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biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.10.10.511623


BackgroundIn December 2019, the COVID-19 disease started in Wuhan, China. WHO declared a pandemic on March 12, 2020, and the disease started in Myanmar on March 23, 2020. December brought variants around the world, threatening the healthcare systems. To counter those threats, Myanmar started the COVID-19 variant surveillance program in late 2020. MethodsWhole genome sequencing was done six times between January 2021 and March 2022. We chose 83 samples with a PCR threshold cycle of less than 25. Then, we used MiSeq FGx for sequencing and Illumina DRAGEN COVIDSeq pipeline, command line interface, GISAID, and MEGA version 7 for data analysis. Result and DiscussionJanuary 2021 results showed no variant. The second run during the rise of cases in June 2021 showed multiple variants like Alpha, Delta, and Kappa. There is only Delta in the third run at the height of mortality in August, and Delta alone continued until the fourth run in December. After the world reported the Omicron variant in November, Myanmar started a surveillance program. The fifth run in January 2022 showed both Omicron and Delta variants. The sixth run in March 2022 showed only Omicron BA.2. Amino acid mutation at receptor binding domain (RBD) of Spike glycoprotein started since the second run coupling with high transmission, recurrence, and vaccine escape. We also found the mutation at the primer targets used in current RT-PCR platforms. ConclusionThe occurrence of multiple variants and mutations claimed vigilance at ports of entry and preparedness for effective control measures. Genomic surveillance with the observation of evolutionary data is required to predict imminent threats of the current disease and diagnose emerging infectious diseases.

Communicable Diseases, Emerging , COVID-19
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.06.15.22276331


Background : Since the COVID-19 pandemic has been pestilential over a considerable duration, global deployment and financial crisis could not be reversed as before. It brought up essentials to allow the nations back to work with effective preventive measures. This review intended to evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2(COVID-19) exposed in the environmental matrices, influencing factors on the virus persistence and disinfection methods. Methods : Applying the PRISMA 2020 tool, MEDLINE/PubMed, HINARI, and Google Scholar were primarily explored. Data were extracted, entered into the modified data extraction forms and analysed narratively. Quality appraisal was done by the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool. The findings were presented descriptively. Results : Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 was revealed <4 hours on aluminium, 4 hours on copper, 24 hours on cardboard, 44 hours on glass, 48 hours on stainless steel, 72 hours on plastic, 92 hours on polystyrene plastic, 1.1-1.2 hours in the air, 7 days (higher titer) to 3 days(lower titer) in wastewater. Virus decaying was noted 5-10 times faster at 27{degrees}C than at 10{degrees}C and 2-5 times faster with 65% relative humidity (RH) than with 40% and 100% RH. Virus infectivity was reduced by far-UVC-(222 nm) light for 90%-(8 minutes), 95%-(11 minutes), 99%-(16 minutes) and 99.99%-(25 minutes). Sodium hypochlorite (800 g/m 3 ) and ammonium-based detergents were remarkably effective for preliminary disinfection. Conclusions : This review identified the duration of SARS-CoV-2 survival in environmental matrices for both healthcare and non-healthcare settings. The study explored the impacts of environmental factors on the virus and effective disinfection methods to be considered accordingly to the findings.

researchsquare; 2021.


Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by a highly contagious virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in China at the end of 2019 and became a major threat to health around the world. The health experts are still learning more about the detailed knowledge of the natural course and the severity of COVID-19. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and association of severity with demographic characteristics, initial presenting symptoms, and comorbidities among COVID-19 patients in Treatment Centers, Myanmar. Methods: : A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hmawbi and Indine Treatment Centers from November to December 2020 and a total of 176 adult COVID-19 patients participated in this study. Data were collected by telephone surveys using structured questionnaires. The odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used as a measure of association and the independent associated factors for severity (pneumonia) were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results: : In total, 76.7% were symptomatic patients and the most common presenting symptoms were fever 43.2%, loss of smell 42.0%, and cough 25.6%. The prevalence of comorbidity in COVID-19 patients was 35.8% and the most common comorbidities were hypertension 19.9%, heart diseases 9.7%, and diabetes mellitus 9.1%, respectively. As a severity, 23.3% of patients had signs of pneumonia. The associated factors of pneumonia were aged 60 years and older [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 8.82, 95 % CI: 2.68-29.08] , overweight or obese (AOR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.30-8.54), current smoking (AOR: 15.29, 95% CI: 2.91-80.37), and alcohol drinking (AOR: 7.04, 95% CI: 1.40-35.31). Thirty percent of symptomatic patients present with pneumonia. Conclusions: : Nearly one-fourth of the patients developed pneumonia. The COVID-19 patients who are aged 60 years and older, overweight or obese, current smokers, and alcohol drinkers should be monitored carefully during the course of treatment to reduce the disease severity.

Coronavirus Infections , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Diseases , Obesity , Pneumonia , COVID-19