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2.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3739-3749, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802445

ABSTRACT

Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants have successively, or concomitantly spread worldwide since the summer of 2020. A few co-infections with different variants were reported and genetic recombinations, common among coronaviruses, were reported or suspected based on co-detection of signature mutations of different variants in a given genome. Here we report three infections in southern France with a Delta 21J_AY.4-Omicron 21K/BA.1 "Deltamicron" recombinant. The hybrid genome harbors signature mutations of the two lineages, supported by a mean sequencing depth of 1163-1421 reads and a mean nucleotide diversity of 0.1%-0.6%. It is composed of the near full-length spike gene (from codons 156-179) of an Omicron 21K/BA.1 variant in a Delta 21J/AY.4 lineage backbone. Importantly, we cultured an isolate of this recombinant and sequenced its genome. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy. As it is misidentified with current variant screening quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we designed and implemented for routine diagnosis a specific duplex qPCR. Finally, structural analysis of the recombinant spike suggested its hybrid content could optimize viral binding to the host cell membrane. These findings prompt further studies of the virological, epidemiological, and clinical features of this recombinant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334178

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vγ9Vδ2 T cells play a key role in the innate immune response to viral infections, including SARS-CoV-1 and 2, and are activated through butyrophilin (BTN)-3A. Here, the objectives were to: 1) characterize the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the number, phenotype, and activation of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in infected patients, and 2) assess the effects of in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection on the expression of BTN3A and its impact on the activation and response of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to an anti-BTN3A antibody. Blood Vγ9Vδ2 T cells decreased in clinically mild SARS-CoV-2 infections compared to healthy volunteers (HV). This decrease was maintained up to 28 days and in the recovery period. Terminally differentiated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells tend to be enriched on the day of diagnosis, 28 days after and during the recovery period compared to HV. Furthermore, these cells showed cytotoxic and inflammatory activities as shown by TNFα, IFNγ and CD107a/b increase following anti-BTN3A activation. Moreover, BTN3A upregulation and Vγ9Vδ2 T cell infiltration were observed in a lung biopsy from a fatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, as compared to HV. In vitro , SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly increased BTN3A expression in macrophages and lung cell lines. The activation via BTN3A enhanced the anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vγ9Vδ2 T cells cytotoxicity and IFN-γ and TNFα in SARS-CoV-2 infected patient. Increasing concentrations of anti-BTN3A were accompanied by an inhibition of viral replication. Altogether, these data suggest that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are important in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection and that activation by an anti-BTN3A antibody may enhance their response. KEY POINTS SARS-CoV-2 mediates upregulation of the key receptor of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells BTN3A on lung tissues and cell lines as well as monocytes During SARS-CoV-2 infection, Vγ9Vδ2 are differentiated and efficiently degranulate and secrete cytokines upon activation with BTN3A mAb

4.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2019-2025, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777579

ABSTRACT

The recently emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant omicron displays an unusual association of 30 mutations, 3 deletions, and 1 insertion. To analyze the impact of this atypic mutational landscape, we constructed a complete structure of the omicron spike protein. Compared with the delta variant, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of omicron has an increased electrostatic surface potential, but a decreased affinity for the ACE-2 receptor. The N-terminal domain (NTD) has both a decreased surface potential and a lower affinity for lipid rafts. The omicron variant is predicted to be less fusogenic and thus less pathogenic than delta, due to a geometric reorganization of the S1-S2 cleavage site. Overall, these virological parameters suggest that omicron does not have a significant infectivity advantage over the delta variant. However, in omicron, neutralizing epitopes are greatly affected, suggesting that current vaccines will probably confer little protection against this variant. In conclusion, the puzzling mutational pattern of the omicron variant combines contradictory properties which may either decrease (virological properties) or increase (immunological escape/facilitation) the transmission of this variant in the human population. This Janus-like phenotype may explain some conflicting reports on the initial assessment of omicron and provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms controlling its dissemination and pathogenesis worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(4)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776312

ABSTRACT

Over the past two years, several variants of SARS-CoV-2 have emerged and spread all over the world. However, infectivity, clinical severity, re-infection, virulence, transmissibility, vaccine responses and escape, and epidemiological aspects have differed between SARS-CoV-2 variants. Currently, very few treatments are recommended against SARS-CoV-2. Identification of effective drugs among repurposing FDA-approved drugs is a rapid, efficient and low-cost strategy against SARS-CoV-2. One of those drugs is ivermectin. Ivermectin is an antihelminthic agent that previously showed in vitro effects against a SARS-CoV-2 isolate (Australia/VI01/2020 isolate) with an IC50 of around 2 µM. We evaluated the in vitro activity of ivermectin on Vero E6 cells infected with 30 clinically isolated SARS-CoV-2 strains belonging to 14 different variants, and particularly 17 strains belonging to six variants of concern (VOC) (variants related to Wuhan, alpha, beta, gamma, delta and omicron). The in vitro activity of ivermectin was compared to those of chloroquine and remdesivir. Unlike chloroquine (EC50 from 4.3 ± 2.5 to 29.3 ± 5.2 µM) or remdesivir (EC50 from 0.4 ± 0.3 to 25.2 ± 9.4 µM), ivermectin showed a relatively homogeneous in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 regardless of the strains or variants (EC50 from 5.1 ± 0.5 to 6.7 ± 0.4 µM), except for one omicron strain (EC50 = 1.3 ± 0.5 µM). Ivermectin (No. EC50 = 219, mean EC50 = 5.7 ± 1.0 µM) was, overall, more potent in vitro than chloroquine (No. EC50 = 214, mean EC50 = 16.1 ± 9.0 µM) (p = 1.3 × 10-34) and remdesivir (No. EC50 = 201, mean EC50 = 11.9 ± 10.0 µM) (p = 1.6 × 10-13). These results should be interpreted with caution regarding the potential use of ivermectin in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients: it is difficult to translate in vitro study results into actual clinical treatment in patients.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330761

ABSTRACT

Genetic recombination is a major evolutionary mechanism among RNA viruses, and it is common in coronaviruses, including those infecting humans. A few SARS-CoV-2 recombinants have been reported to date whose genome harbored combinations of mutations from different mutants or variants, but a single patient sample was analyzed, and the virus was not isolated. Here, we report the gradual creation of a hybrid genome of B.1.160 and Alpha variants in a lymphoma patient chronically infected for 14 months, and we isolated the recombinant virus. The hybrid genome was obtained by next-generation sequencing, and recombination sites were confirmed by PCR. This consisted of a parental B.1.160 backbone interspersed with two fragments, including the spike gene, from an Alpha variant. Analysis of seven sequential samples from the patient decoded the recombination steps, including the initial infection with a B.1.160 variant, then a concurrent infection with this variant and an Alpha variant, the generation of hybrid genomes, and eventually the emergence of a predominant recombinant virus isolated at the end of the patient follow-up. This case exemplifies the recombination process of SARS-CoV-2 in real life, and it calls for intensifying genomic surveillance in patients coinfected with different SARS-CoV-2 variants, and more generally with several RNA viruses, as this may lead to the creation of new viruses.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329745

ABSTRACT

Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants have successively, or concommitantly spread worldwide since summer 2020. A few co-infections with different variants were reported and genetic recombinations, common among coronaviruses, were reported or suspected based on co-detection of signature mutations of different variants in a given genome. Here were report three infections in southern France with a Delta 21J/AY.4-Omicron 21K/BA.1 “Deltamicron” recombinant. The hybrid genome harbors signature mutations of the two lineages, supported by a mean sequencing depth of 1,163-1,421 reads and mean nucleotide diversity of 0.1-0.6%. It is composed of the near full-length spike gene (from codons 156-179) of an Omicron 21K/BA.1 variant in a Delta 21J/AY.4 lineage backbone. It is similar to those reported for 15 other patients sampled since January 2022 in Europe. Importantly, we cultured an isolate of this recombinant and sequenced its genome. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy. As it is misidentified with current variant screening qPCR, we designed and implemented for routine diagnosis a specific duplex qPCR. Finally, structural analysis of the recombinant spike suggested its hybrid content could optimize viral binding to the host cell membrane. These findings prompt further studies of the virological, epidemiological, and clinical features of this recombinant.

9.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3421-3430, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729155

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 21K/BA.1, 21L/BA.2, and BA.3 Omicron variants have recently emerged worldwide. To date, the 21L/BA.2 Omicron variant has remained very minority globally but became predominant in Denmark instead of the 21K/BA.1 variant. Here, we describe the first cases diagnosed with this variant in south-eastern France. We identified 13 cases using variant-specific qPCR and next-generation sequencing between 28/11/2021 and 31/01/2022, the first two cases being diagnosed in travelers returning from Tanzania. Overall, viral genomes displayed a mean (±standard deviation) number of 65.9 ± 2.5 (range, 61-69) nucleotide substitutions and 31.0 ± 8.3 (27-50) nucleotide deletions, resulting in 49.6 ± 2.2 (45-52) amino acid substitutions (including 28 in the spike protein) and 12.4 ± 1.1 (12-15) amino acid deletions. Phylogeny showed the distribution in three different clusters of these genomes, which were most closely related to genomes from England and South Africa, from Singapore and Nepal, or from France and Denmark. Structural predictions highlighted a significant enlargement and flattening of the surface of the 21L/BA.2 N-terminal domain of the spike protein compared to that of the 21K/BA.1 Omicron variant, which may facilitate initial viral interactions with lipid rafts. Close surveillance is needed at global, country, and center scales to monitor the incidence and clinical outcome of the 21L/BA.2 Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation , Nucleotides , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1696164

ABSTRACT

After the end of the first epidemic episode of SARS-CoV-2 infections, as cases began to rise again during the summer of 2020, we at IHU Méditerranée Infection in Marseille, France, intensified the genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2, and described the first viral variants. In this study, we compared the incidence curves of SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths in different countries and reported the classification of SARS-CoV-2 variants detected in our institute, as well as the kinetics and sources of the infections. We used mortality collected from a COVID-19 data repository for 221 countries. Viral variants were defined based on ≥5 hallmark mutations along the whole genome shared by ≥30 genomes. SARS-CoV-2 genotype was determined for 24,181 patients using next-generation genome and gene sequencing (in 47 and 11% of cases, respectively) or variant-specific qPCR (in 42% of cases). Sixteen variants were identified by analyzing viral genomes from 9,788 SARS-CoV-2-diagnosed patients. Our data show that since the first SARS-CoV-2 epidemic episode in Marseille, importation through travel from abroad was documented for seven of the new variants. In addition, for the B.1.160 variant of Pangolin classification (a.k.a. Marseille-4), we suspect transmission from farm minks. In conclusion, we observed that the successive epidemic peaks of SARS-CoV-2 infections are not linked to rebounds of viral genotypes that are already present but to newly introduced variants. We thus suggest that border control is the best mean of combating this type of introduction, and that intensive control of mink farms is also necessary to prevent the emergence of new variants generated in this animal reservoir.

11.
Arch Virol ; 167(4): 1185-1190, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694545

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants have become a major virological, epidemiological, and clinical concern, particularly with regard to the risk of escape from vaccine-induced immunity. Here, we describe the emergence of a new variant, with the index case returning from travel in Cameroon. For 13 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients living in the same geographical area of southeastern France, a qPCR test for screening variant-associated mutations showed an atypical combination. The genome sequences were obtained by next-generation sequencing with Oxford Nanopore Technologies on GridION instruments within about 8 h. Analysis revealed 46 nucleotide substitutions and 37 deletions, resulting in 30 amino acid substitutions and 12 deletions. Fourteen of the amino acid substitutions, including N501Y and E484K, and nine deletions are located in the spike protein. This genotype pattern led to the establishment of a new Pangolin lineage, named B.1.640.2, that is a phylogenetic sister group to the old B.1.640 lineage, which has now been renamed B.1.640.1. The lineages differ by 25 nucleotide substitutions and 33 deletions. The combination of mutations in these isolates and their phylogenetic position indicate, based on our previous definition, that they represent a new variant, which we have named "IHU". These data are a further example of the unpredictability of the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, and of their possible introduction into a given geographical area from abroad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327546

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The SARS-CoV-2 21K/BA.1, 21L/BA.2, and BA.3 Omicron variants have recently emerged worldwide. To date, the 21L/BA.2 Omicron variant has remained very minority globally but became predominant in Denmark instead of the 21K/BA.1 variant. Here we describe the first cases diagnosed with this variant in south-eastern France. We identified thirteen cases using variant-specific qPCR and next-generation sequencing between 28/11/2021 and 31/01/2022, the first two cases being diagnosed in travellers returning from Tanzania. Overall, viral genomes displayed a mean (±standard deviation) number of 65.9±2.5 (range, 61-69) nucleotide substitutions and 31.0±8.3 (27-50) nucleotide deletions, resulting in 49.6±2.2 (45-52) amino acid substitutions (including 28 in the spike protein) and 12.4±1.1 (12-15) amino acid deletions. Phylogeny showed the distribution in three different clusters of these genomes, which were most closely related to genomes from England and South Africa, from Singapore and Nepal, or from France and Denmark. Structural predictions pointed out a significant enlargement and flattening of the 21L/BA.2 N-terminal domain surface compared with that of the 21K/BA.2 Omicron variant, which may facilitate initial viral interactions with lipid rafts. Close surveillance is needed at global, country and center scales to monitor the incidence and clinical outcome of the 21L/BA.2 Omicron variant.

13.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 46: 102277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe the epidemiology of the first cases diagnosed in our institute of infections with the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant and how this variant was imported to Marseille. METHODS: The Beta variant was identified based on analyses of sequences of viral genomes or of a spike gene fragment obtained by next-generation sequencing using Illumina technology, or by a real-time reverse-transcription-PCR (qPCR) specific of the Beta variant. RESULTS: The first patient diagnosed as infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant was sampled on January 15, 2021. Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed in January 2021 (two weeks). Fifteen (52%) patients were of Comorian nationality. Eight (28%) had travelled abroad, including six who had returned from Comoros. Phylogeny based on SARS-CoV-2 genomes from 11 of these patients and their best BLAST hits from the GISAID database showed that seven patients, including the four returning from Comoros, were clustered with 27 other genomes from GISAID that included the six first Beta variant genomes described in Comoros in January 2021. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses highlight that, as for the case of other SARS-CoV-2 variants that have been diagnosed in Marseille, the Beta variant was imported to Marseille through travel from abroad. It had limited spread in our geographical area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comoros/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(5): 384-386, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672041

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Working Dogs , Animals , Dogs , Humans
15.
Arch Virol ; 167(2): 583-589, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653517

ABSTRACT

We detected SARS-CoV-2 of PANGO lineage R.1 with the spike substitution E484K in three patients. Eleven other sequences in France and 8,831 worldwide were available from GISAID, 92% originating from Japan. The three genome sequences from our institute were phylogenetically closest to another from Guinea-Conakry, where one of the patients had travelled. These viruses did not exhibit any unusual features in cell culture. Spike structural predictions indicated a 1.3-time higher transmissibility index than for the globally spread B.1.1.7 variant but also an affinity loss for gangliosides that might have slowed dissemination. The spread of new SARS-CoV-2 mutants/variants is still not well understood and therefore difficult to predict, and this hinders implementation of effective preventive measures, including adapted vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Guinea , Humans , Mutation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
16.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 45: 102236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to challenge the hypothesis of an introduction of influenza viruses by international travellers and subsequent local circulation in Marseille, France. METHODS: We analysed the epidemiological data of PCR-confirmed cases over an eight-year period and compared the genomic data of local and imported influenza viruses during a six-month period. RESULTS: Between June 2013 and December 2020, 12,434 patients in the Assistance Publique-Hospitaux de Marseille were diagnosed with an influenza virus infection at the laboratory of the Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranéee Infection of Marseille. Half of the patients were below the age of 20. Most of the imported cases were diagnosed outside of epidemic periods. Fourteen genomes of the influenza A virus, including six in international travellers returning from Europe or from the Arabian Peninsula and eight from patients who had not travelled were analysed. Sequences of influenza A/H1N1 virus genomes detected in subjects who had travelled to Saudi Arabia were in the same clade and differed from sequences detected later in a traveller returning from Italy, and in non-travellers who were infected in Marseille. This suggests that influenza viruses imported from Saudi Arabia did not subsequently circulate in Marseille. CONCLUSION: Future studies with higher numbers of genomes are needed to confirm this result.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , France/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Travel
17.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(12): 1493-1502, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that the clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine is still controversial, it has been demonstrated in vitro to control SARS-CoV-2 multiplication on Vero E6 cells. In this study, we tested the possibility that some patients with prolonged virus excretion could be infected by less susceptible strains. METHOD: Using a high-content screening method, we screened 30 different selected isolates of SARS-CoV-2 from different patients who received azithromycin ± hydroxychloroquine. We focused on patients with viral persistence, i.e., positive virus detection in a nasopharyngeal sample ≥10 days, and who were tested during two French epidemic waves, late winter-spring of 2020 and the summer of 2020. Dose-response curves in single-molecule assays with hydroxychloroquine were created for isolates with suspected reduced susceptibility. Genome clustering was performed for all isolates. RESULTS: Of 30 tested strains, three were detected as replicating in the presence of azithromycin + hydroxychloroquine, each at 5 µM. The dose-response model showed a decrease in susceptibility of these three strains to hydroxychloroquine. Whole genome sequencing revealed that these three strains are all from the second epidemic wave and two cluster with isolates from Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced susceptibility to hydroxychloroquine was not associated with viral persistence in naso-pharyngeal samples. Rather, it was associated with occurring during the second epidemic wave, which began in the summer and with strains clustering with those with a common genotype in Africa, where hydroxychloroquine was the most widely used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580411

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) quickly spread worldwide following its emergence in Wuhan, China, and hit pandemic levels. Its tremendous incidence favoured the emergence of viral variants. The current genome diversity of SARS-CoV-2 has a clear impact on epidemiology and clinical practice, especially regarding transmission rates and the effectiveness of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the replication of different SARS-CoV-2 isolates representing different virus genotypes which have been isolated throughout the pandemic. We used three distinct cell lines, including Vero E6 cells originating from monkeys; Caco-2 cells, an intestinal epithelium cell line originating from humans; and Calu-3 cells, a pulmonary epithelium cell line also originating from humans. We used RT-qPCR to replicate different SARS-CoV-2 genotypes by quantifying the virus released in the culture supernatant of infected cells. We found that the different viral isolates replicate similarly in Caco-2 cells, but show very different replicative capacities in Calu-3 cells. This was especially highlighted for the lineages B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1, which are considered to be variants of concern. These results underscore the importance of the evaluation and characterisation of each SARS-CoV-2 isolate in order to establish the replication patterns before performing tests, and of the consideration of the ideal SARS-CoV-2 genotype-cell type pair for each assay.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genotype , Humans , Intestines/cytology , Lung/cytology , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Tropism/physiology
20.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, several SARS-CoV-2 variants have sequentially emerged. In France, most cases were due to spike D641G-harbouring viruses that descended initially from the Wuhan strain, then by the variant of B.1.160 lineage we called Marseille-4 since the summer of 2020, which was followed by the Alpha and Beta variants in early 2021, then the Delta variant currently. METHODS: We determined the neutralising antibody (nAb) titres in sera from convalescent individuals previously infected by these four major local variants and from vaccine recipients to the original Wuhan strain and nine variants, including two recent circulating Delta isolates. RESULTS: The results show high inter-individual heterogeneity in nAbs, especially according to the variant tested. The major variations among nAbs are based on the genotype responsible for the infection. Patients previously infected with the beta and B.1.160 variants had the lowest nAb titres. We show that this heterogeneity is well explained by spike protein mutants modelling using in silico approaches. The highest titres were observed in individuals vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, even against the delta variant. CONCLUSIONS: Immunity acquired naturally after infection is highly dependent on the infecting variant, and, unexpectedly, mRNA-based vaccine efficacy was shown to be often better than natural immunity in eliciting neutralising antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Female , France , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells , Young Adult
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