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1.
AIDS ; 36(9): 1315-1317, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931985

ABSTRACT

Current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines induce robust SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses in people with HIV (PWH). However, the rate of decay of effector immune responses has not been studied in these individuals. Here, we report a significant waning of antibody responses but persistent T-cell responses 6 months post vaccination in virally suppressed PWH with high CD4+ T-cell counts. These responses are comparable with those seen in healthy donors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma (CCP) for preventing infection in exposed, uninfected individuals is unknown. CCP might prevent infection when administered before symptoms or laboratory evidence of infection. METHODS: This double-blinded, phase 2 randomized, controlled trial (RCT) compared the efficacy and safety of prophylactic high titer (≥1:320 by Euroimmun ELISA) CCP with standard plasma. Asymptomatic participants aged ≥18 years with close contact exposure to a person with confirmed COVID-19 in the previous 120 hours and negative SARS-CoV-2 test within 24 hours before transfusion were eligible. The primary outcome was new SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 180 participants were enrolled; 87 were assigned to CCP and 93 to control plasma, and 170 transfused at 19 sites across the United States from June 2020 to March 2021. Two were excluded for screening SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity. Of the remaining 168 participants, 12/81 (14·8%) CCP and 13/87 (14·9%) control recipients developed SARS-CoV-2 infection; 6 (7·4%) CCP and 7 (8%) control recipients developed COVID-19 (infection with symptoms). There were no COVID-19-related hospitalizations in CCP and 2 in control recipients. Efficacy by restricted mean infection free time (RMIFT) by 28 days for all SARS-CoV-2 infections (25·3 vs. 25·2 days; p = 0·49) and COVID-19 (26·3 vs. 25·9 days; p = 0·35) was similar for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of high-titer CCP as post-exposure prophylaxis, while appearing safe, did not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0264298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887001

ABSTRACT

The association between COVID-19 symptoms and antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 is poorly characterized. We analyzed antibody levels in individuals with known SARS-CoV-2 infection to identify potential antibody-symptom associations. Convalescent plasma from 216 SARS-CoV-2 RNA+ individuals with symptomatology information were tested for the presence of IgG to the spike S1 subunit (Euroimmun ELISA), IgG to receptor binding domain (RBD, CoronaCHEK rapid test), and for IgG, IgA, and IgM to nucleocapsid (N, Bio-Rad ELISA). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having a COVID-19 symptom from the antibody response, adjusting for sex and age. Cough strongly associated with antibodies against S1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.33; 95% CI from 1.51 to 18.86) and RBD (aOR = 4.36; CI 1.49, 12.78). In contrast, sore throat significantly associated with the absence of antibodies to S1 and N (aOR = 0.25; CI 0.08, 0.80 and aOR = 0.31; 0.11, 0.91). Similarly, lack of symptoms associated with the absence of antibodies to N and RBD (aOR = 0.16; CI 0.03, 0.97 and aOR = 0.16; CI 0.03, 1.01). Cough appeared to be correlated with a seropositive result, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals exhibiting lower respiratory symptoms generate a robust antibody response. Conversely, those without symptoms or limited to a sore throat while infected with SARS-CoV-2 were likely to lack a detectable antibody response. These findings strongly support the notion that severity of infection correlates with robust antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/therapy , Cough , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Blood Adv ; 6(12): 3678-3683, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799125

ABSTRACT

The ongoing evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants severely limits available effective monoclonal antibody therapies. Effective drugs are also supply limited. COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) qualified for high antibody levels effectively reduces immunocompetent outpatient hospitalization. The Food and Drug Administration currently allows outpatient CCP for the immunosuppressed. Viral-specific antibody levels in CCP can range 10- to 100-fold between donors, unlike the uniform viral-specific monoclonal antibody dosing. Limited data are available on the efficacy of polyclonal CCP to neutralize variants. We examined 108 pre-δ/pre-ο donor units obtained before March 2021, 20 post-δ COVID-19/postvaccination units, and 1 pre-δ/pre-ο hyperimmunoglobulin preparation for variant-specific virus (vaccine-related isolate [WA-1], δ, and ο) neutralization correlated to Euroimmun S1 immunoglobulin G antibody levels. We observed a two- to fourfold and 20- to 40-fold drop in virus neutralization from SARS-CoV-2 WA-1 to δ or ο, respectively. CCP antibody levels in the upper 10% of the 108 donations as well as 100% of the post-δ COVID-19/postvaccination units and the hyperimmunoglobulin effectively neutralized all 3 variants. High-titer CCP neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants despite no previous donor exposure to the variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , United States
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac142, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788525

ABSTRACT

Background: Population-based seroprevalence studies offer comprehensive characterization of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread, but barriers exist and marginalized populations may not be captured. We assessed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody seroprevalence among decedents in Maryland over 6 months in 2020. Methods: Data were collected on decedents undergoing forensic postmortem examination in Maryland from 24 May through 30 November 2020 from whom a blood specimen could be collected. Those with available blood specimens were tested with the CoronaCHEK lateral flow antibody assay. We assessed monthly seroprevalence compared to the statewide estimated number of cases and proportion of positive test results (testing positivity). We used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of demographic characteristics, homelessness, and manner of death with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Results: Among 1906 decedents, 305 (16%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Monthly seroprevalence increased from 11% to 22% over time and was consistently higher than state-level estimates of testing positivity. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with 2- to 3.2-fold higher seropositivity (P < .05) irrespective of sex. Deaths due to motor vehicle crash were associated with 62% increased seropositivity (aPR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.15-2.28]) vs natural manner of death. Though seroprevalence was lower in decedents of illicit drug overdose vs nonoverdose in early months, this shifted, and seroprevalence was comparable by November 2020. Conclusions: Decedents undergoing forensic postmortem examination, especially those dying due to motor vehicle trauma, may be a sentinel population for COVID-19 spread in the general population and merits exploration in other states/regions.

6.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 9(5), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1781870

ABSTRACT

Background Population-based seroprevalence studies offer comprehensive characterization of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread, but barriers exist and marginalized populations may not be captured. We assessed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody seroprevalence among decedents in Maryland over 6 months in 2020. Methods Data were collected on decedents undergoing forensic postmortem examination in Maryland from 24 May through 30 November 2020 from whom a blood specimen could be collected. Those with available blood specimens were tested with the CoronaCHEK lateral flow antibody assay. We assessed monthly seroprevalence compared to the statewide estimated number of cases and proportion of positive test results (testing positivity). We used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of demographic characteristics, homelessness, and manner of death with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Results Among 1906 decedents, 305 (16%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Monthly seroprevalence increased from 11% to 22% over time and was consistently higher than state-level estimates of testing positivity. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with 2- to 3.2-fold higher seropositivity (P < .05) irrespective of sex. Deaths due to motor vehicle crash were associated with 62% increased seropositivity (aPR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.15–2.28]) vs natural manner of death. Though seroprevalence was lower in decedents of illicit drug overdose vs nonoverdose in early months, this shifted, and seroprevalence was comparable by November 2020. Conclusions Decedents undergoing forensic postmortem examination, especially those dying due to motor vehicle trauma, may be a sentinel population for COVID-19 spread in the general population and merits exploration in other states/regions. SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence was 16% among Maryland decedents undergoing forensic postmortem examination (May–November 2020). Hispanic ethnicity and motor vehicle deaths were associated with seropositivity. Estimates in decedents exemplify feasible/real-time data for disease spread and potential sentinel surveillance meriting exploration.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac130, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784386

ABSTRACT

Background: We sought to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic and clinical correlates of acute and convalescent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among emergency department (ED) patients in Baltimore. Methods: Remnant blood samples from 7450 unique patients were collected over 4 months in 2020 for SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Ab), HCV Ab, and HIV-1/2 antigen and Ab. Among them, 5012 patients were tested by polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 based on clinical suspicion. Sociodemographics, ED clinical presentations, and outcomes associated with coinfections were assessed. Results: Overall, 729 (9.8%) patients had SARS-CoV-2 (acute or convalescent), 934 (12.5%) HCV, 372 (5.0%) HIV infection, and 211 patients (2.8%) had evidence of any coinfection (HCV/HIV, 1.5%; SARS-CoV-2/HCV, 0.7%; SARS-CoV-2/HIV, 0.3%; SARS-CoV-2/HCV/HIV, 0.3%). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 (acute or convalescent) was significantly higher in those with HCV or HIV vs those without (13.6% vs 9.1%, P < .001). Key sociodemographic disparities (race, ethnicity, and poverty) and specific ED clinical characteristics were significantly correlated with having any coinfections vs no infection or individual monoinfection. Among those with HCV or HIV, aged 18-34 years, Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and a cardiovascular-related chief complaint had a significantly higher odds of having SARS-CoV-2 (prevalence ratios: 2.02, 2.37, 5.81, and 2.07, respectively). Conclusions: The burden of SARS-CoV-2, HCV, and HIV co-pandemics and their associations with specific sociodemographic disparities, clinical presentations, and outcomes suggest that urban EDs should consider implementing integrated screening and linkage-to-care programs for these 3 infections.

8.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779508

ABSTRACT

BackgroundBreakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinated individuals have been previously associated with suboptimal humoral immunity. However, less is known about breakthrough infections with the Omicron variant.MethodsWe analyzed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and cellular responses in healthy vaccine recipients who experienced breakthrough infections a median of 50 days after receiving a booster mRNA vaccine with an ACE2 binding inhibition assay and an ELISpot assay, respectively.ResultsWe found that high levels of antibodies inhibited vaccine strain spike protein binding to ACE2 but that lower levels inhibited Omicron variant spike protein binding to ACE2 in 4 boosted vaccine recipients prior to infection. The levels of antibodies that inhibited vaccine strain and Omicron spike protein binding after breakthrough in 18 boosted vaccine recipients were similar to levels seen in COVID-19-negative boosted vaccine recipients. In contrast, boosted vaccine recipients had significantly stronger T cell responses to both vaccine strain and Omicron variant spike proteins at the time of breakthrough.ConclusionOur data suggest that breakthrough infections with the Omicron variant can occur despite robust immune responses to the vaccine strain spike protein.FundingThis work was supported by the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 Vaccine-related Research Fund and by funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease intramural program as well as awards from the National Cancer Institute (U54CA260491) and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease (K08AI156021 and U01AI138897).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Hypersensitivity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
9.
JCI Insight ; 7(9)2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765225

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSome clinical features of severe COVID-19 represent blood vessel damage induced by activation of host immune responses initiated by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesized autoantibodies against angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor expressed on vascular endothelium, are generated during COVID-19 and are of mechanistic importance.MethodsIn an opportunity sample of 118 COVID-19 inpatients, autoantibodies recognizing ACE2 were detected by ELISA. Binding properties of anti-ACE2 IgM were analyzed via biolayer interferometry. Effects of anti-ACE2 IgM on complement activation and endothelial function were demonstrated in a tissue-engineered pulmonary microvessel model.ResultsAnti-ACE2 IgM (not IgG) autoantibodies were associated with severe COVID-19 and found in 18/66 (27.2%) patients with severe disease compared with 2/52 (3.8%) of patients with moderate disease (OR 9.38, 95% CI 2.38-42.0; P = 0.0009). Anti-ACE2 IgM autoantibodies were rare (2/50) in non-COVID-19 ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Unexpectedly, ACE2-reactive IgM autoantibodies in COVID-19 did not undergo class-switching to IgG and had apparent KD values of 5.6-21.7 nM, indicating they are T cell independent. Anti-ACE2 IgMs activated complement and initiated complement-binding and functional changes in endothelial cells in microvessels, suggesting they contribute to the angiocentric pathology of COVID-19.ConclusionWe identify anti-ACE2 IgM as a mechanism-based biomarker strongly associated with severe clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which has therapeutic implications.FUNDINGBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Gates Philanthropy Partners, Donald B. and Dorothy L. Stabler Foundation, and Jerome L. Greene Foundation; NIH R01 AR073208, R01 AR069569, Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award (5K12GM123914-03), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R21HL145216, and Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE1746891).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Autoantibodies , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(3): e0239021, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765077

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments (EDs) can serve as surveillance sites for infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and to monitor the prevalence of vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients attending an urban ED in Baltimore City. Using 1,914 samples of known exposure status, we developed an algorithm to differentiate previously infected, vaccinated, and unexposed individuals using a combination of antibody assays. We applied this testing algorithm to 4,360 samples from ED patients obtained in the spring of 2020 and 2021. Using multinomial logistic regression, we determined factors associated with infection and vaccination. For the algorithm, sensitivity and specificity for identifying vaccinated individuals were 100% and 99%, respectively, and 84% and 100% for previously infected individuals. Among the ED subjects, seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 increased from 2% to 24% between April 2020 and March 2021. Vaccination prevalence rose to 11% by mid-March 2021. Marked differences in burden of disease and vaccination coverage were seen by sex, race, and ethnicity. Hispanic patients, though accounting for 7% of the study population, had the highest relative burden of disease (17% of total infections) but with similar vaccination rates. Women and white individuals were more likely to be vaccinated than men or Black individuals. Individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 can often be differentiated from vaccinated individuals using a serologic testing algorithm. The utility of this algorithm can aid in monitoring SARS-CoV-2 exposure and vaccination uptake frequencies and can potentially reflect gender, race, and ethnic health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
mBio ; 13(2): e0361721, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714362

ABSTRACT

There is a growing concern that ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 could lead to variants of concern (VOC) that are capable of avoiding some or all of the multifaceted immune response generated by both prior infection or vaccination, with the recently described B.1.1.529 (Omicron) VOC being of particular interest. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from PCR-confirmed, recovered COVID-19 convalescent individuals (n = 30) infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the United States collected in April and May 2020 who possessed at least one or more of six different HLA haplotypes were selected for examination of their anti-SARS-CoV-2 CD8+ T-cell responses using a multiplexed peptide-major histocompatibility complex tetramer staining approach. This analysis examined if the previously identified viral epitopes targeted by CD8+ T cells in these individuals (n = 52 distinct epitopes) are mutated in the newly described Omicron VOC (n = 50 mutations). Within this population, only one low-prevalence epitope from the Spike protein, restricted to two HLA alleles and found in 2/30 (7%) individuals, contained a single amino acid change associated with the Omicron VOC. These data suggest that virtually all individuals with existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 CD8+ T-cell responses should recognize the Omicron VOC and that SARS-CoV-2 has not evolved extensive T-cell escape mutations at this time. IMPORTANCE The newly identified Omicron variant of concern contains more mutations than any of the previous variants described to date. In addition, many of the mutations associated with the Omicron variant are found in areas that are likely bound by neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that the first line of immunological defense against COVID-19 is compromised. However, both natural infection and vaccination develop T-cell-based responses in addition to antibodies. This study examined if the parts of the virus, or epitopes, targeted by the CD8+ T-cell response in 30 individuals who recovered from COVID-19 in 2020 were mutated in the Omicron variant. Only one of 52 epitopes identified in this population contained an amino acid that was mutated in Omicron. These data suggest that the T-cell immune response in previously infected, and most likely vaccinated, individuals should still be effective against Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Amino Acids , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 174, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, key subpopulations such as healthcare workers (HCW) may have a higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. In Uganda, limited access to Personal Protective Equipment and lack of clarity on the extent/pattern of community spread may exacerbate this situation. The country established infection prevention/control measures such as lockdowns and proper hand hygiene. However, due to resource limitations and fatigue, compliance is low, posing continued onward transmission risk. This study aimed to describe extent of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in selected populations within the Rakai region of Uganda. METHODS: From 30th November 2020 to 8th January 2021, we collected venous blood from 753 HCW at twenty-six health facilities in South-Central Uganda and from 227 population-cohort participants who reported specific COVID-19 like symptoms (fever, cough, loss of taste and appetite) in a prior phone-based survey conducted (between May and August 2020) during the first national lockdown. 636 plasma specimens collected from individuals considered high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection, prior to the first confirmed COVID-19 case in Uganda were also retrieved. Specimens were tested for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 using the CoronaChek™ rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG lateral flow test assay. IgM only positive samples were confirmed using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) (Architect AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgM) which targets the spike protein. SARS-CoV-2 exposure was defined as either confirmed IgM, both IgM and IgG or sole IgG positivity. Overall seroprevalence in each participant group was estimated, adjusting for test performance. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in HCW was 26.7% [95%CI: 23.5, 29.8] with no difference by sex, age, or cadre. We observed no association between PPE use and seropositivity among exposed healthcare workers. Of the phone-based survey participants, 15.6% [95%CI: 10.9, 20.3] had antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, with no difference by HIV status, sex, age, or occupation. Among 636 plasma specimens collected prior to the first confirmed COVID-19 case, 2.3% [95%CI: 1.2, 3.5] were reactive. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest high seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among HCW and substantial exposure in persons presenting with specific COVID-19 like symptoms in the general population of South-Central Uganda. Based on current limitations in serological test confirmation, it remains unclear whether seroprevalence among plasma specimens collected prior to confirmation of the first COVID-19 case implies prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure in Uganda.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Communicable Disease Control , Health Personnel , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Uganda/epidemiology
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1268-1270, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699639

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that certain vaccines induce suboptimal responses in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, PLWH). However, responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have not been fully characterized in these patients. Here we show that the BNT162b2 vaccine induces robust immune responses comparable to responses in healthy donors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
14.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327587

ABSTRACT

The association between COVID-19 symptoms and antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 is poorly characterized. We analyzed antibody levels in individuals with known SARS-CoV-2 infection to identify potential antibody-symptom associations. Convalescent plasma from 216 SARS-CoV-2 RNA+ individuals with symptomatology information were tested for the presence of IgG to the spike S1 subunit (Euroimmun ELISA), IgG to receptor binding domain (RBD, CoronaCHEK rapid test), and for IgG, IgA, and IgM to nucleocapsid (N, Bio-Rad ELISA). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having a COVID-19 symptom from the antibody response, adjusting for sex and age. Cough strongly associated with antibodies against S1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]= 5.33;95% CI from 1.51 to 18.86) and RBD (aOR=4.36;CI 1.49, 12.78). In contrast, sore throat significantly associated with the absence of antibodies to S1 and N (aOR=0.25;CI 0.08, 0.80 and aOR=0.31;0.11, 0.91). Similarly, lack of symptoms associated with the absence of antibodies to N and RBD (aOR=0.16;CI 0.03, 0.97 and aOR=0.16;CI 0.03, 1.01). Cough appeared to be correlated with a seropositive result, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals exhibiting lower respiratory symptoms generate a robust antibody response. Conversely, those without symptoms or limited to a sore throat while infected with SARS-CoV-2 were likely to lack a detectable antibody response. These findings strongly support the notion that severity of infection correlates with robust antibody response.

15.
JCI Insight ; 7(5)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662370

ABSTRACT

Benchmarks for protective immunity from infection or severe disease after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are still being defined. Here, we characterized virus neutralizing and ELISA antibody levels, cellular immune responses, and viral variants in 4 separate groups: healthy controls (HCs) weeks (early) or months (late) following vaccination in comparison with symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 after partial or full mRNA vaccination. During the period of the study, most symptomatic breakthrough infections were caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant. Neutralizing antibody levels in the HCs were sustained over time against the vaccine parent virus but decreased against the Alpha variant, whereas IgG titers and T cell responses against the parent virus and Alpha variant declined over time. Both partially and fully vaccinated patients with symptomatic infections had lower virus neutralizing antibody levels against the parent virus than the HCs, similar IgG antibody titers, and similar virus-specific T cell responses measured by IFN-γ. Compared with HCs, neutralization activity against the Alpha variant was lower in the partially vaccinated infected patients and tended to be lower in the fully vaccinated infected patients. In this cohort of breakthrough infections, parent virus neutralization was the superior predictor of breakthrough infections with the Alpha variant of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma (CCP) for preventing infection in exposed, uninfected individuals is unknown. We hypothesized that CCP might prevent infection when administered before symptoms or laboratory evidence of infection. METHODS: This double-blinded, phase 2 randomized, controlled trial (RCT) compared the efficacy and safety of prophylactic high titer (≥1:320) CCP with standard plasma. Asymptomatic participants aged ≥18 years with close contact exposure to a person with confirmed COVID-19 in the previous 120 hours and negative SARS-CoV-2 test within 24 hours before transfusion were eligible. The primary outcome was development of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 180 participants were enrolled;87 were assigned to CCP and 93 to control plasma, and 170 transfused at 19 sites across the United States from June 2020 to March 2021. Two were excluded for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity at screening. Of the remaining 168 participants, 12/81 (14.8%) CCP and 13/87 (14.9%) control recipients developed SARS-CoV-2 infection;6 (7.4%) CCP and 7 (8%) control recipients developed COVID-19 (infection with symptoms). There were no COVID-19-related hospitalizations in CCP and 2 in control recipients. There were 28 adverse events in CCP and 58 in control recipients. Efficacy by restricted mean infection free time (RMIFT) by 28 days for all SARS-CoV-2 infections (25.3 vs. 25.2 days;p=0.49) and COVID-19 (26.3 vs. 25.9 days;p=0.35) were similar for both groups. CONCLUSION: In this trial, which enrolled persons with recent exposure to a person with confirmed COVID-19, high titer CCP as post-exposure prophylaxis appeared safe, but did not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrial.gov number NCT04323800 .

17.
Vox Sang ; 116(7): 766-773, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: ABO blood group may affect risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or severity of COVID-19. We sought to determine whether IgG, IgA and neutralizing antibody (nAb) to SARS-CoV-2 vary by ABO blood group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among eligible convalescent plasma donors, ABO blood group was determined via agglutination of reagent A1 and B cells, IgA and IgG were quantified using the Euroimmun anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, and nAb titres were quantified using a microneutralization assay. Differences in titre distribution were examined by ABO blood group using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of high nAb titre (≥1:160) were estimated by blood group using multivariable modified Poisson regression models that adjusted for age, sex, hospitalization status and time since SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 202 potential donors, 65 (32%) were blood group A, 39 (19%) were group B, 13 (6%) were group AB, and 85 (42%) were group O. Distribution of nAb titres significantly differed by ABO blood group, whereas there were no significant differences in anti-spike IgA or anti-spike IgG titres by ABO blood group. There were significantly more individuals with high nAb titre (≥1:160) among those with blood group B, compared with group O (aPR = 1·9 [95%CI = 1·1-3·3], P = 0·029). Fewer individuals had a high nAb titre among those with blood group A, compared with group B (aPR = 0·6 [95%CI = 0·4-1·0], P = 0·053). CONCLUSION: Eligible CCP donors with blood group B may have relatively higher neutralizing antibody titres. Additional studies evaluating ABO blood groups and antibody titres that incorporate COVID-19 severity are needed.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S254-S255, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564385

ABSTRACT

Background As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, growing attention has been placed on whether patients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 have an increased risk of developing and/or exacerbating medical complications. Our study aimed to determine whether individuals with previous evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to their current emergency department (ED) visit were more likely to present with specific clinical sign/symptoms, laboratory markers, and/or clinical complications. Methods A COVID-19 seroprevalence study was conducted at Johns Hopkins Hospital ED (JHH ED) from March 16 to May 31, 2020. Evidence of ever having SARS-CoV-2 infection (PCR positive or IgG Ab positive) was found in 268 ED patients at this time (i.e. infected and/or previously infected). These patients were matched 1:2 to controls, by date, to other patients who attended the JHHED. Clinical signs/symptoms, laboratory markers, and/or clinical complications associated with ED visits and/or hospitalizations at JHH within 6 months after their initial ED visit was ed through chart review for these 804 patients. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. Results Among 804 ED patients analyzed, 50% were female, 56% Black race, and 15% Hispanic with a mean age of 47 years. 323 (40%) patients had at least 1 subsequent ED visit and additional 70 (9%) had been admitted to JHH. After controlling for race and ethnicity, patients with evidence of current or prior COVID-19 infection were more likely to require supplemental oxygen [hazards ratio (HR) =2.53;p=0.005] and have a cardiovascular complication [HR =2.13;p=0.008] during the subsequent ED visit than the non-infected patients. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that those previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 have an increased frequency of cardiovascular complications and need for supplemental oxygen in ED visits in the months after their initial SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected. EDs could serve as a critical surveillance site for monitoring post-acute COVID-19 syndrome complications. Disclosures Richard E. Rothman, PhD, MD, Chem bio (Grant/Research Support)

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[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid point-of-care tests (POCTs) for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies vary in performance. A critical need exists to perform head-to-head comparison of these assays. METHODS: Performance of fifteen different lateral flow POCTs for the detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies was performed on a well characterized set of 100 samples. Of these, 40 samples from known SARS-CoV-2-infected, convalescent individuals (average of 45 days post symptom onset) were used to assess sensitivity. Sixty samples from the pre-pandemic era (negative control), that were known to have been infected with other respiratory viruses (rhinoviruses A, B, C and/or coronavirus 229E, HKU1, NL63 OC43) were used to assess specificity. The timing of seroconversion was assessed on five POCTs on a panel of 272 longitudinal samples from 47 patients of known time since symptom onset. RESULTS: For the assays that were evaluated, the sensitivity and specificity for any reactive band ranged from 55%-97% and 78%-100%, respectively. When assessing the performance of the IgM and the IgG bands alone, sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0%-88% and 80%-100% for IgM and 25%-95% and 90%-100% for IgG. Longitudinal testing revealed that median time post symptom onset to a positive result was 7 days (IQR 5.4, 9.8) for IgM and 8.2 days (IQR 6.3 to 11.3). CONCLUSION: The testing performance varied widely among POCTs with most variation related to the sensitivity of the assays. The IgM band was most likely to misclassify pre-pandemic samples. The appearance of IgM and IgG bands occurred almost simultaneously.

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