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PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575679


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic remains a significant global threat. However, despite urgent need, there remains uncertainty surrounding best practices for pharmaceutical interventions to treat COVID-19. In particular, conflicting evidence has emerged surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, alone or in combination, for COVID-19. The COVID-19 Evidence Accelerator convened by the Reagan-Udall Foundation for the FDA, in collaboration with Friends of Cancer Research, assembled experts from the health systems research, regulatory science, data science, and epidemiology to participate in a large parallel analysis of different data sets to further explore the effectiveness of these treatments. METHODS: Electronic health record (EHR) and claims data were extracted from seven separate databases. Parallel analyses were undertaken on data extracted from each source. Each analysis examined time to mortality in hospitalized patients treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and the two in combination as compared to patients not treated with either drug. Cox proportional hazards models were used, and propensity score methods were undertaken to adjust for confounding. Frequencies of adverse events in each treatment group were also examined. RESULTS: Neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with time to mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. No treatment groups appeared to have an elevated risk of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Administration of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and their combination appeared to have no effect on time to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Continued research is needed to clarify best practices surrounding treatment of COVID-19.

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Data Management/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10231, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228270


Children and adolescents account for ~ 13% of total COVID-19 cases in the United States. However, little is known about the nature of the illness in children. The reopening of schools underlines the importance of understanding the epidemiology of pediatric COVID-19 infections. We sought to assess the clinical characteristics and outcomes in pediatric COVID-19 patients. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of pediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from healthcare organizations in the United States. The study outcomes (hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, critical care) were assessed using logistic regression. The subgroups of sex and race were compared after propensity score matching. Among 12,306 children with lab-confirmed COVID-19, 16.5% presented with respiratory symptoms (cough, dyspnea), 13.9% had gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain), 8.1% had dermatological symptoms (rash), 4.8% had neurological (headache), and 18.8% had other non-specific symptoms (fever, malaise, myalgia, arthralgia and disturbances of smell or taste). In the study cohort, the hospitalization frequency was 5.3%, with 17.6% needing critical care services and 4.1% requiring mechanical ventilation. Following propensity score matching, the risk of all outcomes was similar between males and females. Following propensity score matching, the risk of hospitalization was greater in non-Hispanic Black (RR 1.97 [95% CI 1.49-2.61]) and Hispanic children (RR 1.31 [95% CI 1.03-1.78]) compared with non-Hispanic Whites. In the pediatric population infected with COVID-19, a substantial proportion were hospitalized due to the illness and developed adverse clinical outcomes.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Propensity Score , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
JTCVS Open ; 6: 132-143, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192276


OBJECTIVE: There has been a substantial decline in patients presenting for emergent and routine cardiovascular care in the United States after the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We sought to assess the risk of adverse clinical outcomes among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic period and compare the risks with those undergoing CABG before the pandemic in the year 2019. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the TriNetX Research Network database was performed. Patients undergoing CABG between January 20, 2019, and September 15, 2019, contributed to the 2019 cohort, and those undergoing CABG between January 20, 2020, and September 15, 2020, contributed to the 2020 cohort. Propensity-score matching was performed, and the odds of mortality, acute kidney injury, stroke, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and mechanical ventilation occurring by 30 days were evaluated. RESULTS: The number of patients undergoing CABG in 2020 declined by 35.5% from 5534 patients in 2019 to 3569 patients in 2020. After propensity-score matching, 3569 patient pairs were identified in the 2019 and the 2020 cohorts. Compared with those undergoing CABG in 2019, the odds of mortality by 30 days were 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-1.33; P = .80) in those undergoing CABG in 2020. The odds for stroke (odds ratio [OR], 1.201; 95% CI, 0.96-1.39), acute kidney injury (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-1.08), acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.60-2.42), and mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.94-1.30) were similar between the 2 cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The number of patients undergoing CABG in 2020 has substantially declined compared with 2019. Similar odds of adverse clinical outcomes were seen among patients undergoing CABG in the setting of COVID-19 compared with those in 2019.