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1.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143711

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is constantly evolving, leading to new variants. We analysed data from 4400 SARS-CoV-2-positive samples in order to pursue epidemiological variant surveillance and to evaluate their impact on public health in Italy in the period of April-December 2021. The main circulating strain (76.2%) was the Delta variant, followed by the Alpha (13.3%), the Omicron (5.3%), and the Gamma variants (2.9%). The B.1.1 lineages, Eta, Beta, Iota, Mu, and Kappa variants, represented around 1% of cases. There were 48.2% of subjects who had not been vaccinated, and they had a lower median age compared to the vaccinated subjects (47 vs. 61 years). An increasing number of infections in the vaccinated subjects were observed over time, with the highest proportion in November (85.2%). The variants correlated with clinical status; the largest proportion of symptomatic patients (59.6%) was observed with the Delta variant, while subjects harbouring the Gamma variant showed the highest proportion of asymptomatic infection (21.6%), albeit also deaths (5.4%). The Omicron variant was only found in the vaccinated subjects, of which 47% had been hospitalised. The diffusivity and pathogenicity associated with the different SARS-CoV-2 variants are likely to have relevant public health implications, both at the national and international levels. Our study provides data on the rapid changes in the epidemiological landscape of the SARS-CoV-2 variants in Italy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3158-3164, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085668

ABSTRACT

Data regarding the immunological memory and long-time kinetics of immunoglobulin (IgG) against viral nucleoprotein (NP) and spike protein S1 receptor-binding domain (S1RBD) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are lacking. All consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to our Clinic between March 1, 2020, and May 1, 2020, who were tested at hospital admission for anti-S1RBD and anti-NP IgG were enrolled. Serum samples were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with the use of two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results are expressed as optical density measurements at 450 nm (OD450 ). Overall, 111 patients were included; the median (q1-q3) age was 57 (49-73) years, 59 (53%) males. According to disease severity, 31 (28%), 47 (42%), and 33 (30%) patients were considered affected by mild/moderate, severe, and critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, respectively. During hospitalization, patients with the critical disease showed a higher peak value of both anti-NP (median OD450 : 3.66 vs. 3.06 vs. 3.00 respectively, p = .043) and anti-S1RBD IgG (median OD450 : 2.33 vs. 1.6 vs. 0.91, respectively, p < .001). By testing 48 subjects 6 months or above from discharge, a significant decrease of anti-NP IgG was observed (r: -0.5838; p < .0001), whereas anti-S1RBD IgG showed only a modest reduction (r: -0.1507; p = .0647). Accordingly, 10 (21%) and 2 (4%) patients had a negative serological status for anti-NP and anti-S1RBD IgG, respectively; no association with clinical severity was found. IgGs against SARS-CoV-2 persisted several months after discharge, regardless of disease severity, suggesting that vaccination could be a valid strategy to fight the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
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