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1.
International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147441

ABSTRACT

Background Four seasonal coronaviruses, including HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 cause approximately 15–30% of common colds in adults. However, the full landscape of the immune trajectory to these viruses that covers the whole childhood period are still not well understood. Methods We evaluated the serological responses against the four seasonal coronaviruses in 1886 children who aged under 18-year-old by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The O.D values against each human coronavirus were determined from each sample. Generalized addictive models (GAM) were constructed to determine the relationship between the age and seroprevalence throughout the whole childhood period. The specific antibody levels against the four seasonal coronaviruses were also tested from the plasma samples of 485 pairs postpartum women and their newborn babies. Results The IgG levels of the four seasonal coronaviruses in mother and the newborn babies were highly correlated (229E: r=0.63;OC43: r=0.65;NL63: r=0.69;HKU1: r=0.63). The seroprevalences in children showed a similar trajectory that the levels of IgG in the neonates dropped significantly and reached to the lowest level after the age of around 1 year (229E: 1.18 years;OC43: 0.97 years;NL63: 1.01 years;HKU1: 1.02 years) and then resurgence in the children who aged older than 1 year old. Using the lowest level from the GAMs as our cutoff, the seroprevalences for HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 were 98.11%, 96.23%, 96.23% and 94.34% at the age of 16-18 years. Conclusion Mothers share HCoV-specific IgGs with their newborn babies and the level of maternal IgGs waned at around one year after birth. Resurgence of the HCoV-specific IgGs were found thereafter with the increase of the age suggesting repeated infection occurred in children.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Adiposity, smoking, and lower socioeconomic position (SEP) increase COVID-19 risk while the association of vitamin D, blood pressure, and glycemic traits in COVID-19 risk were less clear. Whether angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the key receptor for SARS-CoV-2, mediates these associations has not been investigated. We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to assess the role of these exposures in COVID-19 and mediation by ACE2. METHODS: We extracted genetic variants strongly related to various exposures (vitamin D, blood pressure, glycemic traits, smoking, adiposity, and educational attainment [SEP proxy]), and ACE2 cis-variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS, n ranged from 28 204 to 3 037 499) and applied them to GWAS summary statistics of ACE2 (n = 28 204) and COVID-19 (severe, hospitalized, and susceptibility, n ≤ 2 942 817). We used inverse variance weighted as the main analyses, with MR-Egger and weighted median as sensitivity analyses. Mediation analyses were performed based on product of coefficient method. RESULTS: Higher adiposity, lifetime smoking index, and lower educational attainment were consistently associated with higher risk of COVID-19 phenotypes while there was no strong evidence for an association of other exposures in COVID-19 risk. ACE2 partially mediates the detrimental effects of body mass index (ranged from 4.3% to 8.2%), waist-to-hip ratio (ranged from 11.2% to 16.8%), and lower educational attainment (ranged from 4.0% to 7.5%) in COVID-19 phenotypes while ACE2 did not mediate the detrimental effect of smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We provided genetic evidence that reducing ACE2 could partly lower COVID-19 risk amongst people who were overweight/obese or of lower SEP.

3.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045948

ABSTRACT

Background Amid the current COVID-19 pandemic, there is an urgent need for both vaccination and revaccination (“boosting”). This study aims to identify factors associated with the intention to receive a booster dose of the coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine among individuals vaccinated with two doses and characterize their profiles in Hong Kong, a city with a low COVID-19 incidence in the initial epidemic waves. Among the unvaccinated, vaccination intention is also explored and their profiles are investigated. Methods From December 2021 - January 2022, an online survey was employed to recruit 856 Hong Kong residents aged 18 years or over from an established population-based cohort. Latent class analysis and multivariate logistic regression modeling approaches were used to characterize boosting intentions. Results Of 638 (74.5%) vaccinated among 856 eligible subjects, 42.2% intended to receive the booster dose. Four distinct profiles emerged with believers having the highest intention, followed by apathetics, fence-sitters and skeptics. Believers were older and more likely to have been vaccinated against influenza. Older age, smoking, experiencing no adverse effects from a previous COVID-19 vaccination, greater confidence in vaccines and collective responsibility, and fewer barriers in accessing vaccination services were associated with higher intentions to receive the booster dose. Of 218 unvaccinated, most were fence-sitters followed by apathetics, skeptics, and believers. Conclusion This study foretells the booster intended uptake lagging initial vaccination across different age groups and can help refine the current or future booster vaccination campaign. Given the fourth COVID-19 vaccine dose may be offered to all adults, strategies for improving boosting uptake include policies targeting young adults, individuals who experienced adverse effects from previous doses, fence-sitters, apathetics, and the general public with low trust in the health authorities.

4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(12): 1864-1866, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329726
5.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 4052-4059, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966471

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Two years into the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, populations with less built-up immunity continued to devise ways to optimize social distancing measures (SDMs) relaxation levels for outbreaks triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants to resume minimal economics activities while avoiding hospital system collapse. Method: An age-stratified compartmental model featuring social mixing patterns was first fitted the incidence data in second wave in Hong Kong. Hypothetical scenario analysis was conducted by varying population mobility and vaccination coverages (VCs) to predict the number of hospital and intensive-care unit admissions in outbreaks initiated by ancestral strain and its variants (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron). Scenarios were "unsustainable" if either of admissions was larger than the maximum of its occupancy. Results: At VC of 65%, scenarios of full SDMs relaxation (mean daily social encounters prior to COVID-19 pandemic = 14.1 contacts) for outbreaks triggered by ancestral strain, Alpha and Beta were sustainable. Restricting levels of SDMs was required such that the optimal population mobility had to be reduced to 0.9, 0.65 and 0.37 for Gamma, Delta and Omicron associated outbreaks respectively. VC improvement from 65% to 75% and 95% allowed complete SDMs relaxation in Gamma-, and Delta-driven epidemic respectively. However, this was not supported for Omicron-triggered epidemic. Discussion: To seek a path to normality, speedy vaccine and booster distribution to the majority across all age groups is the first step. Gradual or complete SDMs lift could be considered if the hybrid immunity could be achieved due to high vaccination coverage and natural infection rate among vaccinated or the COVID-19 case fatality rate could be reduced similar to that for seasonal influenza to secure hospital system sustainability.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939048

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is an effective way in providing protection against COVID-19 infection and severe outcomes. However, vaccine resistance and hesitancy are a great concern among vulnerable populations including older adults who live alone or only with an older partner. This study examined their vaccination status and reasons and associated factors of vaccine resistance and hesitancy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among older adults living alone or only with an older partner in communities in Hong Kong. Participants were interviewed between October 2021 and February 2022. Logistic regression analyses were employed to examine factors associated with vaccine resistance and hesitancy. Of the 2109 included participants, the mean age was 79.3 years (SD 7.6), 1460 (69.2%) were female, 1334 (63.3%) lived alone, and 1621 (76.9%) were receiving social security support. The vaccine uptake, non-uptake (i.e., resistance), and hesitancy rates were 50.1%, 34.4%, and 15.5%, respectively. The top four reasons for vaccine resistance and hesitancy were "Not feeling in good health" (27%), "Worry about vaccine side effects" (18%), "Feeling no need" (10%), and "Lack of recommendation from doctors" (9%). Vaccine resistance and hesitancy was significantly associated with older age, living alone, more chronic conditions, fewer types of social media use, and lower self-rated health status. Similar associations can be observed in their separate analysis for vaccine resistance and vaccine hesitancy, and ever hospital admission over the past 6 months was additionally related to vaccine hesitancy. Older people who live alone or only with an older partner had a low vaccination rate. Poor health or worry about vaccine side effects were the most common reasons for their vaccine resistance and hesitancy. Actions are greatly needed to improve the uptake rate among this vulnerable population, especially those who were older, have poorer health, and use less social media.

7.
Addiction ; 117(7): 2027-2036, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Smoking increases the risk of severe COVID-19, but whether lung function or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mediate the underlying associations is unclear. We conducted the largest Mendelian randomization study to date, to our knowledge, to address these questions. DESIGN: Mendelian randomization study using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), FinnGen and UK Biobank. The main analysis was the inverse variance weighted method, and we included a range of sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the findings. SETTING: GWAS which included international consortia, FinnGen and UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: The sample size ranged from 193 638 to 2 586 691. MEASUREMENTS: Genetic determinants of life-time smoking index, lung function [e.g. forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 )], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and different severities of COID-19. RESULTS: Smoking increased the risk of COVID-19 compared with population controls for overall COVID-19 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.19 per standard deviation (SD) of life-time smoking index, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.27], hospitalized COVID-19 (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.42-1.97) or severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.10-1.98), with directionally consistent effects from sensitivity analyses. Lung function and COPD liability did not appear to mediate these associations. CONCLUSION: There is genetic evidence that smoking probably increases the risk of severe COVID-19 and possibly also milder forms of COVID-19. Decreased lung function and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease do not seem to mediate the effect of smoking on COVID-19 risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Lung , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(8): 1168-1169, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777307
9.
Interface Focus ; 12(2): 20210079, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713825

ABSTRACT

Responses to the early (February-July 2020) COVID-19 pandemic varied widely, globally. Reasons for this are multiple but likely relate to the healthcare and financial resources then available, and the degree of trust in, and economic support provided by, national governments. Cultural factors also affected how different populations reacted to the various pandemic restrictions, like masking, social distancing and self-isolation or self-quarantine. The degree of compliance with these measures depended on how much individuals valued their needs and liberties over those of their society. Thus, several themes may be relevant when comparing pandemic responses across different regions. East and Southeast Asian populations tended to be more collectivist and self-sacrificing, responding quickly to early signs of the pandemic and readily complied with most restrictions to control its spread. Australasian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, some Middle Eastern, African and South American countries also responded promptly by imposing restrictions of varying severity, due to concerns for their wider society, including for some, the fragility of their healthcare systems. Western European and North American countries, with well-resourced healthcare systems, initially reacted more slowly, partly in an effort to maintain their economies but also to delay imposing pandemic restrictions that limited the personal freedoms of their citizens.

10.
Collegian ; 29(5): 612-620, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693751

ABSTRACT

Background: During the early phase of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, health care workers had elevated levels of psychological distress. Historical exposure to disease outbreak may shape different pandemic responses among experienced health care workers. Aim: Considering the unique experience of the 2003 SARS outbreak in Hong Kong, this study examined the association between prior epidemic work experience and anxiety levels, and the mediating role of perceived severity of COVID-19 and SARS in nurses. Methods: In March 2020, a cross-sectional survey targeting practising nurses in Hong Kong was conducted during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic. The interrelationships among participants' work experience during the SARS outbreak, perceived severity of SARS and COVID-19, and anxiety level were elucidated using structural equation model (SEM). Findings: Of 1,061 eligible nurses, a majority were female (90%) with a median age of 39 years (IQR = 32-49). A significant and negative indirect association was identified between SARS experience and anxiety levels (B=-0.04, p=0.04) in the SEM with a satisfactory fitness (CFI=0.95; RMSEA=0.06). SARS-experienced nurses perceived SARS to be less severe (B=-0.17, p=0.01), translated an equivalent perception to COVID-19 (B=1.29, p<0.001) and resulted in a lower level of anxiety (B=0.19, p<0.001). Conclusions: The less vigorous perception towards the severity of SARS and COVID-19 may explain SARS-experienced nurses' less initial epidemic-induced anxiety. The possible role of outbreak-experienced nurses in supporting outbreak-inexperienced nurses, both emotionally and technically, should be considered when an epidemic commences. Interventions aiming to facilitate the understanding of emerging virus should also be in place.

13.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 126: 104142, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A tailored immunization program is deemed more successful in encouraging vaccination. Understanding the profiles of vaccine hesitancy constructs in nurses can help policymakers in devising such programs. Encouraging vaccination in nurses is an important step in building public confidence in the upcoming COVID-19 and influenza vaccination campaigns. OBJECTIVES: Using a person-centered approach, this study aimed to reveal the profiles of the 5C psychological constructs of vaccine hesitancy (confidence, complacency, constraints, calculation, and collective responsibility) among Hong Kong nurses. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey. SETTINGS: With the promotion of a professional nursing organization, we invited Hong Kong nurses to complete an online survey between mid-March and late April 2020 during the COVID-19 outbreak. PARTICIPANTS: 1,193 eligible nurses (mean age = 40.82, SD = 10.49; with 90.0% being female) were included in the analyses. METHODS: In the online survey, we asked the invited nurses to report their demographics, COVID-19-related work demands (including the supply of personal protective equipment, work stress, and attitudes towards workplace infection control policies), the 5C vaccine hesitancy components, seasonal influenza vaccine uptake history, and the COVID-19 vaccine uptake intention. Latent profile analysis was employed to identify distinct vaccine hesitancy antecedent subgroups. RESULTS: Results revealed five profiles, including "believers" (31%; high confidence, collective responsibility; low complacency, constraint), "skeptics" (11%; opposite to the believers), "outsiders" (14%; low calculation, collective responsibility), "contradictors" (4%; high in all 5C constructs), and "middlers" (40%; middle in all 5C constructs). Believers were less educated, reported more long-term illnesses, greater work stress, higher perceived personal protective equipment sufficiency, and stronger trust in government than skeptics. They were older and had higher perceived personal protective equipment sufficiency than middlers. Also, believers were older and had greater work stress than outsiders. From the highest to the lowest on vaccination uptake and intention were believers and contradictors, then middlers and outsiders, and finally skeptics. CONCLUSION: Different immunization programs can be devised based on the vaccine hesitancy profiles and their predictors. Despite both profiles being low in vaccination uptake and intention, our results distinguished between outsiders and skeptics regarding their different levels of information-seeking engagement. The profile structure reveals the possibilities in devising tailored interventions based on their 5C characteristics. The current data could serve as the reference for the identification of individual profile membership and future profiling studies. Future endeavor is needed to examine the generalizability of the profile structure in other populations and across different study sites. Tweetable abstract: Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy profiles of Hong Kong nurses (believers, sceptics, outsiders, contradictors and middlers) highlight the importance of tailored vaccine campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Respirology ; 27(4): 301-310, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Few head-to-head evaluations of immune responses to different vaccines have been reported. METHODS: Surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) antibody levels of adults receiving either two doses of BNT162b2 (n = 366) or CoronaVac (n = 360) vaccines in Hong Kong were determined. An age-matched subgroup (BNT162b2 [n = 49] vs. CoronaVac [n = 49]) was tested for plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT) and spike-binding antibody and T-cell reactivity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: One month after the second dose of vaccine, BNT162b2 elicited significantly higher PRNT50 , PRNT90 , sVNT, spike receptor binding, spike N-terminal domain binding, spike S2 domain binding, spike FcR binding and antibody avidity levels than CoronaVac. The geometric mean PRNT50 titres in those vaccinated with BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccines were 251.6 and 69.45, while PRNT90 titres were 98.91 and 16.57, respectively. All of those vaccinated with BNT162b2 and 45 (91.8%) of 49 vaccinated with CoronaVac achieved the 50% protection threshold for PRNT90. Allowing for an expected seven-fold waning of antibody titres over 6 months for those receiving CoronaVac, only 16.3% would meet the 50% protection threshold versus 79.6% of BNT162b2 vaccinees. Age was negatively correlated with PRNT90 antibody titres. Both vaccines induced SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses at 1 month post-vaccination but CoronaVac elicited significantly higher structural protein-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. CONCLUSION: Vaccination with BNT162b2 induces stronger humoral responses than CoronaVac. CoronaVac induces higher CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to the structural protein than BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hong Kong , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512752

ABSTRACT

Background: Recommendation from doctors is a well-recognized motivator toward vaccine uptake. Family doctors are in the prime position to advise the public on COVID-19 vaccination. We studied the practice and concerns of frontline family doctors concerning COVID-19 vaccination recommendations to patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of all family doctors in the Hong Kong College of Family Physicians between June and July 2021. Their practice of making COVID-19 recommendation to patients was assessed. Based on the Health Belief Model, factors associated with doctors' recommendation practices were explored and examined. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the factors, including COVID-19 vaccine attributes, associated with doctors' practices in making recommendations. Their own vaccination status and psychological antecedents to vaccine hesitancy were measured. Results: A total of 312 family doctors responded (a 17.6% response rate). The proportion of doctors who had received COVID-19 vaccines was 90.1%. The proportion of doctors who would recommend all patients without contraindications for the vaccination was 64.4%. The proportion of doctors who would proactively discuss COVID-19 vaccines with patients was 52.9%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that doctors' own COVID-19 vaccination status was the strongest predictor of family doctors making a recommendation to patients (aOR 12.23 95% CI 3.45-43.33). Longer duration of practice, willingness to initiate the relevant discussion with patients and less worry about vaccine side effects on chronic illness patients were the other factors associated with making a COVID-19 vaccination recommendation. Conclusions: Family doctors should be encouraged to get vaccinated themselves and initiate discussions with patients about COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine safety data on patients with chronic illness, training and guidelines for junior doctors may facilitate the COVID-19 vaccination recommendation practices of family doctors.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although COVID-19 has affected over 220 countries by October 2021, there is limited research examining the patterns and determinants of adherence to infection control measures over time. AIMS: Our study examines the sociodemographic factors associated with changes in the frequency of adherence to personal hygiene and social distancing behaviors in Hong Kong. METHODS: A serial cross-sectional telephone survey in the general population was conducted during the first (March 2020) (n = 765) and third wave (December 2020) (n = 651) of the local outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents were asked about their level of compliance with various personal hygiene and social distancing recommendations. RESULTS: By the third wave, mask use increased to 100%, and throughout the study periods, >90% practiced frequent hand hygiene. However, adherence to social distancing measures significantly waned over time: avoidance of social gatherings (80.5% to 72.0%), avoidance of public places/public transport (53.3% to 26.0%), avoidance of international travel (85.8% to 76.6%) (p < 0.05). The practice of ordering food takeout/home delivery, however, increased, particularly among high-income respondents. Higher education, female gender and employment status were the most consistently associated factors with adherence to COVID-19 preventive practices in the multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: In urban areas of this region, interventions to improve personal hygiene in a prolonged pandemic should target males and those with low education. In addition to these groups, the working population needs to be targeted in order to improve adherence to social distancing guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Nurs Ethics ; 27(4): 924-934, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fifteen years have passed since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. At that time, there were reports of heroic acts among professionals who cared for these patients, whose bravery and professionalism were highly praised. However, there are concerns about changes in new generation of nursing professionals. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the attitude of nursing students, should they be faced with severe acute respiratory syndrome patients during their future work. RESEARCH DESIGN: A questionnaire survey was carried out to examine the attitude among final-year nursing students to three ethical areas, namely, duty of care, resource allocation, and collateral damage. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: This study was carried out in accordance with the requirements and recommendations of the Central Research and Ethics Committee, School of Health Sciences at Caritas Institute of Higher Education. FINDINGS: Complete responses from 102 subjects were analyzed. The overwhelming majority (96.1%) did not agree to participate in the intubation of severe acute respiratory syndrome patients if protective measures, that is, N95 mask and gown, were not available. If there were insufficient N95 masks for all the medical, nursing, and allied health workers in the hospital (resource allocation), 37.3% felt that the distribution of N95 masks should be by casting lot, while the rest disagreed. When asked about collateral damage, more than three-quarters (77.5%) said that severe acute respiratory syndrome patients should be admitted to intensive care unit. There was sex difference in nursing students' attitude toward severe acute respiratory syndrome care during pregnancy and influence of age in understanding intensive care unit care for these patients. Interestingly, 94.1% felt that there should be a separate intensive care unit for severe acute respiratory syndrome patients. CONCLUSION: As infection control practice and isolation facilities improved over the years, relevant knowledge and nursing ethical issues related to infectious diseases should become part of nursing education and training programs, especially in preparation for outbreaks of infectious diseases or distress.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Disease Outbreaks , Ethics, Nursing , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Students, Nursing/psychology , Adult , Female , Health Care Rationing , Hong Kong , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Patient Admission , Standard of Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1802-1810, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278360

ABSTRACT

To access temporal changes in psychobehavioral responses to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, we conducted a 5-round (R1-R5) longitudinal population-based online survey in Hong Kong during January-September 2020. Most respondents reported wearing masks (R1 99.0% to R5 99.8%) and performing hand hygiene (R1 95.8% to R5 97.7%). Perceived COVID-19 severity decreased significantly, from 97.4% (R1) to 77.2% (R5), but perceived self-susceptibility remained high (87.2%-92.8%). Female sex and anxiety were associated with greater adoption of social distancing. Intention to receive COVID-19 vaccines decreased significantly (R4 48.7% to R5 37.6%). Greater anxiety, confidence in vaccine, and collective responsibility and weaker complacency were associated with higher tendency to receive COVID-19 vaccines. Although its generalizability should be assumed with caution, this study helps to formulate health communication strategies and foretells the initial low uptake rate of COVID-19 vaccines, suggesting that social distancing should be maintained in the medium term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Infect ; 83(3): 381-412, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263327

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the availability of several different new vaccines, their varying supply levels, effectiveness, and immunity duration across different ethnic populations, together with natural infection rates, will have an impact on when each country can reach herd immunity (ranging from 15.3% to 77.1%). Here we estimate the population proportions still required to gain immunity (ranging from 0.01% to 48.8%) to reach an overall herd immunity level to stop the exponential virus spread in 32 selected countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Herd , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
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