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J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 31: 236-238, 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095628


OBJECTIVES: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) represent a serious threat for human health being frequently resistant to most of available antibiotics classes. Recently, ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ/AVI) has been approved for treatment of infections by Gram-negative bacteria, including class A CPE (including KPC-producing K. pneumoniae). Following CAZ/AVI commercialization, resistance to this combination has been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of CAZ/AVI resistance among carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae(CR-Kp) isolates recovered from bloodstream infections (BSI) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), representative of the contemporary southern Italy epidemiology, during the first pandemic wave of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: From Jan...20-Jun...20, 4 Laboratories, collected all consecutive, non-replicated CR-Kp from BSIs and HAPs. All isolates were subjected to i) MALDI-ToF identification; ii) antimicrobial susceptibility testing by microdilution method. CAZ/AVI resistant (CAZ/AVI-R) isolates were screened for presence of most common carbapenemase genes and subjected to whole genome sequencing for characterization. RESULTS: A total of 89 isolates were collected. The majority of strains retained susceptibility to colistin, gentamicin and amikacin. Three strains (3/89, 3,4%) were CAZ/AVI-R (MIC range 16/4-64/4 mg/L). Among CAZ/AVI-R, one was KPC-type producer (an ST101) while the remaining where NDM-type and VIM-type producers and belonged to ST147, and ST45, respectively. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic period, in southern Italy, CAZ/AVI resistance remained infrequent but high-risk Klebsiella pneumoniae epidemic clones, producing the KPC-31 variant and class B carbapenamases were reported from some of the included centers.

Sci Total Environ ; 809: 151137, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475053


Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been object of debate in the scientific community since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic. This mechanism of transmission could arise from virus-laden aerosol released by infected individuals and it is influenced by several factors. Among these, the concentration and size distribution of virus-laden particles play an important role. The knowledge regarding aerosol transmission increases as new evidence is collected in different studies, even if it is not yet available a standard protocol regarding air sampling and analysis, which can create difficulties in the interpretation and application of results. This work reports a systematic review of current knowledge gained by 73 published papers on experimental determination of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air comparing different environments: outdoors, indoor hospitals and healthcare settings, and public community indoors. Selected papers furnished 77 datasets: outdoor studies (9/77, 11.7%) and indoor studies (68/77. 88.3%). The indoor datasets in hospitals were the vast majority (58/68, 85.3%), and the remaining (10/68, 14.7%) were classified as community indoors. The fraction of studies having positive samples, as well as positivity rates (i.e. ratios between positive and total samples) are significantly larger in hospitals compared to the other typologies of sites. Contamination of surfaces was more frequent (in indoor datasets) compared to contamination of air samples; however, the average positivity rate was lower compared to that of air. Concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air were highly variables and, on average, lower in outdoors compared to indoors. Among indoors, concentrations in community indoors appear to be lower than those in hospitals and healthcare settings.

Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Aerosols , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(10): 13905-13916, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446199


COVID-19 pandemic raised a debate regarding the role of airborne transmission. Information regarding virus-laden aerosol concentrations is still scarce in community indoors and what are the risks for general public and the efficiency of restriction policies. This work investigates, for the first time in Italy, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples collected in different community indoors (one train station, two food markets, one canteen, one shopping centre, one hair salon, and one pharmacy) in three Italian cities: metropolitan city of Venice (NE of Italy), Bologna (central Italy), and Lecce (SE of Italy). Air samples were collected during the maximum spread of the second wave of pandemic in Italy (November and December 2020). All collected samples tested negative for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, using both real-time RT-PCR and ddPCR, and no significant differences were observed comparing samples taken with and without customers. Modelling average concentrations, using influx of customers' data and local epidemiological information, indicated low values (i.e. < 0.8 copies m-3 when cotton facemasks are used and even lower for surgical facemasks). The results, even if with some limitations, suggest that the restrictive policies enforced could effectively reduce the risk of airborne transmissions in the community indoor investigated, providing that physical distance is respected.

Air Microbiology , COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Humans , Italy , RNA, Viral