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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293321

ABSTRACT

Spain is one of the most heavily affected countries by the Covid-19 pandemic. In this study, we estimated the regional inequalities in excess deaths and premature mortality in Spain. Between January 2020 and June 2021, an estimated 89,200 (men: 48,000;women: 41,200) excess deaths occurred in the 17 Spanish regions with a substantial variability (highest in Madrid: 22,000, lowest in Canary Islands: -210). Highest reductions in life expectancy at birth (e_0) in 2020 were observed in Madrid (men: -3.48 years, women: -2.15), Castile La Mancha (men: -2.67, women: -2.30), and Castile and Leon (men: -2.00, women: -1.32). In the first six months of 2021, the highest reduction in e_0 was observed in Valencian Community (men: -2.04, women: -1.63), Madrid (men: -2.37), and Andalusia (men: -1.75;women: -1.43). In some Spanish regions, life expectancy at age 65 during the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 was comparable to that observed as far back as 20 years ago.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e051711, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537953

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Previous evidence from several countries, including China, Italy, Mexico, UK and the USA, indicates that among patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalised, diabetes, obesity and hypertension might be important risk factors for severe clinical outcomes. Several preliminary systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been conducted on one or more of these non-communicable diseases, but the findings have not been definitive, and recent evidence has become available from many more populations. Thus, we aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to assess the relationship of diabetes, obesity and hypertension with severe clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: We will search 16 major databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Academic Research Complete, Africa Wide Information, Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest Central, WHO Virtual Health Library, Homeland Security COVID-19 collection, SciFinder, Clinical Trials and Cochrane Library) for articles published between December 2019 and December 2020. We will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols 2016 guidelines for the design and reporting the results. We will include observational studies that assess the associations of pre-existing diabetes, obesity and hypertension in patients with COVID-19 with risk of severe clinical outcomes such as intensive care unit admission, receiving mechanical ventilation or death. Stata V.16.1 and R-Studio V.1.4.1103 statistical software will be used for statistical analysis. Meta-analysis will be used to estimate the pooled risks and to assess potential heterogeneities in risks. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was reviewed for human subjects concerns by the US CDC Center for Global Health and determined to not represent human subjects research because it uses data from published studies. We plan to publish results in a peer-reviewed journal and present at national and international conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021204371.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
BMJ ; 375: e066768, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501690

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the changes in life expectancy and years of life lost in 2020 associated with the covid-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Time series analysis. SETTING: 37 upper-middle and high income countries or regions with reliable and complete mortality data. PARTICIPANTS: Annual all cause mortality data from the Human Mortality Database for 2005-20, harmonised and disaggregated by age and sex. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reduction in life expectancy was estimated as the difference between observed and expected life expectancy in 2020 using the Lee-Carter model. Excess years of life lost were estimated as the difference between the observed and expected years of life lost in 2020 using the World Health Organization standard life table. RESULTS: Reduction in life expectancy in men and women was observed in all the countries studied except New Zealand, Taiwan, and Norway, where there was a gain in life expectancy in 2020. No evidence was found of a change in life expectancy in Denmark, Iceland, and South Korea. The highest reduction in life expectancy was observed in Russia (men: -2.33, 95% confidence interval -2.50 to -2.17; women: -2.14, -2.25 to -2.03), the United States (men: -2.27, -2.39 to -2.15; women: -1.61, -1.70 to -1.51), Bulgaria (men: -1.96, -2.11 to -1.81; women: -1.37, -1.74 to -1.01), Lithuania (men: -1.83, -2.07 to -1.59; women: -1.21, -1.36 to -1.05), Chile (men: -1.64, -1.97 to -1.32; women: -0.88, -1.28 to -0.50), and Spain (men: -1.35, -1.53 to -1.18; women: -1.13, -1.37 to -0.90). Years of life lost in 2020 were higher than expected in all countries except Taiwan, New Zealand, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, and South Korea. In the remaining 31 countries, more than 222 million years of life were lost in 2020, which is 28.1 million (95% confidence interval 26.8m to 29.5m) years of life lost more than expected (17.3 million (16.8m to 17.8m) in men and 10.8 million (10.4m to 11.3m) in women). The highest excess years of life lost per 100 000 population were observed in Bulgaria (men: 7260, 95% confidence interval 6820 to 7710; women: 3730, 2740 to 4730), Russia (men: 7020, 6550 to 7480; women: 4760, 4530 to 4990), Lithuania (men: 5430, 4750 to 6070; women: 2640, 2310 to 2980), the US (men: 4350, 4170 to 4530; women: 2430, 2320 to 2550), Poland (men: 3830, 3540 to 4120; women: 1830, 1630 to 2040), and Hungary (men: 2770, 2490 to 3040; women: 1920, 1590 to 2240). The excess years of life lost were relatively low in people younger than 65 years, except in Russia, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and the US where the excess years of life lost was >2000 per 100 000. CONCLUSION: More than 28 million excess years of life were lost in 2020 in 31 countries, with a higher rate in men than women. Excess years of life lost associated with the covid-19 pandemic in 2020 were more than five times higher than those associated with the seasonal influenza epidemic in 2015.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/trends , Life Expectancy/trends , Mortality, Premature/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
4.
BMJ ; 373: n1137, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273156

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct and indirect effects of the covid-19 pandemic on mortality in 2020 in 29 high income countries with reliable and complete age and sex disaggregated mortality data. DESIGN: Time series study of high income countries. SETTING: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, England and Wales, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and United States. PARTICIPANTS: Mortality data from the Short-term Mortality Fluctuations data series of the Human Mortality Database for 2016-20, harmonised and disaggregated by age and sex. INTERVENTIONS: Covid-19 pandemic and associated policy measures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weekly excess deaths (observed deaths versus expected deaths predicted by model) in 2020, by sex and age (0-14, 15-64, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 years), estimated using an over-dispersed Poisson regression model that accounts for temporal trends and seasonal variability in mortality. RESULTS: An estimated 979 000 (95% confidence interval 954 000 to 1 001 000) excess deaths occurred in 2020 in the 29 high income countries analysed. All countries had excess deaths in 2020, except New Zealand, Norway, and Denmark. The five countries with the highest absolute number of excess deaths were the US (458 000, 454 000 to 461 000), Italy (89 100, 87 500 to 90 700), England and Wales (85 400, 83 900 to 86 800), Spain (84 100, 82 800 to 85 300), and Poland (60 100, 58 800 to 61 300). New Zealand had lower overall mortality than expected (-2500, -2900 to -2100). In many countries, the estimated number of excess deaths substantially exceeded the number of reported deaths from covid-19. The highest excess death rates (per 100 000) in men were in Lithuania (285, 259 to 311), Poland (191, 184 to 197), Spain (179, 174 to 184), Hungary (174, 161 to 188), and Italy (168, 163 to 173); the highest rates in women were in Lithuania (210, 185 to 234), Spain (180, 175 to 185), Hungary (169, 156 to 182), Slovenia (158, 132 to 184), and Belgium (151, 141 to 162). Little evidence was found of subsequent compensatory reductions following excess mortality. CONCLUSION: Approximately one million excess deaths occurred in 2020 in these 29 high income countries. Age standardised excess death rates were higher in men than women in almost all countries. Excess deaths substantially exceeded reported deaths from covid-19 in many countries, indicating that determining the full impact of the pandemic on mortality requires assessment of excess deaths. Many countries had lower deaths than expected in children <15 years. Sex inequality in mortality widened further in most countries in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Poisson Distribution , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
BMJ ; 373: n1137, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236432

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct and indirect effects of the covid-19 pandemic on mortality in 2020 in 29 high income countries with reliable and complete age and sex disaggregated mortality data. DESIGN: Time series study of high income countries. SETTING: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, England and Wales, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and United States. PARTICIPANTS: Mortality data from the Short-term Mortality Fluctuations data series of the Human Mortality Database for 2016-20, harmonised and disaggregated by age and sex. INTERVENTIONS: Covid-19 pandemic and associated policy measures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weekly excess deaths (observed deaths versus expected deaths predicted by model) in 2020, by sex and age (0-14, 15-64, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 years), estimated using an over-dispersed Poisson regression model that accounts for temporal trends and seasonal variability in mortality. RESULTS: An estimated 979 000 (95% confidence interval 954 000 to 1 001 000) excess deaths occurred in 2020 in the 29 high income countries analysed. All countries had excess deaths in 2020, except New Zealand, Norway, and Denmark. The five countries with the highest absolute number of excess deaths were the US (458 000, 454 000 to 461 000), Italy (89 100, 87 500 to 90 700), England and Wales (85 400, 83 900 to 86 800), Spain (84 100, 82 800 to 85 300), and Poland (60 100, 58 800 to 61 300). New Zealand had lower overall mortality than expected (-2500, -2900 to -2100). In many countries, the estimated number of excess deaths substantially exceeded the number of reported deaths from covid-19. The highest excess death rates (per 100 000) in men were in Lithuania (285, 259 to 311), Poland (191, 184 to 197), Spain (179, 174 to 184), Hungary (174, 161 to 188), and Italy (168, 163 to 173); the highest rates in women were in Lithuania (210, 185 to 234), Spain (180, 175 to 185), Hungary (169, 156 to 182), Slovenia (158, 132 to 184), and Belgium (151, 141 to 162). Little evidence was found of subsequent compensatory reductions following excess mortality. CONCLUSION: Approximately one million excess deaths occurred in 2020 in these 29 high income countries. Age standardised excess death rates were higher in men than women in almost all countries. Excess deaths substantially exceeded reported deaths from covid-19 in many countries, indicating that determining the full impact of the pandemic on mortality requires assessment of excess deaths. Many countries had lower deaths than expected in children <15 years. Sex inequality in mortality widened further in most countries in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Poisson Distribution , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(2): 280-282, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082115

ABSTRACT

Data on patients discharged following COVID-19 hospitalization is scarce. We conducted an electronic health records study of community-acquired COVID-19 patients discharged between 15 March and 14 July 2020 from hospitals in Oxfordshire, UK. Of 403 discharged patients, 114 (28%) were readmitted or died within 60 days (incidence rate 18/100 person-months). Rates of readmission or death were twice as high among those ≥ 65 years as those < 65 years [standardized rate ratio: 2.21 (95% CI: 1.45-3.56)] and among women than men [2.25 (1.05-4.18)]. These findings suggest important sex differences in 60-day outcomes following COVID-19 hospitalization that have not previously been well described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the effect of chronic diseases on risk of severe COVID-19 infection, the present pandemic may have a particularly profound impact on socially disadvantaged counties. METHODS: Counties in the USA were categorised into five groups by level of social vulnerability, using the Social Vulnerability Index (a widely used measure of social disadvantage) developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The incidence and mortality from COVID-19, and the prevalence of major chronic conditions were calculated relative to the least vulnerable quintile using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Among 3141 counties, there were 5 010 496 cases and 161 058 deaths from COVID-19 by 10 August 2020. Relative to the least vulnerable quintile, counties in the most vulnerable quintile had twice the rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths (rate ratios 2.11 (95% CI 1.97 to 2.26) and 2.42 (95% CI 2.22 to 2.64), respectively). Similarly, the prevalence of major chronic conditions was 24%-41% higher in the most vulnerable counties. Geographical clustering of counties with high COVID-19 mortality, high chronic disease prevalence and high social vulnerability was found, especially in southern USA. CONCLUSION: Some counties are experiencing a confluence of epidemics from COVID-19 and chronic diseases in the context of social disadvantage. Such counties are likely to require enhanced public health and social support.

8.
BMJ ; 370: m2743, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between physical distancing interventions and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) globally. DESIGN: Natural experiment using interrupted time series analysis, with results synthesised using meta-analysis. SETTING: 149 countries or regions, with data on daily reported cases of covid-19 from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and data on the physical distancing policies from the Oxford covid-19 Government Response Tracker. PARTICIPANTS: Individual countries or regions that implemented one of the five physical distancing interventions (closures of schools, workplaces, and public transport, restrictions on mass gatherings and public events, and restrictions on movement (lockdowns)) between 1 January and 30 May 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of covid-19 before and after implementation of physical distancing interventions, estimated using data to 30 May 2020 or 30 days post-intervention, whichever occurred first. IRRs were synthesised across countries using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: On average, implementation of any physical distancing intervention was associated with an overall reduction in covid-19 incidence of 13% (IRR 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.89; n=149 countries). Closure of public transport was not associated with any additional reduction in covid-19 incidence when the other four physical distancing interventions were in place (pooled IRR with and without public transport closure was 0.85, 0.82 to 0.88; n=72, and 0.87, 0.84 to 0.91; n=32, respectively). Data from 11 countries also suggested similar overall effectiveness (pooled IRR 0.85, 0.81 to 0.89) when school closures, workplace closures, and restrictions on mass gatherings were in place. In terms of sequence of interventions, earlier implementation of lockdown was associated with a larger reduction in covid-19 incidence (pooled IRR 0.86, 0.84 to 0.89; n=105) compared with a delayed implementation of lockdown after other physical distancing interventions were in place (pooled IRR 0.90, 0.87 to 0.94; n=41). CONCLUSIONS: Physical distancing interventions were associated with reductions in the incidence of covid-19 globally. No evidence was found of an additional effect of public transport closure when the other four physical distancing measures were in place. Earlier implementation of lockdown was associated with a larger reduction in the incidence of covid-19. These findings might support policy decisions as countries prepare to impose or lift physical distancing measures in current or future epidemic waves.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Social Isolation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , SARS-CoV-2
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