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1.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reinfection after primary SARS-CoV-2 infection is uncommon in adults, but little is known about the risks, characteristics, severity, or outcomes of reinfection in children. We aimed to assess the risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in children and compare this with the risk in adults, by analysis of national testing data for England. METHODS: In our prospective, national surveillance study to assess reinfection of SARS-CoV-2 in children in England, we used national SARS-CoV-2 testing data to estimate the risk of reinfection at least 90 days after primary infection from Jan 27, 2020, to July, 31, 2021, which encompassed the alpha (B.1.1.7) and delta (B.1.617.2) variant waves in England. Data from children up to age 16 years who met the criteria for reinfection were included. Disease severity was assessed by linking reinfection cases to national hospital admission data, intensive care admission, and death registration datasets. FINDINGS: Reinfection rates closely followed community infection rates, with a small peak during the alpha wave and a larger peak during the delta wave. In children aged 16 years and younger, 688 418 primary infections and 2343 reinfections were identified. The overall reinfection rate was 66·88 per 100 000 population, which was higher in adults (72·53 per 100 000) than children (21·53 per 100 000). The reinfection rate after primary infection was 0·68% overall, 0·73% in adults compared with 0·18% in children age younger than 5 years, 0·24% in those aged 5-11 years, and 0·49% in those aged 12-16 years. Of the 109 children admitted to hospital with reinfection, 78 (72%) had comorbidities. Hospital admission rates were similar for the first (64 [2·7%] of 2343) and second episode (57 [2·4%] of 2343) and intensive care admissions were rare (seven children for the first episode and four for reinfections). There were 44 deaths within 28 days after primary infection (0·01%) and none after reinfection. INTERPRETATION: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is strongly related to exposure due to community infection rates, especially during the delta variant wave. Children had a lower risk of reinfection than did adults, but reinfections were not associated with more severe disease or fatal outcomes. FUNDING: UK Health Security Agency.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify the unknown losses in health-related quality of life of COVID-19 cases using quality-adjusted life days (QALDs) and the recommended EQ-5D instrument in England. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of non-hospitalised, PCR-confirmed SARSCoV2(+) cases aged 12-85 years and followed up for six months from 01 December 2020, with cross-sectional comparison to SARSCoV2() controls. Main outcomes were QALD losses; physical symptoms; and COVID-19-related private expenditures. We analysed results using multivariable regressions with post-hoc weighting by age and sex, and conditional logistic regressions for the association of each symptom and EQ-5D limitation on cases and controls. RESULTS: Of 548 cases (mean age 41.1 years; 61.5% female), 16.8% reported physical symptoms at month 6 (most frequently extreme tiredness, headache, loss of taste and/or smell, and shortness of breath). Cases reported more limitations with doing usual activities than controls. Almost half of cases spent a mean of £18.1 on non-prescription drugs (median: £10.0), and 52.7% missed work or school for a mean of 12 days (median: 10). On average, all cases lost 13.7 (95%-CI: 9.7, 17.7) QALDs, while those reporting symptoms at month 6 lost 32.9 (24.5, 37.6) QALDs. Losses also increased with older age. Cumulatively, the health loss from morbidity contributes at least 18% of the total COVID-19-related disease burden in England. CONCLUSIONS: One in 6 cases report ongoing symptoms at 6 months, and 10% report prolonged loss of function compared to pre-COVID-19 baselines. A marked health burden was observed among older COVID-19 cases and those with persistent physical symptoms.

3.
J Infect ; 84(4): 542-550, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to look at the burden of disease caused by SARS-COV-2 reinfections and identified potential risk factors for disease severity. METHODS: We used national surveillance data to collect information on all SARS-CoV-2 primary infection and suspected reinfection cases between January 2020 until early May 2021. Reinfection cases were positive COVID-19 PCR or antigen test, 90 days after their first COVID-19 positive test. We collected information on case demographics, hospital and ICU admission, immunisation status and if individuals were at risk of complication for COVID-19. RESULTS: Deaths reported within 28 days of testing positive were 61% (95% confidence interval: 56% to 65%) lower in suspected COVID-19 reinfection than primary infection cases. In the unvaccinated cohort, reinfections were associated with 49% (37% to 58%) lower odds of hospital admission in cases aged 50 to 65 years in the population not identified at risk of complication for COVID-19, and 34% (17% to 48%) in those at risk. ICU admission at reinfection compared to primary infection decreased 76% (55% to 87%). Individuals at risk and those aged below 50 years, who received at least 1 dose of vaccine against COVID-19, were 62% (39% to 74%) and 58% (24% to 77%) less likely to get admitted to hospital at reinfection, respectively. CONCLUSION: Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with lower odds of dying, and both prior infection and immunisation showed a protective effect against severe disease in selected populations. Older age, sex and underlying comorbidities appeared as principal risk factors for illness severity at reinfection. FUNDING: PHE/UKHSA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Reinfection/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296846

ABSTRACT

Background Reinfection after primary SARS-CoV-2 infection is uncommon in adults, but little is known about the risks, characteristics, severity or outcomes of reinfection in children. Methods We used national SARS-CoV-2 testing data in England to estimate the risk of reinfection ≥90 days after primary infection from 01 January 2020 to 31 July 2021, which encompassed both the Alpha and Delta waves in England. Disease severity was assessed by linking reinfection cases to national hospitalisation, intensive care admission and death registrations datasets. Findings Reinfection rates closely followed community infection rates, with a small peak during the Alpha wave and a larger peak during the Delta wave. In children aged ≤16 years, there were 688,418 primary infections and 2,343 reinfections. The overall reinfection rate was 66·88/100,000 population, being higher in adults (72.53/100,000) than in children (21·53/100,000). Reinfection rates after primary infection were 0·68% overall, 0·73% in adults and 0·34% in children. Of the 109 reinfections in children admitted to hospital, 78 (72%) had underlying comorbidities. Hospitalisation rates were similar for the first (64/2343, 2·73%) and second episode (57/2343, 2·43%). Intensive care admission was rare after primary infection (n=7) or reinfection (n=4), mainly in children with comorbidities. 44 deaths occurred after primary infection within 28 days of diagnosis (44/688,418, 0·01%), none after possible reinfections. Interpretation The risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is strongly related to exposure due to community infection rates, especially during the Delta variant wave. Children had a lower risk of reinfection than adults, but reinfections were not associated with more severe disease or fatal outcomes. Funding PHE/UKHSA Research in Context Evidence Before this study We searched PubMed with the terms “COVID-19” or “SARS-CoV-2” with “reinfection” to identify publications relating to SARS-CoV-2 reinfections from 01 January until 15 November 2021. There were few publications relating to SARS-CoV-2 reinfections, and these primarily related to adults. Published studies reported very low rates of reinfection during the first few months after primary infection in adults. COVID-19 vaccines provide effective immune protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection, but recent studies have reported increasing risk of breakthrough infection with time since primary vaccination due to waning immunity. Several SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the beta, gamma and delta variants have been shown to partially evade immunity after natural infection and vaccination, potentially increasing the risk of reinfections and breakthrough infections, respectively. Data on reinfections in children are lacking and restricted mainly to case reports in immunocompromised children. Added Value of This Study We used national SARS-CoV-2 testing data during the first 19 months of the pandemic to estimate the risk of reinfection in children compared to adults during a period that encompassed both the Alpha and the Delta variant waves in England. We found that the risk of reinfection correlated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and therefore, closely reflected community infection rates, with most reinfections occurring during the Delta variant wave. Whilst acknowledging the limitation of using national testing data, we found that children had a lower risk of reinfection compared to adults and that the risk of reinfection in children increased with age. Reinfections were not associated with severe disease in terms of hospitalization or intensive care admission and there were no fatalities within 28 days of the reinfection episode in children. Implications of all the Available Evidence SARS-CoV-2 reinfections are rare in children, especially younger children, and occurred mainly during the Delta wave in England. Reinfections were not associated with more severe disease or fatal outcomes in children. COVID-19 vaccinati n will provide further protection against primary infections and reinfections in children.

6.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 6: 100120, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The full reopening of schools in September 2020 was associated with an increase in COVID-19 cases and outbreaks in educational settings across England. METHODS: Primary and secondary schools reporting an outbreak (≥2 laboratory-confirmed cases within 14 days) to Public Health England (PHE) between 31 August and 18 October 2020 were contacted in November 2020 to complete an online questionnaire. INTERPRETATION: There were 969 school outbreaks reported to PHE, comprising 2% (n = 450) of primary schools and 10% (n = 519) of secondary schools in England. Of the 369 geographically-representative schools contacted, 179 completed the questionnaire (100 primary schools, 79 secondary schools) and 2,314 cases were reported. Outbreaks were larger and across more year groups in secondary schools than in primary schools. Teaching staff were more likely to be the index case in primary (48/100, 48%) than secondary (25/79, 32%) school outbreaks (P = 0.027). When an outbreak occurred, attack rates were higher in staff (881/17,362; 5.07; 95%CI, 4.75-5.41) than students, especially primary school teaching staff (378/3852; 9.81%; 95%CI, 8.90-10.82%) compared to secondary school teaching staff (284/7146; 3.97%; 95%CI, 3.79-5.69%). Secondary school students (1105/91,919; 1.20%; 95%CI, 1.13-1.28%) had higher attack rates than primary school students (328/39,027; 0.84%; 95%CI, 0.75-0.94%). CONCLUSIONS: A higher proportion of secondary schools than primary schools reported a COVID-19 outbreak and experienced larger outbreaks across multiple school year groups. The higher attack rate among teaching staff during an outbreak, especially in primary schools, suggests that additional protective measures may be needed. FUNDING: PHE.

8.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1788

ABSTRACT

Background: Children rarely develosevere or fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as compared to adults. We assessed disease trends, testing practices

9.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(12): 1180-1185, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-711661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess disease trends, testing practices, community surveillance, case-fatality and excess deaths in children as compared with adults during the first pandemic peak in England. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: Children with COVID-19 between January and May 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in confirmed COVID-19 cases, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity rates in children compared with adults; community prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) compared with adults, case-fatality rate in children with confirmed COVID-19 and excess childhood deaths compared with the previous 5 years. RESULTS: Children represented 1.1% (1,408/129,704) of SARS-CoV-2 positive cases between 16 January 2020 and 3 May 2020. In total, 540 305 people were tested for SARS-COV-2 and 129,704 (24.0%) were positive. In children aged <16 years, 35,200 tests were performed and 1408 (4.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared to 19.1%-34.9% adults. Childhood cases increased from mid-March and peaked on 11 April before declining. Among 2,961 individuals presenting with ARI in primary care, 351 were children and 10 (2.8%) were positive compared with 9.3%-45.5% in adults. Eight children died and four (case-fatality rate, 0.3%; 95% CI 0.07% to 0.7%) were due to COVID-19. We found no evidence of excess mortality in children. CONCLUSIONS: Children accounted for a very small proportion of confirmed cases despite the large numbers of children tested. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was low even in children with ARI. Our findings provide further evidence against the role of children in infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , England/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Public Health/trends
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