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Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research ; 13(12):661-665, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1766679

ABSTRACT

Calling Covid-19 a viral disease would be an understatement. The worldwide impact this pandemic has caused in every sphere of human life is remarkable and so is the pace at which treatment modalities and immunisation agents were formulised for it. More so, the severe complications of this disease can be devastating and fatal, therefore a number of pharmaceutical agents have been studied that have shown response in the critically ill. This article throws light upon how melatonin can be a safe and effective adjuvant pharmaceutical agent against Covid-19. Melatonin is one of the hormones that controls the bodily clock, which in turn has a crucial role to play in the pathogenesis of Covid-19. Yoga asanas can also aid in suppressing the aggravated immune response and inflammatory process in this disease. Anxiety due to the disease itself and other social factors related to it, is another reason for disturbed sleep and hence poor immune response in alleviating the effects of Covid-19.

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Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 90:11-19, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1626201

ABSTRACT

Due to COVID-19 situation, we need to wear face masks in public places. Reports say that wearing face mask at public places and at workspace reduces the transmission of virus as the SARS-CoV-2 spreads through atmosphere among people, at gathering in any environment. In this paper, a real-time face mask detection system is presented which will detect mask presence on the face using TensorFlow. We are using MobileNetV2 model to provide a greater accuracy in determining the mask presence. Accuracy obtained is 99%. Older systems do not provide a proper working system. A face mask detector has been designed with computer vision using Python, OpenCV, Keras, and TensorFlow. Video surveillance input can be given directly, and our primary purpose is to identify to check people are wearing masks on daily basis or not wearing masks and prepare a weekly and monthly report based on this observation and display the data on an interactive web application. System provides option to see the historical records, thereby reducing transmission. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

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Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 36(SUPPL 1):i467, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Asymptomatic maintenance hemodialysis patients with SARS-COV-2are missed with pre-dialysis screening without testing. The possible ideal strategy of testing each patient before each shift with RT-PCR was not feasible. We aimed to study the effectiveness of fortnightly screening with RT-PCR for SARSCoV-2 in curbing transmission. METHOD: Between July 1, 2020, and September 30, 2020, all 273 patients receiving hemodialysis were subjected to fortnightly testing for SARS-Cov-2 in the unit to detect asymptomatic patients. The cost and effectiveness of universal testing in preventing transmission were analyzed using Susceptible-Infectious-Removed (SIR) modeling assuming R0 of 2.2. RESULTS: Of 273 MHD patients, 55 (20.1%) got infected with SARS-CoV-2 over three months. Six (10.9%) were symptomatic, and 49 (89.1%) asymptomatic at the time of testing. Six (10.9%) asymptomatic patients develop symptoms later;and 43 (78.2%) remained asymptomatic. A total of 7(6.1%) HCWs also tested positive for the virus. With an assumption of R0 2.2 and isolation of symptomatic patients only, all 273 patients could have been affected by September 30, 2020;with the isolation of both symptomatic patients and those testing positive after pre-dialysis screen, only 52 (19%) infections could have been prevented. However, at the end of the study period, 218 (80%) patients remained uninfected of SARS-CoV-2. Fortnightly universal testing is cost-effective, and SIR modeling proved effective in preventing person-to-person transmission. CONCLUSION: Repeated universal testing in maintenance hemodialysis patients detected 89% of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 patients over three months and appeared to be an effective strategy to prevent person-to-person transmission in the dialysis unit.

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Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 32(37):14-25, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1034433

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is spreading worldwide rapidly from its original city of China. Corona virus has the presence of positive sense Ribonucleic acid (RNA) genetic material. The infection causes mild respiratory disease especially in humans across all age groups. The widespread distribution of corona virus in other organisms such as birds, livestock and mammals such as bats, pangolins etc. makes it an important pathogen of concern. It has also been reported the number of people that act as healthy carriers of the virus are approximately 2%, where they do not show any symptoms of the infection but act as a prime source of transmission. Transmission of the virus is usually through large droplets generated during sneezing and coughing and thus can remain viable for several days in favorable atmospheric conditions but can be controlled by the usage of disinfectants. World Health Organization recommends isolation as most efficacious method for the containment of patients that are affected by this virus. At present, there are no particular anti-viral medications or vaccines are correctly present to suppress this infection from spreading. However, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have proved to be effective for assessing viral RNA but may prove to be very time-consuming assay. Thus, as per the present scenario, more research should be carried out to develop a rapid, user-friendly, diagnostic assay which has high specificity and sensitivity at mass level screening thus enabling the further process of drug designing.

9.
Indian Journal of Transplantation ; 14(3):250-254, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-890488

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) affected everyone on the globe, including renal transplant recipients who are at increased risk of infection. The clinical manifestations, immunosuppressive modifications, and treatment protocol are not well defined. We are reporting a case of renal transplant recipient and reviewed all case reports and series (a total of 100 patients) published to date to comprehend the clinical manifestations, immunosuppression modifications, treatment given, and outcomes of the patients. A 57-year-old male kidney transplant recipient had a fever, headache, weakness, and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. He became asymptomatic with the treatment of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and oseltamivir. However, he remained persistently positive by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 for 4 weeks and became negative only after Ivermectin therapy, a safer medicine than antivirals/antiretrovirals used for COVID therapy in renal transplant recipients. Of the 100 patients review of case series, fever was noted in 85%, cough 71%, diarrhea 10%, and radiographic abnormalities in 75% of cases. Only in 3% of cases, steroid was stopped, and in the rest of the cases, 63% either continued in the same doses or changed to methylprednisolone in 34%. Calcineurin inhibitors were temporarily stopped in 42% of cases, reduced in 9% of cases, and continued in the same doses in 49% of cases. The anti-metabolites were discontinued in 83%, reduced in 9% of cases, and not changed in 8% of cases. SARI was observed in 18% and acute kidney injury (AKI) in 26% of cases. Of all the AKI, 11% required renal replacement therapy. Mortality was observed in 21% of cases. COVID in renal transplant recipients may show an unusually longer positivity. Ivermectin may be used in the absence of any conclusive SARS-CoV-2 antivirals. Mortality is high in renal transplant recipients.

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