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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(4): 507-518, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO-recommended tuberculosis screening and diagnostic algorithm in ambulatory people living with HIV is a four-symptom screen (known as the WHO-recommended four symptom screen [W4SS]) followed by a WHO-recommended molecular rapid diagnostic test (eg Xpert MTB/RIF [hereafter referred to as Xpert]) if W4SS is positive. To inform updated WHO guidelines, we aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of alternative screening tests and strategies for tuberculosis in this population. METHODS: In this systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis, we updated a search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, the Cochrane Library, and conference abstracts for publications from Jan 1, 2011, to March 12, 2018, done in a previous systematic review to include the period up to Aug 2, 2019. We screened the reference lists of identified pieces and contacted experts in the field. We included prospective cross-sectional, observational studies and randomised trials among adult and adolescent (age ≥10 years) ambulatory people living with HIV, irrespective of signs and symptoms of tuberculosis. We extracted study-level data using a standardised data extraction form, and we requested individual participant data from study authors. We aimed to compare the W4SS with alternative screening tests and strategies and the WHO-recommended algorithm (ie, W4SS followed by Xpert) with Xpert for all in terms of diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity), overall and in key subgroups (eg, by antiretroviral therapy [ART] status). The reference standard was culture. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020155895. FINDINGS: We identified 25 studies, and obtained data from 22 studies (including 15 666 participants; 4347 [27·7%] of 15 663 participants with data were on ART). W4SS sensitivity was 82% (95% CI 72-89) and specificity was 42% (29-57). C-reactive protein (≥10 mg/L) had similar sensitivity to (77% [61-88]), but higher specificity (74% [61-83]; n=3571) than, W4SS. Cough (lasting ≥2 weeks), haemoglobin (<10 g/dL), body-mass index (<18·5 kg/m2), and lymphadenopathy had high specificities (80-90%) but low sensitivities (29-43%). The WHO-recommended algorithm had a sensitivity of 58% (50-66) and a specificity of 99% (98-100); Xpert for all had a sensitivity of 68% (57-76) and a specificity of 99% (98-99). In the one study that assessed both, the sensitivity of sputum Xpert Ultra was higher than sputum Xpert (73% [62-81] vs 57% [47-67]) and specificities were similar (98% [96-98] vs 99% [98-100]). Among outpatients on ART (4309 [99·1%] of 4347 people on ART), W4SS sensitivity was 53% (35-71) and specificity was 71% (51-85). In this population, a parallel strategy (two tests done at the same time) of W4SS with any chest x-ray abnormality had higher sensitivity (89% [70-97]) and lower specificity (33% [17-54]; n=2670) than W4SS alone; at a tuberculosis prevalence of 5%, this strategy would require 379 more rapid diagnostic tests per 1000 people living with HIV than W4SS but detect 18 more tuberculosis cases. Among outpatients not on ART (11 160 [71·8%] of 15 541 outpatients), W4SS sensitivity was 85% (76-91) and specificity was 37% (25-51). C-reactive protein (≥10 mg/L) alone had a similar sensitivity to (83% [79-86]), but higher specificity (67% [60-73]; n=3187) than, W4SS and a sequential strategy (both test positive) of W4SS then C-reactive protein (≥5 mg/L) had a similar sensitivity to (84% [75-90]), but higher specificity than (64% [57-71]; n=3187), W4SS alone; at 10% tuberculosis prevalence, these strategies would require 272 and 244 fewer rapid diagnostic tests per 1000 people living with HIV than W4SS but miss two and one more tuberculosis cases, respectively. INTERPRETATION: C-reactive protein reduces the need for further rapid diagnostic tests without compromising sensitivity and has been included in the updated WHO tuberculosis screening guidelines. However, C-reactive protein data were scarce for outpatients on ART, necessitating future research regarding the utility of C-reactive protein in this group. Chest x-ray can be useful in outpatients on ART when combined with W4SS. The WHO-recommended algorithm has suboptimal sensitivity; Xpert for all offers slight sensitivity gains and would have major resource implications. FUNDING: World Health Organization.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular , HIV Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Adolescent , Adult , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Rifampin , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients admitted to obstetric inpatient units throughout the United States as detected by universal screening. We sought to describe the relationship between obstetric inpatient asymptomatic infection rates and publicly available surrounding community infection rates. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which medical centers reported rates of positive SARS-CoV-2 testing in asymptomatic pregnant and immediate postpartum patients over a 1-3-month time span in 2020. Publicly reported SARS-CoV-2 case rates from the relevant county and state for each center were collected from the COVID Act Now dashboard and the COVID Tracking Project for correlation analysis. RESULTS: Data were collected from nine health centers, encompassing 18 hospitals. Participating health centers were located in Alabama, California, Illinois, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, and Washington State. Each hospital had an active policy for universal SARS-CoV-2 testing on obstetric inpatient unit. A total of 10,147 SARS-CoV-2 tests were administered, of which 124 were positive (1.2%). Positivity rates varied by site, ranging from 0-3.2%. While SARS-CoV-2 infection rates were lower in asymptomatic obstetric inpatient groups than the surrounding communities, there was a positive correlation between positivity rates in obstetric inpatient units and their surrounding county (p=.003, r=.782) and state (p=.007, r=.708). CONCLUSIONS: Given the correlation between community and obstetric inpatient rates, the necessity of SARS-CoV-2 related healthcare resource utilization in obstetric inpatient units may be best-informed by surrounding community infection rates.

3.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(1): 77.e1-77.e14, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating that coronavirus disease 2019 increases the risk of hospitalization and mechanical ventilation in pregnant patients and for preterm delivery. However, the impact on maternal mortality and whether morbidity is differentially affected by disease severity at delivery and trimester of infection are unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe disease severity and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections in pregnancy across the Washington State, including pregnancy complications and outcomes, hospitalization, and case fatality. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant patients with a polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, were identified in a multicenter retrospective cohort study from 35 sites in Washington State. Sites captured 61% of annual state deliveries. Case-fatality rates in pregnancy were compared with coronavirus disease 2019 fatality rates in similarly aged adults in Washington State using rate ratios and rate differences. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared by trimester of infection and disease severity at the time of delivery. RESULTS: The principal study findings were as follows: (1) among 240 pregnant patients in Washington State with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections, 1 in 11 developed severe or critical disease, 1 in 10 were hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019, and 1 in 80 died; (2) the coronavirus disease 2019-associated hospitalization rate was 3.5-fold higher than in similarly aged adults in Washington State (10.0% vs 2.8%; rate ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-5.3); (3) pregnant patients hospitalized for a respiratory concern were more likely to have a comorbidity or underlying conditions including asthma, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune disease, and class III obesity; (4) 3 maternal deaths (1.3%) were attributed to coronavirus disease 2019 for a maternal mortality rate of 1250 of 100,000 pregnancies (95% confidence interval, 257-3653); (5) the coronavirus disease 2019 case fatality in pregnancy was a significant 13.6-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.7-43.6) higher in pregnant patients than in similarly aged individuals in Washington State with an absolute difference in mortality rate of 1.2% (95% confidence interval, -0.3 to 2.6); and (6) preterm birth was significantly higher among women with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 at delivery than for women who had recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (45.4% severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 vs 5.2% mild coronavirus disease 2019; P<.001). CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalization and case-fatality rates in pregnant patients were significantly higher than in similarly aged adults in Washington State. These data indicate that pregnant patients are at risk of severe or critical disease and mortality compared to nonpregnant adults, and also at risk for preterm birth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Maternal Death , Pregnancy Outcome , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Washington/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(1): 75.e1-75.e16, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the early months of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, risks associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in pregnancy were uncertain. Pregnant patients can serve as a model for the success of clinical and public health responses during public health emergencies as they are typically in frequent contact with the medical system. Population-based estimates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections in pregnancy are unknown because of incomplete ascertainment of pregnancy status or inclusion of only single centers or hospitalized cases. Whether pregnant women were protected by the public health response or through their interactions with obstetrical providers in the early months of pandemic is not clearly understood. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection rate in pregnancy and to examine the disparities by race and ethnicity and English language proficiency in Washington State. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant patients with a polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection diagnosed between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020 were identified within 35 hospitals and clinics, capturing 61% of annual deliveries in Washington State. Infection rates in pregnancy were estimated overall and by Washington State Accountable Community of Health region and cross-sectionally compared with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection rates in similarly aged adults in Washington State. Race and ethnicity and language used for medical care of pregnant patients were compared with recent data from Washington State. RESULTS: A total of 240 pregnant patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections were identified during the study period with 70.7% from minority racial and ethnic groups. The principal findings in our study were as follows: (1) the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection rate was 13.9 per 1000 deliveries in pregnant patients (95% confidence interval, 8.3-23.2) compared with 7.3 per 1000 (95% confidence interval, 7.2-7.4) in adults aged 20 to 39 years in Washington State (rate ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3); (2) the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection rate reduced to 11.3 per 1000 deliveries (95% confidence interval, 6.3-20.3) when excluding 45 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease 2 detected through asymptomatic screening (rate ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.9); (3) the proportion of pregnant patients in non-White racial and ethnic groups with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease 2 infection was 2- to 4-fold higher than the race and ethnicity distribution of women in Washington State who delivered live births in 2018; and (4) the proportion of pregnant patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection receiving medical care in a non-English language was higher than estimates of pregnant patients receiving care with limited English proficiency in Washington State (30.4% vs 7.6%). CONCLUSION: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection rate in pregnant people was 70% higher than similarly aged adults in Washington State, which could not be completely explained by universal screening at delivery. Pregnant patients from nearly all racial and ethnic minority groups and patients receiving medical care in a non-English language were overrepresented. Pregnant women were not protected from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in the early months of the pandemic. Moreover, the greatest burden of infections occurred in nearly all racial and ethnic minority groups. These data coupled with a broader recognition that pregnancy is a risk factor for severe illness and maternal mortality strongly suggested that pregnant people should be broadly prioritized for coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine allocation in the United States similar to some states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Washington/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(6): 1067-1073, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132453

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are being rapidly designed and implemented in adults. Children are often not considered during development of novel treatments for infectious diseases until very late. Although children appear to have a lower risk compared with adults of severe COVID-19 disease, a substantial number of children globally will benefit from pharmacologic treatments. It will be reasonable to extrapolate efficacy of most treatments from adult trials to children. Pediatric trials should focus on characterizing a treatment's pharmacokinetics, optimal dose, and safety across the age spectrum. These trials should use an adaptive design to efficiently add or remove arms in what will be a rapidly evolving treatment landscape, and should involve a large number of sites across the globe in a collaborative effort to facilitate efficient implementation. All stakeholders must commit to equitable access to any effective, safe treatment for children everywhere.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(5): 869-872, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114831

ABSTRACT

We found low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 (2.7% [5/188]) among pregnant and postpartum patients with universal testing. Prevalence among symptomatic patients was similar under initial targeted screening (22.2% [4/18]) and universal approaches (19.1% [8/42]). Among 170 asymptomatic patients, 2 were positive or inconclusive, respectively; repeat testing at 24 hours was negative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
7.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(6): 911.e1-911.e14, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-655482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on pregnant women is incompletely understood, but early data from case series suggest a variable course of illness from asymptomatic or mild disease to maternal death. It is unclear whether pregnant women manifest enhanced disease similar to influenza viral infection or whether specific risk factors might predispose to severe disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal disease and obstetrical outcomes associated with coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy to rapidly inform clinical care. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study of pregnant patients with a laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection from 6 hospital systems in Washington State between Jan. 21, 2020, and April 17, 2020. Demographics, medical and obstetrical history, and coronavirus disease 2019 encounter data were abstracted from medical records. RESULTS: A total of 46 pregnant patients with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were identified from hospital systems capturing 40% of births in Washington State. Nearly all pregnant individuals with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were symptomatic (93.5%, n=43) and the majority were in their second or third trimester (43.5% [n=20] and 50.0% [n=23], respectively). Symptoms resolved in a median of 24 days (interquartile range, 13-37). Notably, 7 women were hospitalized (16%) including 1 admitted to the intensive care unit. A total of 6 cases (15%) were categorized as severe coronavirus disease 2019 with nearly all patients being either overweight or obese before pregnancy or with asthma or other comorbidities. Of the 8 deliveries that occurred during the study period, there was 1 preterm birth at 33 weeks' gestation to improve pulmonary status in a woman with class III obesity, and 1 stillbirth of unknown etiology. CONCLUSION: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 developed in approximately 15% of pregnant patients and occurred primarily in overweight or obese women with underlying conditions. Obesity and coronavirus disease 2019 may synergistically increase risk for a medically indicated preterm birth to improve maternal pulmonary status in late pregnancy. These findings support categorizing pregnant patients as a higher-risk group, particularly those with chronic comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Female , Gestational Age , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Washington/epidemiology
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(6): 1067-1073, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619323

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are being rapidly designed and implemented in adults. Children are often not considered during development of novel treatments for infectious diseases until very late. Although children appear to have a lower risk compared with adults of severe COVID-19 disease, a substantial number of children globally will benefit from pharmacologic treatments. It will be reasonable to extrapolate efficacy of most treatments from adult trials to children. Pediatric trials should focus on characterizing a treatment's pharmacokinetics, optimal dose, and safety across the age spectrum. These trials should use an adaptive design to efficiently add or remove arms in what will be a rapidly evolving treatment landscape, and should involve a large number of sites across the globe in a collaborative effort to facilitate efficient implementation. All stakeholders must commit to equitable access to any effective, safe treatment for children everywhere.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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