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2.
J Neurovirol ; 27(5): 797-801, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432669

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an ascending demyelinating polyneuropathy often associated with recent infection. Miller Fisher syndrome represents a variant with predominant facial and cranial nerve involvement, although Miller Fisher and Guillain-Barré overlap syndromes can occur. Guillain-Barré spectrum syndromes have been thought to be rare among solid organ transplant recipients. We describe an immunocompromised patient with a liver transplant who presented with ophthalmoplegia and bulbar deficits. His symptoms rapidly progressed to a state of descending paralysis involving the diaphragm; he then developed acute respiratory failure and eventually developed quadriparesis. Electromyography and a nerve conduction study demonstrated a severe sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy consistent with Miller Fisher variant Guillain-Barré syndrome. Despite several negative nasopharyngeal swabs for COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction, a serology for SARS-CoV-2 IgG was positive. He was diagnosed with Miller Fisher-Guillain-Barré overlap syndrome with rapid recovery following treatment with plasma exchange. Although Guillain-Barré is a rare complication in solid organ transplant recipients, this case highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of neurologic complications in transplant patients. Furthermore, it demonstrates a possible case of neurological complications from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Miller Fisher Syndrome/immunology , Miller Fisher Syndrome/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Miller Fisher Syndrome/therapy , Plasmapheresis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
3.
Chest ; 161(1): 140-151, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401306

ABSTRACT

Considering the COVID-19 pandemic where concomitant occurrence of ARDS and severe acute brain injury (sABI) has increasingly coemerged, we synthesize existing data regarding the simultaneous management of both conditions. Our aim is to provide readers with fundamental principles and concepts for the management of sABI and ARDS, and highlight challenges and conflicts encountered while managing concurrent disease. Up to 40% of patients with sABI can develop ARDS. Although there are trials and guidelines to support the mainstays of treatment for ARDS and sABI independently, guidance on concomitant management is limited. Treatment strategies aimed at managing severe ARDS may at times conflict with the management of sABI. In this narrative review, we discuss the physiological basis and risks involved during simultaneous management of ARDS and sABI, summarize evidence for treatment decisions, and demonstrate these principles using hypothetical case scenarios. Use of invasive or noninvasive monitoring to assess brain and lung physiology may facilitate goal-directed treatment strategies with the potential to improve outcome. Understanding the pathophysiology and key treatment concepts for comanagement of these conditions is critical to optimizing care in this high-acuity patient population.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/complications , Brain Injuries/therapy , Disease Management , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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