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Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21582, 2022 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160317


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic devastated countries worldwide, and resulted in a global shutdown. Not all infections are symptomatic and hence the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community is unknown. The paper presents the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the Greater Accra Metropolis, describing the evolution of seroprevalence through time and by age group. Three repeated independent population-based surveys at 6-week intervals were conducted in from November 2020 to July 2021. The global and by age-groups weighted seroprevalences were estimated and the risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity were assessed using logistic regression. The overall age-standardized SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence for both spike and nucleocapsid increased from 13.8% (95% CI 11.9, 16.1) in November 2020 to 39.6% (95% CI 34.8, 44.6) in July 2021. After controlling for gender, marital status, education level, and occupation, the older age group over 40 years had a higher odds of seropositivity than the younger age group (OR 3.0 [95% CI 1.1-8.5]) in the final survey. Pupils or students had 3.3-fold increased odds of seropositivity (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.1-8.5]) compared to the unemployed. This study reinforces that, SARS-CoV-2 infections have been significantly higher than reported.

COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Ghana/epidemiology , Pandemics , Antibodies, Viral
AAS Open Res ; 4: 2, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502782


Following the coronavirus outbreaks described as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, the world has again been challenged by yet another corona virus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 infections were first detected in a Chinese Province in December 2019 and then declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. An infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 may result in asymptomatic, uncomplicated or fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fatal disease has been linked with the uncontrolled "cytokine storm" manifesting with complications mostly in people with underlying cardiovascular and pulmonary disease conditions. The severity of COVID-19 disease and the associated mortality has been disproportionately lower in terms of number of cases and deaths in Africa and also Asia in comparison to Europe and North America. Also, persons of colour residing in Europe and North America have been identified as a highly susceptible population due to a combination of several socioeconomic factors and poor access to quality healthcare. Interestingly, this has not been the case in sub-Saharan Africa where majority of the population are even more deprived of the aforementioned factors. On the contrary, sub-Saharan Africa has recorded the lowest levels of mortality and morbidity associated with the disease, and an overwhelming proportion of infections are asymptomatic. Whilst it can be argued that these lower number of cases in Africa may be due to challenges associated with the diagnosis of the disease such as lack of trained personnel and infrastructure, the number of persons who get infected and develop symptoms is proportionally lower than those who are asymptomatic, including asymptomatic cases that are never diagnosed. This review discusses the most probable reasons for the significantly fewer cases of severe COVID-19 disease and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa.