1): 31, 2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183551

ABSTRACT

Proteins represent the major building blocks of body tissues, and they regulate signaling involved in most cellular activities. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been associated with high fatality, especially among older adults. The main cause of death is pulmonary tissue damage and multiple organ failure. The disease is associated with a hypercatabolic state that entails excessive protein loss. This review commentary sheds the light on hypoproteinemia in symptomatic/hospitalized COVID-19 with a special emphasis on its pathophysiology, screening, as well as its contribution to disease severity and adverse effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hypoproteinemia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Hypoproteinemia/diagnosis , Hypoproteinemia/etiology , Lung/virology , Male
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(4)2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178348

ABSTRACT

Both laboratory investigations and body composition quantification measures (e.g., computed tomography, CT) portray muscle loss in symptomatic Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Muscle loss is associated with a poor prognosis of the disease. The exact mechanism of muscle damage in COVID-19 patients, as well as the long-term consequences of muscle injury in disease survivors, are unclear. The current review briefly summarizes the literature for mechanisms, assessment measures, and interventions relevant to skeletal muscle insult in COVID-19 patients. Muscle injury is likely to be attributed to the cytokine storm, disease severity, malnutrition, prolonged physical inactivity during intensive care unit (ICU) stays, mechanical ventilation, and myotoxic drugs (e.g., dexamethasone). It has been assessed by imaging and non-imaging techniques (e.g., CT and electromyography), physical performance tests (e.g., six-minute walk test), anthropometric measures (e.g., calf circumference), and biomarkers of muscle dystrophy (e.g., creatine kinase). Interventions directed toward minimizing muscle loss among COVID-19 patients are lacking. However, limited evidence shows that respiratory rehabilitation improves respiratory function, muscle strength, quality of life, and anxiety symptoms in recovering older COVID-19 patients. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation may restore muscle condition in ICU-admitted patients, albeit empirical evidence is needed. Given the contribution of malnutrition to disease severity and muscle damage, providing proper nutritional management for emaciated patients may be one of the key issues to achieve a better prognosis and prevent the after-effects of the disease. Considerable attention to longer-term consequences of muscle injury in recovering COVID-19 patients is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Muscle, Skeletal , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134160

ABSTRACT

Malnutrition is common among severe patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), mainly elderly adults and patients with comorbidities. It is also associated with atypical presentation of the disease. Despite the possible contribution of malnutrition to the acquisition and severity of COVID-19, it is not clear which nutritional screening measures may best diagnose malnutrition in these patients at early stages. This is of crucial importance given the urgency and rapid progression of the disease in vulnerable groups. Accordingly, this review examines the available literature for different nutritional screening approaches implemented among COVID-19 patients, with a special focus on elderly adults. After a literature search, we selected and scrutinized 14 studies assessing malnutrition among COVID-19 patients. The Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) has demonstrated superior sensitivity to other traditional screening measures. The controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score, which comprises serum albumin level, cholesterol level, and lymphocytes count, as well as a combined CONUT-lactate dehydrogenase-C-reactive protein score expressed a predictive capacity even superior to that of NRS-2002 (0.81% and 0.92% vs. 0.79%) in midlife and elder COVID-19 patients. Therefore, simple measures based on routinely conducted laboratory investigations such as the CONUT score may be timely, cheap, and valuable alternatives for identifying COVID-19 patients with high nutritional risk. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was the only measure used to detect residual malnutrition and high malnutrition risk in remitting patients-MNA scores correlated with hypoalbuminemia, hypercytokinemia, and weight loss. Older males with severe inflammation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and pre-existing comorbidities (diabetes, obesity, or hypertension) are more prone to malnutrition and subsequently poor COVID-19 prognosis both during the acute phase and during convalescence. Thus, they are in need of frequent nutritional monitoring and support while detecting and treating malnutrition in the general public might be necessary to increase resilience against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Aged , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121891

ABSTRACT

Despite the virulence and high fatality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), no specific antiviral treatment exists until the current moment. Natural agents with immune-promoting potentials such as bee products are being explored as possible treatments. Bee honey and propolis are rich in bioactive compounds that express strong antimicrobial, bactericidal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant activities. This review examined the literature for the anti-COVID-19 effects of bee honey and propolis, with the aim of optimizing the use of these handy products as prophylactic or adjuvant treatments for people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Molecular simulations show that flavonoids in propolis and honey (e.g., rutin, naringin, caffeic acid phenyl ester, luteolin, and artepillin C) may inhibit viral spike fusion in host cells, viral-host interactions that trigger the cytokine storm, and viral replication. Similar to the potent antiviral drug remdesivir, rutin, propolis ethanolic extract, and propolis liposomes inhibited non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, and these compounds along with naringin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells. Propolis extracts delivered by nanocarriers exhibit better antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2 than ethanolic extracts. In line, hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving green Brazilian propolis or a combination of honey and Nigella sativa exhibited earlier viral clearance, symptom recovery, discharge from the hospital as well as less mortality than counterparts receiving standard care alone. Thus, the use of bee products as an adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 may produce beneficial effects. Implications for treatment outcomes and issues to be considered in future studies are discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Honey , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Propolis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clinical Trials as Topic , Flavanones/chemistry , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Propolis/chemistry , Propolis/therapeutic use , Vero Cells
10.
Sports Med Health Sci ; 2(4): 221-223, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023749

ABSTRACT

Ever since the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in late 2019, it has killed millions of people worldwide. Even people not stricken by this disease are not spared from its negative economic, social, and health-related drawbacks. This commentary provides insight into the potential mechanisms involved in the development of depression and emotional negativity escalating during the current pandemic. In particular, preventive measures of COVID-19, such as staying at home, are sedentarism measures that decrease physical activity. Physical inactivity alters gut microbiome structure in a fashion that promotes gut dysbiosis and flaring of systemic inflammation, leading to the buildup of body fat. Obesity, which contributes to a trail of health-depleting disorders, furthers gut microbial disintegration while fat tissue stimulates the release of cytokines, promotes metabolic resistance, and alters signaling involved in the production of antioxidants. As a result, the body gets flooded by toxic molecules such pro-inflammatory mediators, free radicals, and advanced glycation end products. These toxic molecules alter cellular function in all body tissues, including those of the brain. Neuroinflammation is associated with progressive declines in cognitive and motor functions along with dysregulation in emotions. Counteracting the sedentarism enforced by the COVID-19 pandemic through the participation in suitable indoors activities and the intake of healthy food is likely to protect against or revert physiological impairments that may affect people retreating to their homes during the current crisis, eventually restoring physical and mental health.

11.
Foods ; 9(10)2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-904950

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of sarcopenia, skeletal muscle loss and weakness, which prevails in up to 50% of older adults is increasing worldwide due to the expansion of aging populations. It is now striking young and midlife adults as well because of sedentary lifestyle and increased intake of unhealthy food (e.g., western diet). The lockdown measures and economic turndown associated with the current outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are likely to increase the prevalence of sarcopenia by promoting sedentarism and unhealthy patterns of eating. Sarcopenia has multiple detrimental effects including falls, hospitalization, disability, and institutionalization. Although a few pharmacological agents (e.g., bimagrumab, sarconeos, and exercise mimetics) are being explored in different stages of trials, not a single drug has been approved for sarcopenia treatment. Hence, research has focused on testing the effect of nutraceuticals, such as bee products, as safe treatments to prevent and/or treat sarcopenia. Royal jelly, propolis, and bee pollen are common bee products that are rich in highly potent antioxidants such as flavonoids, phenols, and amino acids. These products, in order, stimulate larval development into queen bees, promote defenses of the bee hive against microbial and environmental threats, and increase royal jelly production by nurse bees. Thanks to their versatile pharmacological activities (e.g., anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, etc.), these products have been used to treat multiple chronic conditions that predispose to muscle wasting such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorder, and cancer, to name a few. They were also used in some evolving studies to treat sarcopenia in laboratory animals and, to a limited degree, in humans. However, a collective understanding of the effect and mechanism of action of these products in skeletal muscle is not well-developed. Therefore, this review examines the literature for possible effects of royal jelly, bee pollen, and propolis on skeletal muscle in aged experimental models, muscle cell cultures, and humans. Collectively, data from reviewed studies denote varying levels of positive effects of bee products on muscle mass, strength, and function. The likely underlying mechanisms include amelioration of inflammation and oxidative damages, promotion of metabolic regulation, enhancement of satellite stem cell responsiveness, improvement of muscular blood supply, inhibition of catabolic genes, and promotion of peripheral neuronal regeneration. This review offers suggestions for other mechanisms to be explored and provides guidance for future trials investigating the effects of bee products among people with sarcopenia.

12.
Foods ; 9(10):1362, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-797951

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of sarcopenia, skeletal muscle loss and weakness, which prevails in up to 50% of older adults is increasing worldwide due to the expansion of aging populations. It is now striking young and midlife adults as well because of sedentary lifestyle and increased intake of unhealthy food (e.g., western diet). The lockdown measures and economic turndown associated with the current outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are likely to increase the prevalence of sarcopenia by promoting sedentarism and unhealthy patterns of eating. Sarcopenia has multiple detrimental effects including falls, hospitalization, disability, and institutionalization. Although a few pharmacological agents (e.g., bimagrumab, sarconeos, and exercise mimetics) are being explored in different stages of trials, not a single drug has been approved for sarcopenia treatment. Hence, research has focused on testing the effect of nutraceuticals, such as bee products, as safe treatments to prevent and/or treat sarcopenia. Royal jelly, propolis, and bee pollen are common bee products that are rich in highly potent antioxidants such as flavonoids, phenols, and amino acids. These products, in order, stimulate larval development into queen bees, promote defenses of the bee hive against microbial and environmental threats, and increase royal jelly production by nurse bees. Thanks to their versatile pharmacological activities (e.g., anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, etc.), these products have been used to treat multiple chronic conditions that predispose to muscle wasting such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorder, and cancer, to name a few. They were also used in some evolving studies to treat sarcopenia in laboratory animals and, to a limited degree, in humans. However, a collective understanding of the effect and mechanism of action of these products in skeletal muscle is not well-developed. Therefore, this review examines the literature for possible effects of royal jelly, bee pollen, and propolis on skeletal muscle in aged experimental models, muscle cell cultures, and humans. Collectively, data from reviewed studies denote varying levels of positive effects of bee products on muscle mass, strength, and function. The likely underlying mechanisms include amelioration of inflammation and oxidative damages, promotion of metabolic regulation, enhancement of satellite stem cell responsiveness, improvement of muscular blood supply, inhibition of catabolic genes, and promotion of peripheral neuronal regeneration. This review offers suggestions for other mechanisms to be explored and provides guidance for future trials investigating the effects of bee products among people with sarcopenia.

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