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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4610-4617, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954692

ABSTRACT

During the 2 years since the start of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the scientific world made an enormous effort to fight against this disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has high transmissibility. Advancements in vaccine and treatment strategies have reduced both the hospitalization and mortality rates. However, the virus has shown its ability to evolve and evade from our COVID-19 combating armamentaria by the most common evolution mechanism-mutation. Diagnostic testing has been the first line of defense following the identification of the causative agent. Ever since, the scientific community has developed nuclei acid-based, antigen-based, and antibody-based diagnostic tests, and these testing methodologies are still playing a central role in slowing down viral transmission. These testing methods have different sensitivity and specificity and could be optimally used in areas facing different challenges owing to different level and conditions of COVID-19 outbreak. In this review, we discuss these testing methodologies as well as the considerations on how to apply these diagnostic tests optimally in the community to cope with the ever-changing pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 150: 112970, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850704

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a current pandemic that has resulted in nearly 250 million cases and over 5 million deaths. While vaccines have been developed to prevent infection, and most COVID-19 cases end up being fairly light, there are severe cases of COVID-19 that may end up in death, even with adequate healthcare treatment. New options to combat this disease's effects, therefore, could prove to be invaluable in saving lives. Adamalysins are proteins that have several roles in regulating different functions in the human body but are also known to have functions in inflammation. They are also known to have roles in several different diseases, including COVID-19, where ADAM17, in particular, is now well-known to have a prominent role, but also several diseases which include comorbidities that may worsen cases of COVID-19. Therefore, investigating the functions of adamalysins in disease may give us clues to the molecular workings of COVID-19 as well as potentially new therapeutic targets. Understanding these molecular mechanisms may also allow for an understanding of the mechanisms behind the rare severe side effects that occur in response to current COVID-19 vaccines, which may lead to better monitoring measures for people who may be more at risk of developing these side effects. This review investigates the known roles and functions of adamalysins in disease, including what is currently known of their involvement in COVID-19, and how these functions might be involved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Metalloendopeptidases , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Expert Rev Mol Med ; 24: e4, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641781

ABSTRACT

Viruses completely rely on the energy and metabolic systems of host cells for life activities. Viral infections usually lead to cytopathic effects and host diseases. To date, there are still no specific clinical vaccines or drugs against most viral infections. Therefore, understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of viral infections is of great significance to prevent and treat viral diseases. A variety of viral infections are related to the p38 MAPK signalling pathway, and p38 is an important host factor in virus-infected cells. Here, we introduce the different signalling pathways of p38 activation and then summarise how different viruses induce p38 phosphorylation. Finally, we provide a general summary of the effect of p38 activation on virus replication. Our review provides integrated data on p38 activation and viral infections and describes the potential application of targeting p38 as an antiviral strategy.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphorylation , Virus Replication , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
4.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(9): 2348-2355, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285527

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has led to more than 150 million infections and about 3.1 million deaths up to date. Currently, drugs screened are urgently aiming to block the infection of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we explored the interaction networks of kinase and COVID-19 crosstalk, and identified phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway as the most important kinase signal pathway involving COVID-19. Further, we found a PI3K/AKT signal pathway inhibitor capivasertib restricted the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Lastly, the signal axis PI3K/AKT/FYVE finger-containing phosphoinositide kinase (PIKfyve)/PtdIns(3,5)P2 was revealed to play a key role during the cellular entry of viruses including SARS-CoV-2, possibly providing potential antiviral targets. Altogether, our study suggests that the PI3K/AKT kinase inhibitor drugs may be a promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategy for clinical application, especially for managing cancer patients with COVID-19 in the pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/enzymology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Computer Simulation , Humans , Neoplasms/enzymology , Neoplasms/mortality , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Receptor Cross-Talk , Vero Cells
5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(6): 1461-1468, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206434

ABSTRACT

A year after the initial outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic, several Phase III clinical trials investigating vaccine safety and efficacy have been published. These vaccine candidates were developed by different research groups and pharmaceutical companies with various vaccine technologies including mRNA, recombinant protein, adenoviral vector and inactivated virus-based platforms. Despite numerous successful clinical trials, participants enrolled in these trials are limited by trial inclusion and exclusion criteria, geographic location and viral outbreak situation. Many questions still remain, especially for specific subgroups, including the elderly, females with pregnancy and breastfeeding status, and adolescents. At the same time, vaccine efficacy towards asymptomatic infection and specific viral variants are still largely unknown. This review will cover vaccine candidates with Phase III clinical trial data released and discuss the scientific data available so far for these vaccine candidates for different subgroups of people and different viral variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Data Interpretation, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans
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