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Commun Med (Lond) ; 1: 26, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267619


Malaria vaccines are urgently needed in the fight against this devastating disease that is responsible for almost half a million deaths each year. Here, we discuss recent clinical advances in vaccine development and highlight ongoing challenges for the future.

Front Immunol ; 13: 889372, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071084


Joining a function-enhanced Fc-portion of human IgG to the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 produces an antiviral decoy with strain transcending virus neutralizing activity. SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and Fc-effector functions of ACE2-Fc decoy proteins, formatted with or without the ACE2 collectrin domain, were optimized by Fc-modification. The different Fc-modifications resulted in distinct effects on neutralization and effector functions. H429Y, a point mutation outside the binding sites for FcγRs or complement caused non-covalent oligomerization of the ACE2-Fc decoy proteins, abrogated FcγR interaction and enhanced SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Another Fc mutation, H429F did not improve virus neutralization but resulted in increased C5b-C9 fixation and transformed ACE2-Fc to a potent mediator of complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) expressing cells. Furthermore, modification of the Fc-glycan enhanced cell activation via FcγRIIIa. These different immune profiles demonstrate the capacity of Fc-based agents to be engineered to optimize different mechanisms of protection for SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other viral pathogens.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
Trends Immunol ; 42(2): 94-103, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972553


Complement is integral to a healthy functioning immune system and orchestrates various innate and adaptive responses against viruses and other pathogens. Despite its importance, the potential beneficial role of complement in immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been overshadowed by reports of extensive complement activation in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Here, we hypothesize that complement may also have a protective role and could function to enhance virus neutralization by antibodies, promote virus phagocytosis by immune cells, and lysis of virus. These functions might be exploited in the development of effective therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Complement Activation , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate