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BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 630, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002165


BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health problem, yet residents undergo little formal training and assessment in obesity-related care. Given the recent growth of telehealth, physicians must further learn to apply these skills using a virtual platform. Therefore, we aimed to develop an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with reliable checklists to assess resident ability to take a patient-centered obesity-focused history that was feasible over telehealth based on published obesity competencies for medical education. METHODS: We developed a 15-minute telehealth OSCE to simulate an obesity-related encounter for residents modified from a script used to assess medical student obesity competencies. We designed three checklists to assess resident skills in history taking, communication and professionalism during the obesity-related encounter. Resident performance was assessed as the percentage of obesity-related history taking questions asked during the encounter and as the mean communication and professionalism scores on a scale of 1 through 5 with 1 representing unacceptable/offensive behavior and 5 representing excellent skills. Encounters and assessments were completed by two commissioned actors (standardized patients) and 26 internal medicine residents over a secure online platform. We assessed the reliability of each checklist by calculating the percent agreement between standardized patients and the kappa (κ) statistic on each checklist overall and by each checklist item. RESULTS: Overall agreement between standardized patients on the history taking, communication and professionalism checklists were 83.2% (κ = 0.63), 99.5% (κ = 0.72) and 97.8% (κ =0.44), respectively. On average, residents asked 64.8% of questions on the history taking checklist and scored 3.8 and 3.9 out of 5 on the communication and professionalism checklists, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this pilot study suggest that our telehealth obesity OSCE and checklists are moderately reliable for assessing key obesity competencies among residents on a virtual platform. Integrating obesity OSCEs and other educational interventions into residency curricula are needed to improve resident ability to take an obesity-focused history.

Internship and Residency , Physicians , Telemedicine , Checklist , Clinical Competence , Educational Measurement/methods , Humans , Obesity , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results
Alternative & Complementary Therapies ; 27:57-63, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1189421
N Engl J Med ; 384(11): 989-1002, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139778


BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global health challenge with few pharmacologic options. Whether adults with obesity can achieve weight loss with once-weekly semaglutide at a dose of 2.4 mg as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention has not been confirmed. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we enrolled 1961 adults with a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or greater (≥27 in persons with ≥1 weight-related coexisting condition), who did not have diabetes, and randomly assigned them, in a 2:1 ratio, to 68 weeks of treatment with once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide (at a dose of 2.4 mg) or placebo, plus lifestyle intervention. The coprimary end points were the percentage change in body weight and weight reduction of at least 5%. The primary estimand (a precise description of the treatment effect reflecting the objective of the clinical trial) assessed effects regardless of treatment discontinuation or rescue interventions. RESULTS: The mean change in body weight from baseline to week 68 was -14.9% in the semaglutide group as compared with -2.4% with placebo, for an estimated treatment difference of -12.4 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -13.4 to -11.5; P<0.001). More participants in the semaglutide group than in the placebo group achieved weight reductions of 5% or more (1047 participants [86.4%] vs. 182 [31.5%]), 10% or more (838 [69.1%] vs. 69 [12.0%]), and 15% or more (612 [50.5%] vs. 28 [4.9%]) at week 68 (P<0.001 for all three comparisons of odds). The change in body weight from baseline to week 68 was -15.3 kg in the semaglutide group as compared with -2.6 kg in the placebo group (estimated treatment difference, -12.7 kg; 95% CI, -13.7 to -11.7). Participants who received semaglutide had a greater improvement with respect to cardiometabolic risk factors and a greater increase in participant-reported physical functioning from baseline than those who received placebo. Nausea and diarrhea were the most common adverse events with semaglutide; they were typically transient and mild-to-moderate in severity and subsided with time. More participants in the semaglutide group than in the placebo group discontinued treatment owing to gastrointestinal events (59 [4.5%] vs. 5 [0.8%]). CONCLUSIONS: In participants with overweight or obesity, 2.4 mg of semaglutide once weekly plus lifestyle intervention was associated with sustained, clinically relevant reduction in body weight. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; STEP 1 number, NCT03548935).

Anti-Obesity Agents/administration & dosage , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/agonists , Glucagon-Like Peptides/administration & dosage , Obesity/drug therapy , Adult , Anti-Obesity Agents/adverse effects , Body Composition/drug effects , Body Mass Index , Cholelithiasis/chemically induced , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Double-Blind Method , Female , Glucagon-Like Peptides/adverse effects , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Lipids/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/chemically induced , Obesity/complications , Prediabetic State/complications , Weight Loss/drug effects