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Journal of Urology ; 209(Supplement 4):e1105, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2318362


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: In 2018, The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) changed its recommendations for prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening from "non-recommended" to "shared decision-making among men aged 55-69". Thereafter, COVID-19 Pandemic disrupted cancer care with evidence suggesting overall reduced access to and utilization of health care services including preventive screening. We aim to examine the impacts of both events on PSA screening for men aged 55-69. METHOD(S): We analyzed 2013, 2015, 2018, 2019, and 2021 National Health Interview Survey data. Men >54 who reported PSA testing within 12 months preceding survey were considered to have undergone screening. Adjusted difference in differences (DID) analyses were performed to compare changes in screening in men aged 55-69 with reference to men >70 between 2015 and 2019 (pre- and post- 2018 USPSTF recommendation) and between 2019 and 2021 (pre- and post-Pandemic). RESULT(S): A total of 24,308 men were included. PSA screening prevalence was 35.4% (95%CI: 33.7%, 37.1%), 32.1% (95%CI: 30.3%, 33.9%), 33.3% (95%CI: 31.6%, 34.9%), 37.2% (95%CI: 35.7%, 38.8%), and 34.9% (95%CI: 33.3%, 36.5%) respectively for included years. From 2015 to 2019, PSA screening increased 4.6% among men aged 55-69 (95%CI: 1.7, 7.5%) and increased 6.5% among men >70 (95% CI: 2.7, 10.4%). From 2019 to 2021, PSA screening decreased 3.1% among men aged 55-69 (95%CI: 0.58%, 5.8%);PSA screening also decreased 0.8% among older men but did not reach significance (95% CI: -2.6%, 4.2%). DID analysis did not show difference in changes between men aged 55-69 in reference to men >70 from both 2015 to 2019 (DID=-1.9%, 95%CI, -6.7%, 2.9%) and 2019 to 2021 (DID =-2.3%, 95%CI, -6.5%, 1.9%). CONCLUSION(S): We saw an increase in PSA screening after 2018 USPSTF recommendations among its target population e men aged 55-69 and also among older men >70. In contrast, the period from 2019 to 2021 saw a significant decrease in PSA screening in those aged 55-69. The lack of significant DID between groups as well as the downward trend of PSA screening in men >70 together suggest an overall trend of decrease in PSA screening post-Pandemic.

Journal of Urology ; 209(Supplement 4):e1110, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2312938


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic placed a significant burden on the US healthcare system. Moreover, many healthcare systems triaged cases based on the severity of disease. Therefore, we assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on prostate cancer management according to the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade groups. METHOD(S): We retrospectively analyzed the National Cancer Database (NCDB) for patients with prostate cancer between 2018- 2020. We divided our cohort into "Pre-Pandemic" (2018/2019) and "Pandemic" (2020) periods. Men were classified according to their ISUP grade group at diagnosis. Hospital characteristics and patient-level clinical and sociodemographic variables were extracted. Our primary outcome was the utilization of definitive treatment (surgery or radiation) versus expectant management (active surveillance, watchful waiting, or no treatment). We performed multivariable logistic regressions to predict the type of management for each ISUP grade group across the two periods adjusting for clinical and socioeconomic covariates. RESULT(S): A total of 398,719 men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer were reported during the "Pre-Pandemic" (70.6%) and "Pandemic" (29.4%) periods. Overall, 24.5% had an ISUP 1, 30.6% an ISUP 2, 18.2% an ISUP 3, 13% ISUP 4, and 13.8% ISUP 5 disease (Table 1). Treatment was less likely during the "Pandemic" compared to the "Pre-Pandemic" period for ISUP grade group 1 (aOR 0.80;95% CI 0.77 - 0.83;p-value <0.001), for ISUP grade group 2 (aOR 0.85;95% CI 0.81 - 0.89;p-value <0.001) and for ISUP grade group 3 (aOR 0.87;95% CI 0.80 - 0.96;p-value <0.003). However, no differences in treatment trends were found for ISUP grade groups 4 and 5 across the two time periods. CONCLUSION(S): During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients with prostate cancers ISUP grade groups 1, 2, and 3 were more likely to receive expectant management than definitive treatment;however, this was not true for patients with more aggressive diseases. This finding suggests a high capacity of facilities to appropriately risk stratify and prioritize higher-risk cases during a public health emergency. A limitation of our study is the inability to assess the treatment trends of men diagnosed in the last 2020 quarter due to the lack of follow-up.

Journal of Urology ; 209(Supplement 4):e1105, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2312937


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic likely affected the healthcare system's ability to deliver prostate cancer care services. Herein, we sought to evaluate prostate cancer's stage and grade migration resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD(S): We retrospectively analyzed the National Cancer Database (NCDB) for men with prostate cancer between 2018-2020. We divided our cohort into the "Pre-Pandemic" (2018/2019) and "Pandemic" (2020) periods. Stage and grade of prostate cancer were stratified according to the severity of disease: PSA value (<=20 vs. >20), clinical T stage (cT1-T2 vs. cT3-T4), clinical M stage (cM0 vs. cM1), International Society of Uropathology (ISUP) grade group (ISUP 1-2-3 vs. ISUP 4-5), and D'Amico risk classification (low risk vs. intermediate & high risk). Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess differences in the distribution of stage and grade across the two periods. We performed multivariable logistic regressions to estimate the effect of the "Pandemic" period on stage and grade distribution adjusting for clinical and socioeconomic covariates. RESULT(S): A total of 398,719 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer during the "Pre-pandemic" (70.6%) and "Pandemic" (29.4%) periods (Table 1). On univariable comparisons, an increase in stage/ grade across the two periods was demonstrated (all p<0.001). After adjusting for covariates, compared to the "Pre-pandemic", the "Pandemic" period was associated with increased odds of PSA >20 levels (aOR 1.06;95% CI 1.03 - 1.08;p-value <0.001), cT3-4 stages (aOR 1.12;95% CI 1.08 - 1.16;p<0.001), cM1 stage (aOR 1.15;95% CI 1.12 - 1.18;p<0.001), ISUP grade group 4 or 5 (aOR 1.03;95% CI 1.01 - 1.05;p=0.003) and D'Amico Intermediate & High risk groups (aOR 1.15;95% CI 1.13 - 1.18;p<0.001). CONCLUSION(S): The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significant changes in the distribution of both stage and grade of prostate cancer. Possible explanations for this migration include a better selection of patients for prostate biopsy during the pandemic or changes in prostate cancer screening patterns.

Journal of Urology ; 207(SUPPL 5):e221, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1886486


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the adoption of telemedicine, defined as the real-time, interactive delivery of healthcare information electronically, particularly within urology. However, literature has found that elderly and Black patients are less likely to complete or prefer a tele-health visit. This study aims to understand the impact of various socio-demographic factors on patterns in tele-health usage after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic among all surgical specialties and within urology specifically. METHODS: Data on race, ethnicity, type of visit, visit method, language preference, and insurance type was extracted directly from visit information for all surgical specialty visits at the Brigham and Women's Hospital from five three-month time periods in 2019 and 2020. Variables were re-coded to fit a binary outcome for each. Chi-square tests were performed for univariable analysis. A difference-indifferences regression model controlling for time-invariable cofactors was used to examine the effect of each variable on the change in proportion of virtual visits between all possible pairs of time periods. Our exposure variables of interest were Black race, status as Medicare beneficiary, and preference for non-English language with control variables of White race, non-Medicare beneficiary, and primarily English-speaking status, respectively. All analysis was performed in R. RESULTS: Our dataset included a total of 182,074 surgical specialty visits. Although total visits decreased during the pandemic period, total visits before and after the first-wave period were comparable. When compared to White patients, the proportion of virtual visits for Black patients after the first wave was 8.3% higher than expected among all surgical specialties, but 7.3% lower than expected within only urology visits (p<0.01). When compared to non- Medicare beneficiaries, the proportion of virtual visits for Medicare beneficiaries after the first wave was about 6% lower than expected across all surgical specialties and urology only (p<0.01). When compared to English-speaking patients, the proportion of virtual visits for non-English speaking patients after the first wave was 4% less than expected among all specialties and 12% less than expected among urology only (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Usage of tele-health by Black patients, Medicare beneficiaries, and non-English speaking patients is lower than expected in urology. Understanding disparities in tele-health usage may help inform policy that could alleviate inequities in access to urologic care.

Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(6 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1779696


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with a significant disruption in healthcare services including cancer screening and diagnosis. Delays in cancer screening and treatment may lead to increased mortality. We aimed to analyze changes in screening, diagnosis and surgical treatment of common GU malignancies in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We evaluated screening, novel diagnoses, and surgical management modalities of prostate cancer (PCa), urothelial carcinoma (UC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) within Massachusetts General Brigham, the largest healthcare system in the Northeastern United States, over four 3-month time periods during the pandemic (March 2020- March 2021). The percentage change in screening, diagnoses and management modalities during pandemic periods as compared to the immediate pre-pandemic period (December 2019-March 2020) was calculated as (Nperiod - Ncontrol)/Ncontrol. The difference in "predicted" versus "observed" diagnoses in each pandemic period was compared to the average of the four preceding 3-month periods (March 2019-March 2020) to account for seasonal variation. Results: The first pandemic peak (March-June 2020) was associated with a significant decline across screening, diagnosis and treatment, ranging from -15.7 to -64.8%, followed by a progressive recovery, ranging from -5.9 to +25.1% in the latest period (December 2020-March 2021) (Table). Although 725 diagnoses were "missed" between March and June 2020 as compared to the previous 12 months, 971 diagnoses were "recovered" between June 2020 and March 2021. Conclusions: A substantial disruption in the screening, diagnosis and treatment of GU malignancies was observed early in the pandemic, followed by a progressive rebound and recovery. The highest declines were observed for PSA screening, and the lowest for cystectomy procedures, reflecting triaging of care based on severity during the pandemic.