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1.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30087, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687290

ABSTRACT

The benefits of vaccination - regarding COVID-19 infection and transmission, as well as COVID-associated complications - clearly outweigh the potential risk of vaccine-associated inflammation of the heart and other adverse events. Given the current state of knowledge, the outcome of myocarditis and pericarditis following vaccination is generally good. This review aims to guide physicians in the early diagnosis and management of suspected myocarditis following mRNA COVID vaccination. The initial work-up should include detailed history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram and serological biomarkers (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T/I, natriuretic peptides and markers of inflammation) in accordance with the assessments recommended in current clinical practice guidelines for patients presenting with acute chest pain. In patients with suspected myocarditis, further assessment with transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging should be undertaken to confirm peri-/myocarditis and to distinguish the findings from other diseases with similar presentation. Patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis should be followed-up at least once to exclude chronic myocardial inflammation and deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction. Consultation with an expert such as an immunologist with experience in vaccination regarding further mRNA vaccinations is advised in all patients with mRNA vaccine-associated perimyocarditis. Reporting of mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis to Swissmedic is mandatory. Cohort studies prospectively follow-up on young adult and paediatric populations following immunisation with an mRNA COVID vaccine to monitor cardiac and immune parameters would generate valuable knowledge to better understand pathogenesis and risk factors for vaccine-associated perimyocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Vaccination/adverse effects , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23993, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585801

ABSTRACT

Previous work indicates that SARS-CoV-2 virus entry proteins angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and the cell surface transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS-2) are regulated by sex hormones. However, clinical studies addressing this association have yielded conflicting results. We sought to analyze the impact of sex hormones, age, and cardiovascular disease on ACE-2 and TMPRSS-2 expression in different mouse models. ACE-2 and TMPRSS-2 expression was analyzed by immunostaining in a variety of tissues obtained from FVB/N mice undergoing either gonadectomy or sham-surgery and being subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury or transverse aortic constriction surgery. In lung tissues sex did not have a significant impact on the expression of ACE-2 and TMPRSS-2. On the contrary, following myocardial injury, female sex was associated to a lower expression of ACE-2 at the level of the kidney tubules. In addition, after myocardial injury, a significant correlation between younger age and higher expression of both ACE-2 and TMPRSS-2 was observed for lung alveoli and bronchioli, kidney tubules, and liver sinusoids. Our experimental data indicate that gonadal hormones and biological sex do not alter ACE-2 and TMPRSS-2 expression in the respiratory tract in mice, independent of disease state. Thus, sex differences in ACE-2 and TMPRSS-2 protein expression observed in mice may not explain the higher disease burden of COVID-19 among men.


Subject(s)
Aging/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cardiomyopathies/metabolism , Castration/adverse effects , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Animals , Bronchioles/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Kidney Tubules/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Male , Mice , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Virus Internalization
3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30087, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478316

ABSTRACT

The benefits of vaccination - regarding COVID-19 infection and transmission, as well as COVID-associated complications - clearly outweigh the potential risk of vaccine-associated inflammation of the heart and other adverse events. Given the current state of knowledge, the outcome of myocarditis and pericarditis following vaccination is generally good. This review aims to guide physicians in the early diagnosis and management of suspected myocarditis following mRNA COVID vaccination. The initial work-up should include detailed history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram and serological biomarkers (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T/I, natriuretic peptides and markers of inflammation) in accordance with the assessments recommended in current clinical practice guidelines for patients presenting with acute chest pain. In patients with suspected myocarditis, further assessment with transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging should be undertaken to confirm peri-/myocarditis and to distinguish the findings from other diseases with similar presentation. Patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis should be followed-up at least once to exclude chronic myocardial inflammation and deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction. Consultation with an expert such as an immunologist with experience in vaccination regarding further mRNA vaccinations is advised in all patients with mRNA vaccine-associated perimyocarditis. Reporting of mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis to Swissmedic is mandatory. Cohort studies prospectively follow-up on young adult and paediatric populations following immunisation with an mRNA COVID vaccine to monitor cardiac and immune parameters would generate valuable knowledge to better understand pathogenesis and risk factors for vaccine-associated perimyocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Vaccination/adverse effects , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273474

ABSTRACT

Most studies investigating early risk predictors in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) lacked comparison with controls. We aimed to assess and directly compare outcomes and risk predictors at time of emergency department (ED) presentation in COVID-19 and controls. Consecutive patients presenting to the ED with suspected COVID-19 were prospectively enrolled. COVID-19-patients were compared with (i) patients tested negative (overall controls) and (ii) patients tested negative, who had a respiratory infection (respiratory controls). Primary outcome was the composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death at 30 days. Among 1081 consecutive cases, 191 (18%) were tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 890 (82%) were tested negative (overall controls), of which 323 (30%) had a respiratory infection (respiratory controls). Incidence of the composite outcome was significantly higher in COVID-19 (23%) as compared with the overall control group (10%, adjusted-HR 2.45 (95%CI, 1.61-3.74), p < 0.001) or the respiratory control group (10%, adjusted-HR 2.93 (95%CI, 1.66-5.17), p < 0.001). Blood oxygen saturation, age, high-sensitivity troponin, c-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase were identified as the strongest predictors of poor outcome available at time of ED presentation in COVID-19 with highly comparable prognostic utility in overall and respiratory controls. In conclusion, patients presenting to the ED with COVID-19 have a worse outcome than controls, even after adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics. Most predictors of poor outcome in COVID-19 were not restricted to COVID-19, but of comparable prognostic utility in controls and therefore generalizable to unselected patients with suspected COVID-19.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244049

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have indicated an association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and acute kidney injury (AKI) but lacked a control group. The prospective observational COronaVIrus-surviVAl (COVIVA) study performed at the University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland consecutively enrolled patients with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. We compared patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with patients who tested negative but with an adjudicated diagnosis of a respiratory tract infection, including pneumonia. The primary outcome measure was death at 30 days, and the secondary outcomes were AKI incidence and a composite endpoint of death, intensive care treatment or rehospitalization at 30 days. Five hundred and seven patients were diagnosed with respiratory tract infections, and of those, 183 (36%) had a positive PCR swab test for SARS-CoV-2. The incidence of AKI was higher in patients with COVID-19 (30% versus 12%, p < 0.001), more severe (KDIGO stage 3, 22% versus 13%, p = 0.009) and more often required renal replacement therapy (4.4% versus 0.93%; p = 0.03). The risk of 30-day mortality and a composite endpoint was higher in patients with COVID-19-associated AKI (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) mortality 3.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-14.46, p = 0.036; composite endpoint aHR 1.84, 95% CI 1.02-3.31, p = 0.042). The mortality risk was attenuated when adjusting for disease severity (aHR 3.60, 95% CI 0.93-13.96, p = 0.062). AKI occurs more frequently and with a higher severity in patients with COVID-19 and is associated with worse outcomes.

6.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129685

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Recently, influences of antihypertensive treatment on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has gained attention, regarding a possible influence on inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. We aimed to study the effects of newly initiated antihypertensive drugs on angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang (1-7) as representers of two counter-regulatory axes. (2) Methods: In this randomized, open-label trial investigating RAAS peptides after the initiation of perindopril, olmesartan, amlodipine, or hydrochlorothiazide, Ang II and Ang (1-7) equilibrium concentrations were measured at 8 a.m. and 12 a.m. at baseline and after four weeks of treatment. Eighty patients were randomized (1:1:1:1 fashion). (3) Results: Between the four substances, we found significant differences regarding the concentrations of Ang II (p < 0.0005 for 8 a.m., 12 a.m.) and Ang (1-7) (p = 0.019 for 8 a.m., <0.0005 for 12 a.m.) four weeks after treatment start. Ang II was decreased by perindopril (p = 0.002), and increased by olmesartan (p < 0.0005), amlodipine (p = 0.012), and hydrochlorothiazide (p = 0.001). Ang (1-7) was increased by perindopril and olmesartan (p = 0.008/0.002), but not measurably altered by amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide (p = 0.317/ 0.109). (4) Conclusion: The initiation of all first line antihypertensive treatments causes early and distinct alterations of equilibrium angiotensin levels. Given the additional AT1R blocking action of olmesartan, RAAS peptides shift upon initiation of perindopril and olmesartan appear to work in favor of the anti-inflammatory axis compared to amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
8.
Ann Neurol ; 89(3): 610-616, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044305

ABSTRACT

There is emerging evidence for multifarious neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known regarding whether they reflect structural damage to the nervous system. Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) is a specific biomarker of neuronal injury. We measured sNfL concentrations of 29 critically ill COVID-19 patients, 10 critically ill non-COVID-19 patients, and 259 healthy controls. After adjusting for neurological comorbidities and age, sNfL concentrations were higher in patients with COVID-19 versus both comparator groups. Higher sNfL levels were associated with unfavorable short-term outcome, indicating that neuronal injury is common and pronounced in critically ill patients. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:610-616.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Neurofilament Proteins/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyponatremia/blood , Hyponatremia/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pulmonary Edema/blood , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/blood , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
9.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(3): 409-418, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread globally and infected millions of people. The prevalence and prognostic impact of dysnatremia in COVID-19 is inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and outcome of dysnatremia in COVID-19. DESIGN: The prospective, observational, cohort study included consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of COVID-19 triaged to a Swiss Emergency Department between March and July 2020. METHODS: Collected data included clinical, laboratory and disease severity scoring parameters on admission. COVID-19 cases were identified based on a positive nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2, patients with a negative swab test served as controls. The primary analysis was to assess the prognostic impact of dysnatremia on 30-day mortality using a cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: 172 (17%) cases with COVID-19 and 849 (83%) controls were included. Patients with COVID-19 showed a higher prevalence of hyponatremia compared to controls (28.1% vs 17.5%, P < 0.001); while comparable for hypernatremia (2.9% vs 2.1%, P = 0.34). In COVID-19 but not in controls, hyponatremia was associated with a higher 30-day mortality (HR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.10-16.62, P = 0.05). In both groups, hypernatremia on admission was associated with higher 30-day mortality (COVID-19 - HR: 11.5, 95% CI: 5.00-26.43, P < 0.001; controls - HR: 5.3, 95% CI: 1.60-17.64, P = 0.006). In both groups, hyponatremia and hypernatremia were significantly associated with adverse outcome, for example, intensive care unit admission, longer hospitalization and mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Our results underline the importance of dysnatremia as predictive marker in COVID-19. Treating physicians should be aware of appropriate treatment measures to be taken for patients with COVID-19 and dysnatremia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypernatremia/diagnosis , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypernatremia/complications , Hypernatremia/therapy , Hyponatremia/complications , Hyponatremia/therapy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology , Triage
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