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1.
Pediatr Transplant ; : e14235, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination has been successful in decreasing rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in areas with high vaccine uptake. Cases of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection remain infrequent among immunocompetent vaccine recipients who are protected from severe COVID-19. Robust data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness of several COVID-19 vaccine formulations. Importantly, Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine studies have now included children as young as 5 years of age with safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness data publicly available. In the United States, emergency use authorization by the Federal Drug Administration and approval from the Centers for Disease Control/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices have been provided for the 5- to 11-year-old age group. METHODS: Members of the International Pediatric Transplant Association (IPTA) provide an updated review of current COVID-19 vaccine data with focus on pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT)-specific issues. RESULTS: This review provides an overview of current COVID-19 immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy data from key studies, with focus on data of importance to pediatric SOT recipients. Continued paucity of data in the setting of pediatric transplantation remains a challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies of COVID-19 vaccination in pediatric SOT recipients are needed to better understand post-vaccine COVID-19 T-cell and antibody kinetics and determine the optimal vaccine schedule. Increased COVID-19 vaccine acceptability, uptake, and worldwide availability are needed to limit the risk that COVID-19 poses to pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0099121, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501533

ABSTRACT

Antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are used in children despite the lack of data. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the Panbio-COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device (P-RDT) in children. Symptomatic and asymptomatic participants 0 to 16 years old had two nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) for both reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and P-RDT. A total of 822 participants completed the study, of which 533 (64.9%) were symptomatic. Among the 119 (14.5%) RT-PCR-positive patients, the P-RDT sensitivity was 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57 to 0.74). Mean viral load (VL) was higher among P-RDT-positive patients than negative ones (P < 0.001). Sensitivity was 0.91 in specimens with VL of >1.0E6 IU/ml (95% CI 0.83 to 0.99) and decreased to 0.75 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.83) for specimens >1.0E3 IU/ml. Among symptomatic participants, the P-RDT displayed a sensitivity of 0.73 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.82), which peaked at 1.00 at 2 days post-onset of symptoms (DPOS) (95% CI 1.00 to 1.00), then decreased to 0.56 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.88) at 5 DPOS. There was a trend toward lower P-RDT sensitivity in symptomatic children <12 years (0.62 [95% CI 0.45 to 0.78]) versus ≥12 years (0.80 [95% CI 0.69 to 0.91]; P = 0.09). In asymptomatic participants, the P-RDT displayed a sensitivity of 0.43 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.61). Specificity was 1.00 in symptomatic and asymptomatic children (95% CI 0.99 to 1.00). The overall 73% and 43% sensitivities of P-RDT in symptomatic and asymptomatic children, respectively, was below the 80% cutoff recommended by the World Health Organization. We observed a correlation between VL and P-RDT sensitivity, as well as variation of sensitivity according to DPOS, a major determinant of VL. These data highlight the limitations of RDTs in children, with the potential exception in early symptomatic children ≥12yrs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1384-e1386, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479948

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 viral load (VL) can serve as a correlate for infectious virus presence and transmission. Viral shedding kinetics over the first week of illness for symptomatic children (n = 279), adolescents (n = 639), and adults (n = 7109) show VLs compatible with infectious virus presence, with slightly lower VL in children than adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Kinetics , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(7): e192-e195, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387785

ABSTRACT

In 208 children seeking medical care, the seropositivity rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was 8.7%, suggesting an infection rate similar to that observed in adults but >100-fold the incidence of RT-PCR-confirmed pediatric cases. Compared with the gold-standard combined ELISA + immunofluorescence, the MEDsan IgG rapid diagnostic test performed accurately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Prevalence
5.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(6): 706-713, 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported worldwide. Negative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing associated with positive serology in most of the cases suggests a postinfectious syndrome. Because the pathophysiology of this syndrome is still poorly understood, extensive virological and immunological investigations are needed. METHODS: We report a series of 4 pediatric patients admitted to Geneva University Hospitals with persistent fever and laboratory evidence of inflammation meeting the published definition of MIS-C related to COVID-19, to whom an extensive virological and immunological workup was performed. RESULTS: RT-PCRs on multiple anatomical compartments were negative, whereas anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were strongly positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence. Both pseudoneutralization and full virus neutralization assays showed the presence of neutralizing antibodies in all children, confirming a recent infection with SARS-CoV-2. The analyses of cytokine profiles revealed an elevation in all cytokines, as reported in adults with severe COVID-19. Although differing in clinical presentation, some features of MIS-C show phenotypic overlap with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). In contrast to patients with primary HLH, our patients showed normal perforin expression and natural killer (NK) cell degranulation. The levels of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (sIL-2R) correlated with the severity of disease, reflecting recent T-cell activation. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that MIS-C related to COVID-19 is caused by a postinfectious inflammatory syndrome associated with an elevation in all cytokines, and markers of recent T-cell activation (sIL-2R) occurring despite a strong and specific humoral response to SARS-CoV-2. Further functional and genetic analyses are essential to better understand the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): 148-150, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289914

ABSTRACT

The factors that contribute to transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by children are unclear. We analyzed viral load at the time of diagnosis in 53 children and 352 adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the first 5 days post symptom onset. No significant differences in SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads were seen between children and adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Humans , RNA, Viral , Respiratory System , Viral Load
7.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 667507, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268270

ABSTRACT

Background: Following the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic a new disease entity emerged, defined as Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS), or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). In the absence of trials, evidence for treatment remains scarce. Purpose: To develop best practice recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of children with PIMS-TS in Switzerland. It is acknowledged that the field is changing rapidly, and regular revisions in the coming months are pre-planned as evidence is increasing. Methods: Consensus guidelines for best practice were established by a multidisciplinary group of Swiss pediatric clinicians with expertise in intensive care, immunology/rheumatology, infectious diseases, hematology, and cardiology. Subsequent to literature review, four working groups established draft recommendations which were subsequently adapted in a modified Delphi process. Recommendations had to reach >80% agreement for acceptance. Results: The group achieved agreement on 26 recommendations, which specify diagnostic approaches and interventions across anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, and support therapies, and follow-up for children with suspected PIMS-TS. A management algorithm was derived to guide treatment depending on the phenotype of presentation, categorized into PIMS-TS with (a) shock, (b) Kawasaki-disease like, and (c) undifferentiated inflammatory presentation. Conclusion: Available literature on PIMS-TS is limited to retrospective or prospective observational studies. Informed by these cohort studies and indirect evidence from other inflammatory conditions in children and adults, as well as guidelines from international health authorities, the Swiss PIMS-TS recommendations represent best practice guidelines based on currently available knowledge to standardize treatment of children with suspected PIMS-TS. Given the absence of high-grade evidence, regular updates of the recommendations will be warranted, and participation of patients in trials should be encouraged.

8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(5): 529-530, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260541
9.
Pediatr Transplant ; 25(6): e14031, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Population-level COVID-19 immunization will play a key role in slowing down the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on a global scale and protect the most at-risk individuals. Thanks to a formidable universal effort, several SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been marketed less than a year since the first documented COVID-19 case, with promising safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity results in adults. As children were not included in the initial trials, no vaccine is currently approved for individuals <16 years of age. Similarly, immunosuppressed individuals, such as solid organ transplant recipients, were excluded from initial vaccine trials, limiting the understanding of vaccine immunogenicity and safety in this at-risk population. Thus, data regarding COVID-19 vaccination in pediatric solid organ transplantation recipients are currently lacking. METHODS: Members of the International Pediatric Transplant Association review the current general status of COVID-19 vaccines focusing on pediatric-specific issues. RESULTS: This review provides an overview of COVID-19 vaccines in pediatric SOT recipients and highlights the current paucity of data in both pediatric and transplant settings in terms of safety, immunogenicity, and clinical efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine trials including children and transplant recipients are underway and will be necessary to characterize COVID-19 vaccine safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy, which will determine potential future research directions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Organ Transplantation , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Forecasting , Humans
10.
Pediatr Transplant ; 25(5): e13986, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124666

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has proven to be a challenge in regard to the clinical presentation, prevention, diagnosis, and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children who are candidates for and recipients of SOT. By providing scenarios and frequently asked questions encountered in routine clinical practice, this document provides expert opinion and summarizes the available data regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pediatric SOT candidates and recipients and highlights ongoing knowledge gaps requiring further study. Currently available data are still lacking in the pediatric SOT population, but data have emerged in both the adult SOT and general pediatric population regarding the approach to COVID-19. The document provides expert opinion regarding prevention, diagnosis, and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pediatric SOT candidates and recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Organ Transplantation , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Postoperative Period , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk , Risk Factors
11.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(6): 1991-1995, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064498

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the rates of viral respiratory co-infections among SARS-CoV-2-infected children. Twelve percent of SARS-CoV-2-infected children had viral co-infection with one or more common respiratory viruses. This was significantly more frequent than among their SARS-CoV-2-infected adult household contacts (0%; p=0.028). Compared to the same period the previous year, common respiratory viruses were less frequently detected (12% vs 73%, p<0.001).Conclusion: Despite partial lockdown with school and daycare closure, and consequently similar exposure to common viruses between children and adults, SARS-CoV-2-infected children had more frequent viral respiratory co-infections than their SARS-CoV-2-infected adult household contacts. Circulation of common respiratory viruses was less frequent during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak when compared to the same period last year, showing the impact of partial lockdown on the circulation of common viruses. What is Known: • Viral respiratory co-infections are frequent in children. • SARS-CoV-2 can be identified alongside other respiratory viruses, but data comparing children and adults are lacking. What is New: • Children infected with SARS-CoV-2 are more likely to have viral respiratory co-infections than their SARS-CoV-2-infected adult household contacts, which is surprising in the context of partial lockdown with schools and daycare closed. • When compared to data collected during the same period last year, our study also showed that partial lockdown reduced circulation of common respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Adult , Child , Coinfection/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(5): 529-530, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055876
13.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 43(8): e1177-e1180, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042861

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 in children has been linked to various clinical presentation, from paucisymptomatic cutaneous eruptions, to multisystemic inflammatory syndrome. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with persistent fever and pancytopenia, associated to a skin rash. An extensive etiological workup showed a positive serology for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and Epstein-Barr virus. A few weeks later, type B acute lymphocytic leukemia was diagnosed. This case underlines the polymorphic appearance of coronavirus disease-2019 and the need for critical appraisal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/pathology , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Exanthema/virology , Humans , Male , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/virology , Prognosis
14.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate longitudinally the persistence of humoral immunity for up to 6 months in a cohort of hospital employees with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We measured anti-RBD (receptor binding domain of viral spike protein), anti-N (viral nucleoprotein) and neutralizing antibodies at 1, 3 and 6 months after mostly mild COVID-19 in 200 hospital workers using commercial ELISAs and a surrogate virus neutralization assay. RESULTS: Antibodies specific for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) persisted in all participants for up to 6 months. Anti-RBD geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) progressively increased between months 1 (74.2 U/mL, 95%CI: 62.7-87.8), 3 (103.2 U/mL, 95%CI: 87.9-121.2; p < 0.001), and 6 (123.3 U/mL, 95%CI: 103.4-147.0; p < 0.001) in the whole cohort. Anti-N antibodies were detectable in >97% at all times. Neutralizing antibodies were detectable in 99.5% of participants (195/196) at 6 months post infection. Their GMC progressively decreased between months 1 (20.1 AU/mL, 95%CI: 16.9-24.0), 3 (15.2 AU/mL, 95%CI: 13.2-17.6; p < 0.001) and 6 (9.4 AU/mL, 95%CI: 7.7-11.4; p < 0.001). RBD-ACE2-inhibiting antibody titres and anti-RBD antibody concentrations strongly correlated at each timepoint (all r > 0.86, p < 0.001). Disease severity was associated with higher initial anti-RBD and RBD-ACE2-inhibiting antibody titres, but not with their kinetics. CONCLUSIONS: Neutralizing antibodies persisted at 6 months in almost all participants, indicating more durability than initially feared. Anti-RBD antibodies persisted better and even increased over time, possibly related to the preferential detection of progressively higher-affinity antibodies.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(7): e192-e195, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915862

ABSTRACT

In 208 children seeking medical care, the seropositivity rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was 8.7%, suggesting an infection rate similar to that observed in adults but >100-fold the incidence of RT-PCR-confirmed pediatric cases. Compared with the gold-standard combined ELISA + immunofluorescence, the MEDsan IgG rapid diagnostic test performed accurately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Prevalence
17.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883725
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(10): 2494-2497, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623762

ABSTRACT

Children do not seem to drive transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We isolated culture-competent virus in vitro from 12 (52%) of 23 SARS-CoV-2-infected children; the youngest was 7 days old. Our findings show that symptomatic neonates, children, and teenagers shed infectious SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that transmission from them is plausible.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , RNA, Viral/analysis , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Virus Cultivation , Virus Replication
19.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(9): 653-661, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, few data on paediatric COVID-19 have been published, and most reports originate from China. This study aimed to capture key data on children and adolescents with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection across Europe to inform physicians and health-care service planning during the ongoing pandemic. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study involved 82 participating health-care institutions across 25 European countries, using a well established research network-the Paediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (ptbnet)-that mainly comprises paediatric infectious diseases specialists and paediatric pulmonologists. We included all individuals aged 18 years or younger with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, detected at any anatomical site by RT-PCR, between April 1 and April 24, 2020, during the initial peak of the European COVID-19 pandemic. We explored factors associated with need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and initiation of drug treatment for COVID-19 using univariable analysis, and applied multivariable logistic regression with backwards stepwise analysis to further explore those factors significantly associated with ICU admission. FINDINGS: 582 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included, with a median age of 5·0 years (IQR 0·5-12·0) and a sex ratio of 1·15 males per female. 145 (25%) had pre-existing medical conditions. 363 (62%) individuals were admitted to hospital. 48 (8%) individuals required ICU admission, 25 (4%) mechanical ventilation (median duration 7 days, IQR 2-11, range 1-34), 19 (3%) inotropic support, and one (<1%) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Significant risk factors for requiring ICU admission in multivariable analyses were being younger than 1 month (odds ratio 5·06, 95% CI 1·72-14·87; p=0·0035), male sex (2·12, 1·06-4·21; p=0·033), pre-existing medical conditions (3·27, 1·67-6·42; p=0·0015), and presence of lower respiratory tract infection signs or symptoms at presentation (10·46, 5·16-21·23; p<0·0001). The most frequently used drug with antiviral activity was hydroxychloroquine (40 [7%] patients), followed by remdesivir (17 [3%] patients), lopinavir-ritonavir (six [1%] patients), and oseltamivir (three [1%] patients). Immunomodulatory medication used included corticosteroids (22 [4%] patients), intravenous immunoglobulin (seven [1%] patients), tocilizumab (four [1%] patients), anakinra (three [1%] patients), and siltuximab (one [<1%] patient). Four children died (case-fatality rate 0·69%, 95% CI 0·20-1·82); at study end, the remaining 578 were alive and only 25 (4%) were still symptomatic or requiring respiratory support. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 is generally a mild disease in children, including infants. However, a small proportion develop severe disease requiring ICU admission and prolonged ventilation, although fatal outcome is overall rare. The data also reflect the current uncertainties regarding specific treatment options, highlighting that additional data on antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs are urgently needed. FUNDING: ptbnet is supported by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Patient Admission/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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