Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 24
Filter
1.
Vaccine ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2298051

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) has been observed to vary against antigenically distinct SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC). Here we report the final analysis of VE and safety from COV005: a phase 1b/2, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of primary series AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccination in South African adults aged 18–65 years. South Africa's first, second, and third waves of SARS-CoV-2 infections were respectively driven by the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus (wild type, WT), and SARS-CoV-2 Beta and Delta VoCs. VE against asymptomatic and symptomatic infection was 90.6% for WT, 6.7% for Beta and 77.1% for Delta. No cases of severe COVID-19 were documented ahead of unblinding. Safety was consistent with the interim analysis, with no new safety concerns identified. Notably, South Africa's Delta wave occurred ≥ 9 months after primary series vaccination, suggesting that primary series AZD1222 vaccination offers a good durability of protection, potentially due to an anamnestic response. Clinical trial identifier: CT.gov NCT04444674

2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine rollout is lagging in Africa, where there has been a high rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection before vaccination with the ChAdOx-nCoV19 (AZD1222) vaccine on antibody responses through to 180 days. METHODS: We did an unmasked post-hoc immunogenicity analysis after the first and second doses of AZD1222 in a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 1b-2a study done in seven locations in South Africa. AZD1222 recipients who were HIV-uninfected, were stratified into baseline seropositive or seronegative groups using the serum anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) immunoglobulin G (IgG) electroluminescence immunoassay to establish SARS-CoV-2 infection before the first dose of AZD1222. Binding IgG to spike (anti-S) and receptor binding domain (anti-RBD) were measured before the first dose (day 0), second dose (day 28), day 42, and day 180. Neutralising antibody (NAb) against SARS-CoV-2 variants D614G, beta, delta, gamma, and A.VOI.V2, and omicron BA1 and BA.4 variants, were measured by pseudovirus assay (day 28, day 42, and day 180). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04444674, and the Pan African Clinicals Trials Registry, PACTR202006922165132. FINDINGS: Of 185 individuals who were randomly assigned to AZD1222, we included 91 individuals who were baseline seropositive and 58 who were baseline seronegative, in the final analysis. In the seropositive group, there was little change of anti-S IgG (and anti-RBD IgG) or neutralising antibody (NAb) titres at day 42 compared with at day 28. Anti-S (and anti-RBD) IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher throughout in the seropositive compared with the seronegative group, including at day 180 (GMCs 517·8 [95% CI 411·3-651·9] vs 82·1 [55·2-122·3] BAU/mL). Also D614G NAb geometric mean titres (GMTs) were higher in the seropositive group than the seronegative group, as was the percentage with titres of at least 185 (80% putative risk reduction threshold [PRRT] against wild-type-alpha COVID-19), including at day 180 (92·0% [74·0-99·0] vs 18·2% [2·3-51·8). Similar findings were observed for beta, A.VOI.V2, and gamma. For delta, BA.1, and BA.4, NAb GMTs and the proportion with titres above the PRRT were substantially higher in the seropositive compared with seronegative group at day 28 and day 42, but no longer differed between the groups by day 180. INTERPRETATION: A single dose of AZD1222 in the general African population, where COVID-19 vaccine coverage is low and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity is 90%, could enhance the magnitude and quality of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the South African Medical Research Council, the UK Research and Innovation, the UK National Institute for Health Research, and the South African Medical Research Council. TRANSLATION: For the Zulu translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

3.
Cell ; 185(3): 467-484.e15, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256772

ABSTRACT

On 24th November 2021, the sequence of a new SARS-CoV-2 viral isolate Omicron-B.1.1.529 was announced, containing far more mutations in Spike (S) than previously reported variants. Neutralization titers of Omicron by sera from vaccinees and convalescent subjects infected with early pandemic Alpha, Beta, Gamma, or Delta are substantially reduced, or the sera failed to neutralize. Titers against Omicron are boosted by third vaccine doses and are high in both vaccinated individuals and those infected by Delta. Mutations in Omicron knock out or substantially reduce neutralization by most of the large panel of potent monoclonal antibodies and antibodies under commercial development. Omicron S has structural changes from earlier viruses and uses mutations that confer tight binding to ACE2 to unleash evolution driven by immune escape. This leads to a large number of mutations in the ACE2 binding site and rebalances receptor affinity to that of earlier pandemic viruses.

4.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270244

ABSTRACT

We conducted an epidemiologic survey to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) and anti-spike (anti-S) protein IgG from 1 March to 11 April 2022 after the BA.1-dominant wave had subsided in South Africa and prior to another wave dominated by the BA.4 and BA.5 (BA.4/BA.5) sub-lineages. We also analysed epidemiologic trends in Gauteng Province for cases, hospitalizations, recorded deaths, and excess deaths were evaluated from the inception of the pandemic through 17 November 2022. Despite only 26.7% (1995/7470) of individuals having received a COVID-19 vaccine, the overall seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 was 90.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 90.2 to 91.5) at the end of the BA.1 wave, and 64% (95% CI, 61.8 to 65.9) of individuals were infected during the BA.1-dominant wave. The SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality risk was 16.5-22.3 times lower in the BA.1-dominant wave compared with the pre-BA.1 waves for recorded deaths (0.02% vs. 0.33%) and estimated excess mortality (0.03% vs. 0.67%). Although there are ongoing cases of COVID-19 infections, hospitalization and death, there has not been any meaningful resurgence of COVID-19 since the BA.1-dominant wave despite only 37.8% coverage by at least a single dose of COVID-19 vaccine in Gauteng, South Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , South Africa/epidemiology , Incidence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
AIDS ; 37(1): 105-112, 2023 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T-cell responses 14 days after single-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccination in black Africans with and without HIV in South Africa, as well as determine the effect of AZD1222 vaccination on cell-mediated immune responses in people with HIV (PWH) with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A total of 70 HIV-uninfected people and 104 PWH were prospectively enrolled in the multicentre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase Ib/IIa trial (COV005). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from trial participants 14 days after receipt of first dose of study treatment (placebo or AZD1222 vaccine). T-cell responses against the full-length spike (FLS) glycoprotein of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and mutated S-protein regions found in the Alpha, Beta and Delta variants were assessed using an ex-vivo ELISpot assay. RESULTS: Among AZD1222 recipients without preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection, T-cell responses to FLS of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 were similarly common in PWH and HIV-uninfected people (30/33, 90.9% vs. 16/21, 76.2%; P = 0.138); and magnitude of response was similar among responders (78 vs. 56 SFCs/106 PBMCs; P = 0.255). Among PWH, AZD1222 vaccinees with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, displayed a heightened T-cell response magnitude compared with those without prior infection (186 vs. 78 SFCs/106 PBMCs; P = 0.001); and similar response rate (14/14, 100% vs. 30/33, 90.9%; P = 0.244). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate comparable T-cell responses following AZD1222 vaccination in HIV-uninfected people and PWH on stable antiretroviral therapy. Our results additionally show that hybrid immunity acquired through SARS-CoV-2 infection and AZD1222 vaccination, induce a heightened T-cell response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy
6.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225693

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been pivotal in overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic yet understanding the subsequent outcomes and immunological effects remain crucial, especially for at-risk groups e.g., people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH). In this study we report the longitudinal IgA and IgG antibody titers, as well as antibody-mediated angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding blockade, against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) proteins after 1 and 2 doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a population of Black PLWH. Here, we report that PLWH (N = 103) did not produce an anti-S IgA response after infection or vaccination, however, anti-S IgG was detected in response to vaccination and infection, with the highest level detected for infected vaccinated participants. The anti-IgG and ACE2 blockade assays revealed that both vaccination and infection resulted in IgG production, however, only vaccination resulted in a moderate increase in ACE2 binding blockade to the ancestral S protein. Vaccination with a previous infection results in the greatest anti-S IgG and ACE2 blockade for the ancestral S protein. In conclusion, PLWH produce an anti-S IgG response to the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine and/or infection, and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination with a previous infection produced more neutralizing antibodies than vaccination alone.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Blocking , Antibodies, Neutralizing , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin A , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Immunoglobulin G
7.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05050, 2022 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155718

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women has been associated with severe illness in the women and higher rates of premature delivery. There is, however, paucity of data on the impact of the timing of SARS-CoV-2 infection and on symptomatic or asymptomatic infections on birth outcomes. Data from low-middle income settings is also lacking. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study from April 2020 to March 2021, in South Africa, where symptomatic or asymptomatic pregnant women were investigated for SARS-CoV-2 infection during the antepartum period. We aimed to evaluate if there was an association between antepartum SARS-CoV-2 infection on birth outcomes. SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), histological examination was performed in a sub-set of placentas. Results: Overall, 793 women were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antenatally, including 275 (35%) who were symptomatic. SARS-CoV-2 infection was identified in 138 (17%) women, of whom 119 had symptoms (COVID-19 group) and 19 were asymptomatic. The 493 women who were asymptomatic and had a negative SARS-CoV-2 NAAT were used as the referent comparator group for outcomes evaluation. Women with COVID-19 compared with the referent group were 1.66-times (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.71) more likely to have a low-birthweight newborn (30% vs 21%) and 3.25-times more likely to deliver a very low-birthweight newborn (5% vs 2%). Similar results for low-birthweight were obtained comparing women with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection (30%) with those who had a negative NAAT result (22%) independent of symptoms presentation. The placentas from women with antenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection had higher percentage of chorangiosis (odds ratio (OR) = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.18-.84), while maternal vascular malperfusion was more frequently identified in women who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (aOR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.89). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that in a setting with high HIV infection prevalence and other comorbidities antenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with low-birthweight delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Premature Birth , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Birth Weight , Longitudinal Studies , Premature Birth/epidemiology
8.
Am J Perinatol ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy has been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. There is, however, not much information on the impact of the timing of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy outcomes, and studies from low-middle income settings are also scarce. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study from April to December 2020, in South Africa, to assess the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection on a nasal swab at the time of labor with fetal death, preterm birth, low birth weight, or pregnancy-induced complications. When possible, maternal blood, cord blood, and placenta were collected. SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated by a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). RESULTS: Overall, 3,117 women were tested for SARS-CoV-2 on a nasal swab, including 1,562 (50%) healthy women with uncomplicated term delivery. A positive NAAT was detected among 132 (4%) women. Adverse birth outcomes or pregnancy-related complications were not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of labor. Among SARS-CoV-2-infected women, an NAAT-positive result was also obtained from 6 out of 98 (6%) maternal blood samples, 8 out of 93 (9%) cord-blood samples, 14 out of 54 (26%) placentas, and 3 out of 22 (14%) nasopharyngeal swabs from newborns collected within 72 hours of birth. Histological assessment of placental tissue revealed that women with SARS-CoV-2 nasal infection had a higher odds (3.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.20, 12.19) of chronic chorioamnionitis compared with those without SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that intrapartum, SARS-CoV-2 infection was not associated with evaluated poor outcomes. In utero fetal and placental infections and possible vertical and/or horizontal viral transfer to the newborn were detected among women with nasal SARS-CoV-2 infection. KEY POINTS: · Intrapartum SARS-CoV-2 infection was not associated with evaluated poor outcomes.. · In utero fetal and placental infections were detected among women with nasal SARS-CoV-2 infection.. · Women with SARS-CoV-2 nasal infection had a higher odds of chronic chorioamnionitis..

9.
AIDS ; 36(13): 1777-1782, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070183

ABSTRACT

In pregnant women, antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein cross the placenta and can be detected in cord-blood at the time of delivery. We measured SARS-CoV-2 full-length antispike IgG in blood samples collected from women living with HIV (WLWHIV) and without HIV when presenting for labour, and from paired cord-blood samples. Antispike IgG was measured in maternal blood at delivery on the Luminex platform. Cord-blood samples from newborns of women in with detectable antispike IgG were analysed. The IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and the percentage of cord-blood samples with detectable antispike IgG were compared between WLWHIV and without HIV. A total of 184 maternal and cord-blood pairs were analysed, including 47 WLWHIV and 137 without HIV. There was no difference in antispike GMCs between WLWHIV and without HIV [157 binding antibody units (BAU)/ml vs. 187 BAU/ml; P  = 0.17)]. Cord-blood samples from newborns of WLWHIV had lower GMCs compared with those without HIV (143 vs. 205 BAU/ml; P  = 0.033). Cord-to-maternal blood antibody ratio was 1.0 and similar between the two HIV groups. In WLWHIV, those who were 30 years old or less had lower cord-to-maternal blood antibody ratio (0.75 vs. 1.10; P  = 0.037) and their newborns had lower cord-blood GMCs (94 vs. 194 BAU/ml; P  = 0.04) compared with the older women. Independently of maternal HIV infection status, there was efficient transplacental transfer of antispike antibodies. The GMCs in cord-blood from newborns of WLWHIV were lower than those in HIV-unexposed newborns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Gates Open Res ; 5: 150, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969796

ABSTRACT

Background: A potential explanation for the fact that the high rate of infection of SARS-CoV-2 in South Africa did not translate into high rates of severe illness and death may be the presence of cross-reactive immunity induced by common cold coronaviruses (CCoV). Methods: We used SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools and whole virus antigen to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected pre-2020 from South African women. Dual-colour FluoroSpot assay was used to measure interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin 2 (IL2) production. Results: Among the 97 study participants, IFNγ responses were observed in 29.9% of the women and IL2 among 39.2%. Overall, 51.6% of women demonstrated response to at least one stimulant. Conclusion: We demonstrate the presence of cross-reactive immunity to SARS-CoV-2, which might have been induced by past exposure to CCoV.

11.
Gates Open Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835895

ABSTRACT

Background: A potential explanation for the fact that the high rate of infection of SARS-CoV-2 in South Africa did not translate into high rates of severe illness and death may be the presence of cross-reactive immunity induced by common cold coronaviruses (CCoV). Methods: We used SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools and whole virus antigen to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected pre-2020 from South African women. Dual-colour FluoroSpot assay was used to measure interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin 2 (IL2) production. Results: Among the 97 study participants, IFNγ responses were observed in 29.9% of the women and IL2 among 39.2%. Overall, 51.6% of women demonstrated response to at least one stimulant. Conclusion: We demonstrate the presence of cross-reactive immunity to SARS-CoV-2, which might have been induced by past exposure to CCoV.

12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1976, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783980

ABSTRACT

Global genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 has identified variants associated with increased transmissibility, neutralization resistance and disease severity. Here we report the emergence of the PANGO lineage C.1.2, detected at low prevalence in South Africa and eleven other countries. The initial C.1.2 detection is associated with a high substitution rate, and includes changes within the spike protein that have been associated with increased transmissibility or reduced neutralization sensitivity in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern or variants of interest. Like Beta and Delta, C.1.2 shows significantly reduced neutralization sensitivity to plasma from vaccinees and individuals infected with the ancestral D614G virus. In contrast, convalescent donors infected with either Beta or Delta show high plasma neutralization against C.1.2. These functional data suggest that vaccine efficacy against C.1.2 will be equivalent to Beta and Delta, and that prior infection with either Beta or Delta will likely offer protection against C.1.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 128, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Binding and neutralising anti-Spike antibodies play a key role in immune defence against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since it is known that antibodies wane with time and new immune-evasive variants are emerging, we aimed to assess the dynamics of anti-Spike antibodies in an African adult population with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and to determine the effect of subsequent COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: Using a prospective cohort design, we recruited adults with prior laboratory-confirmed mild/moderate COVID-19 in Blantyre, Malawi, and followed them up for 270 days (n = 52). A subset of whom subsequently received a single dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx nCov-19) (n = 12). We measured the serum concentrations of anti-Spike and receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG antibodies using a Luminex-based assay. Anti-RBD antibody cross-reactivity across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) was measured using a haemagglutination test. A pseudovirus neutralisation assay was used to measure neutralisation titres across VOCs. Ordinary or repeated measures one-way ANOVA was used to compare log10 transformed data, with p value adjusted for multiple comparison using Sídák's or Holm-Sídák's test. RESULTS: We show that neutralising antibodies wane within 6 months post mild/moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection (30-60 days vs. 210-270 days; Log ID50 6.8 vs. 5.3, p = 0.0093). High levels of binding anti-Spike or anti-RBD antibodies in convalescent serum were associated with potent neutralisation activity against the homologous infecting strain (p < 0.0001). A single dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine following mild/moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection induced a 2 to 3-fold increase in anti-Spike and -RBD IgG levels 30 days post-vaccination (both, p < 0.0001). The anti-RBD IgG antibodies from these vaccinated individuals were broadly cross-reactive against multiple VOCs and had neutralisation potency against original D614G, beta, and delta variants. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is an effective booster for waning cross-variant antibody immunity after initial priming with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The potency of hybrid immunity and its potential to maximise the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines needs to be taken into consideration when formulating vaccination policies in sub-Saharan Africa, where there is still limited access to vaccine doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Serotherapy
14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753697

ABSTRACT

We investigated Omicron infections among healthcare workers (HCW) presenting with symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and evaluated the protective effect of vaccination or prior infection. Between 24 November and 31 December 2021, HCW in Johannesburg, South Africa, were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT). Blood samples collected either at the symptomatic visit or in the 3 months prior, were tested for spike protein immunoglobulin G (IgG). Overall, 433 symptomatic HCW were included in the analysis, with 190 (43.9%) having an Omicron infection; 69 (16.7%) were unvaccinated and 270 (62.4%) received a single dose of the Ad26.COV.2 vaccine. There was no difference in the odds of identifying Omicron between unvaccinated and Ad26.COV.2 vaccinated HCW (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 1.43). One-hundred and fifty-four (35.3%) HCW had at least one SARS-CoV-2 NAAT-confirmed prior infection; these had lower odds of Omicron infection compared with those without past infection (aOR 0.55, 95%CI: 0.36, 0.84). Anti-spike IgG concentration of 1549 binding antibody unit/mL was suggestive of significant reduction in the risk of symptomatic Omicron infection. We found high reinfection and vaccine breakthrough infection rates with the Omicron variant among HCW. Prior infection and high anti-spike IgG concentration were protective against Omicron infection.

15.
N Engl J Med ; 386(14): 1314-1326, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified on November 25, 2021, in Gauteng province, South Africa. Data regarding the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in Gauteng before the fourth wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), in which the omicron variant was dominant, are needed. METHODS: We conducted a seroepidemiologic survey from October 22 to December 9, 2021, in Gauteng to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Households included in a previous seroepidemiologic survey (conducted from November 2020 to January 2021) were contacted; to account for changes in the survey population, there was a 10% increase in the households contacted, with the use of the same sampling framework. Dried-blood-spot samples were tested for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleocapsid protein with the use of quantitative assays. We also evaluated Covid-19 epidemiologic trends in Gauteng, including cases, hospitalizations, recorded deaths, and excess deaths from the start of the pandemic through January 12, 2022. RESULTS: Samples were obtained from 7010 participants, of whom 1319 (18.8%) had received a Covid-19 vaccine. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG ranged from 56.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.6 to 59.7) among children younger than 12 years of age to 79.7% (95% CI, 77.6 to 81.5) among adults older than 50 years of age. Vaccinated participants were more likely to be seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 than unvaccinated participants (93.1% vs. 68.4%). Epidemiologic data showed that the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection increased and subsequently declined more rapidly during the fourth wave than it had during the three previous waves. The incidence of infection was decoupled from the incidences of hospitalization, recorded death, and excess death during the fourth wave, as compared with the proportions seen during previous waves. CONCLUSIONS: Widespread underlying SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was observed in Gauteng before the omicron-dominant wave of Covid-19. Epidemiologic data showed a decoupling of hospitalizations and deaths from infections while omicron was circulating. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
16.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114394, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654865

ABSTRACT

We compared plasma and dried blood spots for detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. There was a good correlation between IgG values measured by both sampling methods, r = 0.935 and 0.965 for Receptor Binding Domain and full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Bland-Altman assessment showed good agreement between two sampling methods. Dried blood spots is a more pragmatic method for collecting samples for sero-epidemiological surveys of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Dried Blood Spot Testing , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Cell ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601904

ABSTRACT

On the 24th November 2021 the sequence of a new SARS CoV-2 viral isolate Omicron-B.1.1.529 was announced, containing far more mutations in Spike (S) than previously reported variants. Neutralization titres of Omicron by sera from vaccinees and convalescent subjects infected with early pandemic as well as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta are substantially reduced or fail to neutralize. Titres against Omicron are boosted by third vaccine doses and are high in cases both vaccinated and infected by Delta. Mutations in Omicron knock out or substantially reduce neutralization by most of a large panel of potent monoclonal antibodies and antibodies under commercial development. Omicron S has structural changes from earlier viruses, combining mutations conferring tight binding to ACE2 to unleash evolution driven by immune escape, leading to a large number of mutations in the ACE2 binding site which rebalance receptor affinity to that of early pandemic viruses. A comprehensive analysis of sera from vaccinees, convalescent patients infected previously by multiple variants and potent monoclonal antibodies from early in the COVID-19 pandemic reveals a substantial overall reduction the ability to neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, which a third vaccine dose seems to ameliorate. Structural analyses of the Omicron RBD suggest a selective pressure enabling the virus bind ACE2 with increased affinity that is offset by other changes in the receptor binding motif that facilitates immune escape.

18.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 303, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By August 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic has been less severe in sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere. In Malawi, there have been three subsequent epidemic waves. We therefore aimed to describe the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in Malawi. METHODS: We measured the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies amongst randomly selected blood transfusion donor sera in Malawi from January 2020 to July 2021 using a cross-sectional study design. In a subset, we also assessed in vitro neutralisation against the original variant (D614G WT) and the Beta variant. RESULTS: A total of 5085 samples were selected from the blood donor database, of which 4075 (80.1%) were aged 20-49 years. Of the total, 1401 were seropositive. After adjustment for assay characteristics and applying population weights, seropositivity reached peaks in October 2020 (18.5%) and May 2021 (64.9%) reflecting the first two epidemic waves. Unlike the first wave, both urban and rural areas had high seropositivity in the second wave, Balaka (rural, 66.2%, April 2021), Blantyre (urban, 75.6%, May 2021), Lilongwe (urban, 78.0%, May 2021), and Mzuzu (urban, 74.6%, April 2021). Blantyre and Mzuzu also show indications of the start of a third pandemic wave with seroprevalence picking up again in July 2021 (Blantyre, 81.7%; Mzuzu, 71.0%). More first wave sera showed in vitro neutralisation activity against the original variant (78% [7/9]) than the beta variant (22% [2/9]), while more second wave sera showed neutralisation activity against the beta variant (75% [12/16]) than the original variant (63% [10/16]). CONCLUSION: The findings confirm extensive SARS-CoV-2 exposure in Malawi over two epidemic waves with likely poor cross-protection to reinfection from the first on the second wave. The dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 exposure will therefore need to be taken into account in the formulation of the COVID-19 vaccination policy in Malawi and across the region. Future studies should use an adequate sample size for the assessment of neutralisation activity across a panel of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern/interest to estimate community immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1896-1900, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522151

ABSTRACT

From April to September 2020, we investigated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in a cohort of 396 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 5 departments at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, South Africa. Overall, 34.6% of HCWs had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (132.1 [95% confidence interval, 111.8-156.2] infections per 1000 person-months); an additional 27 infections were identified by serology. HCWs in the internal medicine department had the highest rate of infection (61.7%). Among polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cases, 10.4% remained asymptomatic, 30.4% were presymptomatic, and 59.3% were symptomatic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(2): 404-417, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limitations in laboratory testing capacity undermine the ability to quantify the overall burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We undertook a population-based serosurvey for SARS-CoV-2 infection in 26 subdistricts, Gauteng Province (population 15.9 million), South Africa, to estimate SARS-CoV-2 infection, infection fatality rate (IFR) triangulating seroprevalence, recorded COVID-19 deaths and excess-mortality data. We employed three-stage random household sampling with a selection probability proportional to the subdistrict size, stratifying the subdistrict census-sampling frame by housing type and then selecting households from selected clusters. The survey started on 4 November 2020, 8 weeks after the end of the first wave (SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test positivity had declined to <10% for the first wave) and coincided with the peak of the second wave. The last sampling was performed on 22 January 2021, which was 9 weeks after the SARS-CoV-2 resurgence. Serum SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) was measured using a quantitative assay on the Luminex platform. RESULTS: From 6332 individuals in 3453 households, the overall RBD IgG seroprevalence was 19.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 18.1-20.1%] and similar in children and adults. The seroprevalence varied from 5.5% to 43.2% across subdistricts. Conservatively, there were 2 897 120 (95% CI: 2 743 907-3 056 866) SARS-CoV-2 infections, yielding an infection rate of 19 090 per 100 000 until 9 January 2021, when 330 336 COVID-19 cases were recorded. The estimated IFR using recorded COVID-19 deaths (n = 8198) was 0.28% (95% CI: 0.27-0.30) and 0.67% (95% CI: 0.64-0.71) assuming 90% of modelled natural excess deaths were due to COVID-19 (n = 21 582). Notably, 53.8% (65/122) of individuals with previous self-reported confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were RBD IgG seronegative. CONCLUSIONS: The calculated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections was 7.8-fold greater than the recorded COVID-19 cases. The calculated SARS-CoV-2 IFR varied 2.39-fold when calculated using reported COVID-19 deaths (0.28%) compared with excess-mortality-derived COVID-19-attributable deaths (0.67%). Waning RBD IgG may have inadvertently underestimated the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and conversely overestimated the mortality risk. Epidemic preparedness and response planning for future COVID-19 waves will need to consider the true magnitude of infections, paying close attention to excess-mortality trends rather than absolute reported COVID-19 deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL