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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 917606, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080173

ABSTRACT

Secondary infections in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are difficult to distinguish from inflammation associated with COVID-19 and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Therefore, highly specific and sensitive biomarkers are needed to identify patients in whom antimicrobial therapy can be safely withheld. In this prospective monocentric study, 66 COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for ECMO evaluation were included. A total of 46 (70%) patients with secondary infections were identified by using broad microbiological and virological panels and standardized diagnostic criteria. Various laboratory parameters including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, procalcitonin (PCT), and IL-10 were determined at time of study inclusion. The best test performance for differentiating bacterial/fungal secondary infections and COVID-19 and/or ECMO associated inflammation was achieved by IL-10 (ROC-AUC 0.84) and a multivariant step-wise regression model including CRP, IL-6, PCT, and IL-10 (ROC-AUC 0.93). Data obtained in the present study highlights the use of IL-10 to differentiate secondary bacterial/fungal infections from COVID-19 and/or ECMO associated inflammation in severely ill COVID-19 patients.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 817829, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902978

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma is a suggested treatment for Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), but its efficacy is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate whether the use of convalescent plasma is associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with Covid-19.In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched randomized controlled trials investigating the use of convalescent plasma in patients with Covid-19 in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and medRxiv from inception to October 17th, 2021. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. The primary efficacy outcome was all-cause mortality. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) method were used. This study was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42021284861. Of the 8874 studies identified in the initial search, sixteen trials comprising 16 317 patients with Covid-19 were included. In the overall population, the all-cause mortality was 23.8% (2025 of 8524) with convalescent plasma and 24.4% (1903 of 7769) with standard of care (risk ratio (RR) 0.97, 95% CI 0.90-1.04) (high-certainty evidence). All-cause mortality did not differ in the subgroups of noncritically ill (21.7% [1288 of 5929] vs. 22.4% [1320 of 5882]) and critically ill (36.9% [518 of 1404] vs. 36.4% [455 of 1247]) patients with Covid-19. The use of convalescent plasma in patients who tested negative for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline was not associated with significantly improved survival (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.87-1.02). In the overall study population, initiation of mechanical ventilation (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88-1.07), time to clinical improvement (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.91-1.30), and time to discharge (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-1.02) were similar between the two groups. In patients with Covid-19, treatment with convalescent plasma, as compared with control, was not associated with lower all-cause mortality or improved disease progression, irrespective of disease severity and baseline antibody status. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier PROSPERO (CRD42021284861).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Respiration, Artificial
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 651484, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430688

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the specific cytokine profile in peripheral blood during the early onset of COVID-19 infection. This was a cross-sectional exploratory, single center study. A total of 55 plasma samples were studied. Serum samples of adults showing symptoms of COVID-19 infection who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection (CoV+, n=18) at the COVID-19 outpatient clinic of the Medical University of Vienna were screened for immune activation markers by Luminex technology. Additionally, age and gender-matched serum samples of patients displaying COVID-19 associated symptoms, but tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-, n=16) as well as healthy controls (HC, n=21) were analyzed. COVID-19 positive (CoV+) patients showed a specific upregulation of BLC (141; 74-189 pg/mL), SCD30 (273; 207-576 pg/mL), MCP-2 (18; 12-30 pg/mL) and IP-10 (37; 23-96 pg/mL), compared to patients with COVID19-like symptoms but negative PCR test (CoV-), BLC (61; 22-100 pg/mL), sCD30L (161; 120-210 pg/mL), MCP-2 (8; 5-12 pg/mL) and IP-10 (9; 6-12 pg/mL) and healthy controls (HC) (BLC 22; 11-36 pg/mL, sCD30 74; 39-108 pg/mL, MCP-2 6; 3-9. pg/mL, IP-10 = 8; 5-13). The markers APRIL, sIL-2R, IL7, MIF, MIP-1b, SCF, SDF-1a, sTNF-RII were elevated in both CoV+ and CoV- patient groups compared to healthy controls. HGF, MDC and VEGF-A were elevated in CoV- but not CoV+ compared to healthy controls. BLC, sCD30, MCP-2 and IP-10 are specifically induced during early stages of COVID-19 infection and might constitute attractive targets for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(1): 113-122, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary thrombus formation is a hallmark of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A dysregulated immune response culminating in thromboinflammation has been described, but the pathomechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: We studied 41 adult COVID-19 patients with positive results on reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction assays and 37 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Number and surface characteristics of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and citrullinated histone H3 levels were determined in plasma upon inclusion by flow cytometry and immunoassay. RESULTS: In total, 20 patients had severe and 21 nonsevere disease. The number of EV (median [25th, 75th percentile]) was significantly higher in patients compared with controls (658.8 [353.2, 876.6] vs. 435.5 [332.5, 585.3], geometric mean ratio [95% confidence intervals]: 2.6 [1.9, 3.6]; p < 0.001). Patients exhibited significantly higher numbers of EVs derived from platelets, endothelial cells, leukocytes, or neutrophils than controls. EVs from alveolar-macrophages and alveolar-epithelial cells were detectable in plasma and were significantly higher in patients. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1-positive EV levels were higher in patients, while no difference between tissue factor-positive and angiotensin-converting enzyme-positive EV was seen between both groups. Levels of EV did not differ between patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19. Citrullinated histone H3 levels (ng/mL, median [25th, 75th percentile]) were higher in patients than in controls (1.42 [0.6, 3.4] vs. 0.31 [0.1, 0.6], geometric mean ratio: 4.44 [2.6, 7.7]; p < 0.001), and were significantly lower in patients with nonsevere disease compared with those with severe disease. CONCLUSION: EV and citrullinated histone H3 are associated with COVID-19 and could provide information regarding pathophysiology of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Extracellular Vesicles/pathology , Histones/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Citrullination , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Histones/chemistry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboinflammation/blood , Thromboinflammation/etiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186958

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment and adherence to disinfection protocols are essential to prevent nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. Here, we evaluated infection control measures in a prospective longitudinal single-center study at the Vienna General Hospital, the biggest tertiary care center in Austria, with a structurally planned low SARS-CoV-2 exposure. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were assessed by Abbott ARCHITECT chemiluminescent assay (CLIA) in 599 health care workers (HCWs) at the start of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in early April and two months later. Neutralization assay confirmed CLIA-positive samples. A structured questionnaire was completed at both visits assessing demographic parameters, family situation, travel history, occupational coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure, and personal protective equipment handling. At the first visit, 6 of 599 participants (1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. The seroprevalence increased to 1.5% (8/553) at the second visit and did not differ depending on the working environment. Unprotected SARS-CoV-2 exposure (p = 0.003), positively tested family members (p = 0.04), and travel history (p = 0.09) were more frequently reported by positively tested HCWs. Odds for COVID-19 related symptoms were highest for congestion or runny nose (p = 0.002) and altered taste or smell (p < 0.001). In conclusion, prevention strategies proved feasible in reducing the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients and among HCWs in a low incidence hospital, not exceeding the one described in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Austria , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
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