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Clin Imaging ; 77: 194-201, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226279


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify COVID-19 pneumonia features using CT performed at time of admission to emergency department in order to predict patients' hypoxia during the hospitalization and outcome. METHODS: Consecutive chest CT performed in the emergency department between March 1st and April 7th 2020 for COVID-19 pneumonia were analyzed. The three features of pneumonia (GGO, semi-consolidation and consolidation) and the percentage of well-aerated lung were quantified using a HU threshold based software. ROC curves identified the optimal cut-off values of CT parameters to predict hypoxia worsening and hospital discharge. Multiple Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze the capability of CT quantitative features, demographic and clinical variables to predict the time to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients (median age 56-years-old, 51 men) with COVID-19 pneumonia at CT were enrolled. The quantitative features of COVID-19 pneumonia were not associated to age, sex and time-from-symptoms onset, whereas higher number of comorbidities was correlated to lower well-aerated parenchyma ratio (rho = -0.234, p = 0.04) and increased semi-consolidation ratio (rho = -0.303, p = 0.008). Well-aerated lung (≤57%), semi-consolidation (≥17%) and consolidation (≥9%) predicted worst hypoxemia during hospitalization, with moderate areas under curves (AUC 0.76, 0.75, 0.77, respectively). Multiple Cox regression identified younger age (p < 0.01), female sex (p < 0.001), longer time-from-symptoms onset (p = 0.049), semi-consolidation ≤17% (p < 0.01) and consolidation ≤13% (p = 0.03) as independent predictors of shorter time to hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: Quantification of pneumonia features on admitting chest CT predicted hypoxia worsening during hospitalization and time to hospital discharge in COVID-19 patients.

COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(10): 1277-1285, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634384


OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of interleukin (IL)-6 blockade with sarilumab in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation. METHODS: We conducted an open-label study of sarilumab in severe COVID-19 pneumonia (PaO2/FiO2 <300 mm Hg) with hyperinflammation (elevated inflammatory markers and serum IL-6 levels). Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously in addition to standard of care and results were compared with contemporary matched patients treated with standard of care alone. Clinical improvement, mortality, safety and predictors of response were assessed at 28 days. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were treated with sarilumab and 28 contemporary patients receiving standard of care alone were used as controls. At day 28 of follow-up, 61% of patients treated with sarilumab experienced clinical improvement and 7% died. These findings were not significantly different from the comparison group (clinical improvement 64%, mortality 18%; p=NS). Baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio >100 mm Hg and lung consolidation <17% at CT scan predicted clinical improvement in patients treated with sarilumab. Median time to clinical improvement in patients with lung consolidation <17% was shorter after sarilumab (10 days) than after standard treatment (24 days; p=0.01). The rate of infection and pulmonary thrombosis was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: At day 28, overall clinical improvement and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 were not significantly different between sarilumab and standard of care. Sarilumab was associated with faster recovery in a subset of patients showing minor lung consolidation at baseline.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Drug Combinations , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Italy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome