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1.
Front Surg ; 9: 889999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862702

ABSTRACT

Early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, global governing bodies prioritized transmissibility-based precautions and hospital capacity as the foundation for delay of elective procedures. As elective surgical volumes increased, convalescent COVID-19 patients faced increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and clinicians had limited evidence for stratifying individual risk in this population. Clear evidence now demonstrates that those recovering from COVID-19 have increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. These data-in conjunction with the recent American Society of Anesthesiologists guidelines-offer the evidence necessary to expand the early pandemic guidelines and guide the surgeon's preoperative risk assessment. Here, we argue elective surgeries should still be delayed on a personalized basis to maximize postoperative outcomes. We outline a framework for stratifying the individual COVID-19 patient's fitness for surgery based on the symptoms and severity of acute or convalescent COVID-19 illness, coagulopathy assessment, and acuity of the surgical procedure. Although the most common manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is COVID-19 pneumonitis, every system in the body is potentially afflicted by an endotheliitis. This endothelial derangement most often manifests as a hypercoagulable state on admission with associated occult and symptomatic venous and arterial thromboembolisms. The delicate balance between hyper and hypocoagulable states is defined by the local immune-thrombotic crosstalk that results commonly in a hemostatic derangement known as fibrinolytic shutdown. In tandem, the hemostatic derangements that occur during acute COVID-19 infection affect not only the timing of surgical procedures, but also the incidence of postoperative hemostatic complications related to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC). Traditional methods of thromboprophylaxis and treatment of thromboses after surgery require a tailored approach guided by an understanding of the pathophysiologic underpinnings of the COVID-19 patient. Likewise, a prolonged period of risk for developing hemostatic complications following hospitalization due to COVID-19 has resulted in guidelines from differing societies that recommend varying periods of delay following SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, we propose the perioperative, personalized assessment of COVID-19 patients' CAC using viscoelastic hemostatic assays and fluorescent microclot analysis.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847346

ABSTRACT

The fibrinolytic system is composed of the protease plasmin, its precursor plasminogen and their respective activators, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), counteracted by their inhibitors, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2), protein C inhibitor (PCI), thrombin activable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), protease nexin 1 (PN-1) and neuroserpin. The action of plasmin is counteracted by α2-antiplasmin, α2-macroglobulin, TAFI, and other serine protease inhibitors (antithrombin and α2-antitrypsin) and PN-1 (protease nexin 1). These components are essential regulators of many physiologic processes. They are also involved in the pathogenesis of many disorders. Recent advancements in our understanding of these processes enable the opportunity of drug development in treating many of these disorders.


Subject(s)
Fibrinolysin , Fibrinolysis , Fibrinolysin/metabolism , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Plasminogen/metabolism , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/metabolism , Protease Nexins , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , alpha-2-Antiplasmin
4.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674681

ABSTRACT

Viscoelastic hemostatic assay (VHAs) are whole blood point-of-care tests that have become an essential method for assaying hemostatic competence in liver transplantation, cardiac surgery, and most recently, trauma surgery involving hemorrhagic shock. It has taken more than three-quarters of a century of research and clinical application for this technology to become mainstream in these three clinical areas. Within the last decade, the cup and pin legacy devices, such as thromboelastography (TEG® 5000) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM® delta), have been supplanted not only by cartridge systems (TEG® 6S and ROTEM® sigma), but also by more portable point-of-care bedside testing iterations of these legacy devices (e.g., Sonoclot®, Quantra®, and ClotPro®). Here, the legacy and new generation VHAs are compared on the basis of their unique hemostatic parameters that define contributions of coagulation factors, fibrinogen/fibrin, platelets, and clot lysis as related to the lifespan of a clot. In conclusion, we offer a brief discussion on the meteoric adoption of VHAs across the medical and surgical specialties to address COVID-19-associated coagulopathy.

5.
Case Rep Med ; 2021: 5568982, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343985

ABSTRACT

One of the complications of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is hypercoagulability. For this reason, patients presenting with COVID-19 are often put on therapeutic or intermediate anticoagulation upon hospitalization. A common issue of this anticoagulation is the progression to hypocoagulability resulting in hemorrhage. Therefore, monitoring the hemostatic integrity of critically ill COVID-19 patients is of utmost importance. In this case series, we present the cases of three coagulopathic COVID-19 patients whose anticoagulation was guided by thromboelastography (TEG). In each case, TEG permitted the clinical team to simultaneously prevent thrombotic and hemorrhagic events, a difficult task for COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The first two cases illustrate the utility of TEG to guide anticoagulant dosing for COVID-19 patients when the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is inaccurate. The first case was a severely ill COVID-19 patient with end-stage renal disease and a falsely elevated aPTT secondary to hypertriglyceridemia. The second case was a severely ill COVID-19 patient with chronic pulmonary disease who demonstrated a falsely elevated aPTT due to polycythemia and hemoconcentration. In both cases, TEG was sensitive to the hypercoagulability caused by the metabolic derangements which enabled the goal-directed titration of anticoagulants. The last case depicts a severely ill COVID-19 patient with an inherited factor V Leiden mutation who required abnormally high dosing to achieve therapeutic anticoagulation, guided by TEG. Hypercoagulopathic COVID-19 patients are difficult to anticoagulate without development of hypocoagulopathy. Treatment of these patients demands goal-directed therapy by diligent laboratory monitoring. This can be accomplished by the use of TEG coupled with aPTT to guide anticoagulation. This case series illustrates the necessity for active hemostatic monitoring of critically ill COVID-19 patients.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(14)2021 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The treatment of COVID-19 patients with heparin is not always effective in preventing thrombotic complications, but can also be associated with bleeding complications, suggesting a balanced approach to anticoagulation is needed. A prior pilot study supported that thromboelastography and conventional coagulation tests could predict hemorrhage in COVID-19 in patients treated with unfractionated heparin or enoxaparin, but did not evaluate the risk of thrombosis. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective study included 79 severely ill COVID-19 patients anticoagulated with intermediate or therapeutic dose unfractionated heparin. Two stepwise logistic regression models were performed with bleeding or thrombosis as the dependent variable, and thromboelastography parameters and conventional coagulation tests as the independent variables. RESULTS: Among all 79 patients, 12 (15.2%) had bleeding events, and 20 (25.3%) had thrombosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a prediction model for bleeding (adjusted R2 = 0.787, p < 0.001) comprised of increased reaction time (p = 0.016), decreased fibrinogen (p = 0.006), decreased D-dimer (p = 0.063), and increased activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.084). Multivariate analysis of thrombosis identified a weak prediction model (adjusted R2 = 0.348, p < 0.001) comprised of increased D-dimer (p < 0.001), decreased reaction time (p = 0.002), increased maximum amplitude (p < 0.001), and decreased alpha angle (p = 0.014). Adjunctive thromboelastography decreased the use of packed red cells (p = 0.031) and fresh frozen plasma (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly, this study demonstrates the need for a precision-based titration strategy of anticoagulation for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Since severely ill COVID-19 patients may switch between thrombotic or hemorrhagic phenotypes or express both simultaneously, institutions may reduce these complications by developing their own titration strategy using daily conventional coagulation tests with adjunctive thromboelastography.

7.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(1): 158-159, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196863
9.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931080, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), often manifests a coagulopathy in severely ill patients, which may cause hemorrhage and/or thrombosis of varying severity. This report comprises the cases of 3 patients with COVID-19-associated coagulopathy who were evaluated with thromboelastography (TEG) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) to enable personalized anticoagulant therapy. CASE REPORT Three patients presented with COVID-19 pneumonia, confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, who developed thrombohemorrhagic coagulopathy.Case 1: A 72-year-old woman on long-term warfarin therapy for a history of venous thromboembolism developed a right upper lobe pulmonary embolus, despite an international normalized ratio of 6.4 and aPTT of 120.7 s. TEG enabled successful anticoagulation with heparin, and her pulmonary infarct was no longer present 2 weeks later.Case 2: A 55-year-old woman developed a rectus sheath hematoma while on heparin, and TEG demonstrated increased fibrinolysis despite COVID-19 patients more commonly undergoing fibrinolytic shutdown.Case 3: A 43-year-old woman had significant thrombus burden while severely hypocoagulable according to laboratory testing. As the venous thrombi enlarged in a disseminated intravascular coagulopathic-like state, the heparin dose was escalated to achieve a target aPTT of 70 to 80 s, resulting in a flat line TEG tracing. CONCLUSIONS These 3 cases of COVID-19 pneumonia with complex and varied clinical histories demonstrated the clinical value of TEG combined with the measurement of aPTT to facilitate personalized anticoagulation, resulting in good clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Thrombelastography , Thrombolytic Therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Female , Hemorrhage/virology , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/virology
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055067

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has many characteristics common to those in two other coronavirus acute respiratory diseases, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). They are all highly contagious and have severe pulmonary complications. Clinically, patients with COVID-19 run a rapidly progressive course of an acute respiratory tract infection with fever, sore throat, cough, headache and fatigue, complicated by severe pneumonia often leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The infection also involves other organs throughout the body. In all three viral illnesses, the fibrinolytic system plays an active role in each phase of the pathogenesis. During transmission, the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin-system (RAAS) is involved with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, attaching to its natural receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) in host cells. Both tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) are closely linked to the RAAS. In lesions in the lung, kidney and other organs, the two plasminogen activators urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), along with their inhibitor, plasminogen activator 1 (PAI-1), are involved. The altered fibrinolytic balance enables the development of a hypercoagulable state. In this article, evidence for the central role of fibrinolysis is reviewed, and the possible drug targets at multiple sites in the fibrinolytic pathways are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Fibrinolysis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology
12.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 46(7): 796-803, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595399

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the novel virus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is infecting a naïve population. The innate immunity of the infected patient is unable to mount an effective defense, resulting in a severe illness with substantial morbidity and mortality. As most treatment modalities including antivirals and anti-inflammatory agents are mostly ineffective, an immunological approach is needed. The mechanism of innate immunity to this viral illness is not fully understood. Passive immunity becomes an important avenue for the management of these patients. In this article, the immune responses of COVID-19 patients are reviewed. As SARS-CoV-2 has many characteristics in common with two other viruses, SARS-CoV that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), the experiences learned from the use of passive immunity in treatment can be applied to COVID-19. The immune response includes the appearance of immunoglobulin M followed by immunoglobulin G and neutralizing antibodies. Convalescent plasma obtained from patients recovered from the illness with high titers of neutralizing antibodies was successful in treating many COVID-19 patients. The factors that determine responses as compared with those seen in SARS and MERS are also reviewed. As there are no approved vaccines against all three viruses, it remains a challenge in the ongoing development for an effective vaccine for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines
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