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1.
Cardiol Rev ; 30(3): 129-133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320339

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by a clinical spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic or mild cases to severe pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used as rescue therapy in appropriate patients with COVID-19 complicated by ARDS refractory to mechanical ventilation. In this study, we review the indications, challenges, complications, and clinical outcomes of ECMO utilization in critically ill patients with COVID-19-related ARDS. Most of these patients required venovenous ECMO. Although the risk of mortality and complications is very high among patients with COVID-19 requiring ECMO, it is similar to that of non-COVID-19 patients with ARDS requiring ECMO. ECMO is a resource-intensive therapy, with an inherent risk of complications, which makes its availability limited and its use challenging in the midst of a pandemic. Well-maintained data registries, with timely reporting of outcomes and evidence-based clinical guidelines, are necessary for the careful allocation of resources and for the development of standardized utilization protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(9): 1013-1017, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We experienced a high incidence of pulmonary barotrauma among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) at our institution. In current study, we sought to evaluate the incidence, clinical outcomes, and characteristics of barotrauma among COVID-19 patients receiving invasive and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and requiring oxygen support or positive airway pressure for ARDS who presented to our tertiary-care center from March through November, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 353 patients met our inclusion criteria, of which 232 patients who required heated high-flow nasal cannula, continuous or bilevel positive airway pressure were assigned to non-invasive group. The remaining 121 patients required invasive mechanical ventilation and were assigned to invasive group. Of the total 353 patients, 32 patients (65.6% males) with a mean age of 63 ± 11 years developed barotrauma in the form of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, or pneumomediastinum. The incidence of barotrauma was 4.74% (11/232) and 17.35% (21/121) in the non-invasive group and invasive group, respectively. The median length of hospital stay was 22 (15.7 -33.0) days with an overall mortality of 62.5% (n = 20). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 ARDS have a high incidence of barotrauma. Pulmonary barotrauma should be considered in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who exhibit worsening of their respiratory disease as it is likely associated with a high mortality risk. Utilizing lung-protective ventilation strategies may reduce the risk of barotrauma.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , Barotrauma/epidemiology , Barotrauma/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Indian Heart J ; 73(1): 91-98, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to cause worse outcomes in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease, especially in patients with acute cardiac injury, which is determined by elevated levels of high-sensitivity troponin. There is a paucity of data on the impact of congestive heart failure (CHF) on outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a literature search of PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases from 11/1/2019 till 06/07/2020, and identified all relevant studies reporting cardiovascular comorbidities, cardiac biomarkers, disease severity, and survival. Pooled data from the selected studies was used for metanalysis to identify the impact of risk factors and cardiac biomarker elevation on disease severity and/or mortality. RESULTS: We collected pooled data on 5967 COVID-19 patients from 20 individual studies. We found that both non-survivors and those with severe disease had an increased risk of acute cardiac injury and cardiac arrhythmias, our pooled relative risk (RR) was - 8.52 (95% CI 3.63-19.98) (p < 0.001); and 3.61 (95% CI 2.03-6.43) (p = 0.001), respectively. Mean difference in the levels of Troponin-I, CK-MB, and NT-proBNP was higher in deceased and severely infected patients. The RR of in-hospital mortality was 2.35 (95% CI 1.18-4.70) (p = 0.022) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.12-2.05) (p = 0.008) among patients who had pre-existing CHF and hypertension, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 infection appears to significantly adversely impact patient prognosis and survival. Pre-existence of CHF, and high cardiac biomarkers like NT-pro BNP and CK-MB levels in COVID-19 patients correlates with worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Failure/mortality , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Troponin/blood
4.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 117-134, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889359

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine, initially used as an antimalarial, is used as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of autoimmune and rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Lately, there has been interest in its potential efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, with several speculated mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on the mechanisms surrounding hydroxychloroquine. The review is an in-depth analysis of the antimalarial, immunomodulatory, and antiviral mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine, with detailed and novel pictorial explanations. The mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine are related to potential cardiotoxic manifestations and demonstrate potential adverse effects when used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, current literature associated with hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19 has been analyzed to interrelate the mechanisms, adverse effects, and use of hydroxychloroquine in the current pandemic. Currently, there is insufficient evidence about the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19. KEY MESSAGES HCQ, initially an antimalarial agent, is used as an immunomodulatory agent for managing several autoimmune diseases, for which its efficacy is linked to inhibiting lysosomal antigen processing, MHC-II antigen presentation, and TLR functions. HCQ is generally well-tolerated although severe life-threatening adverse effects including cardiomyopathy and conduction defects have been reported. HCQ use in COVID-19 should be discouraged outside clinical trials under strict medical supervision.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antimalarials/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Pandemics
5.
Cureus ; 12(8): e10157, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761119

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the binding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors present on various locations such as the pulmonary alveolar epithelium and vascular endothelium. In COVID-19 patients, the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with these receptors in the cerebral blood vessels has been attributed to stroke. Although the incidence of acute ischemic stroke is relatively low, ranging from 1% to 6%, the mortality associated with it is substantially high, reaching as high as 38%. This case series describes three distinct yet similar scenarios of COVID-19 positive patients with several underlying comorbidities, wherein two of the patients presented to our hospital with sudden onset right-sided weakness, later diagnosed with ischemic stroke, and one patient who developed an acute intracerebral hemorrhage during his hospital stay. The patients were diagnosed with acute stroke as a complication of COVID-19 infection. We also provide an insight into the possible mechanisms responsible for the life-threatening complication. Physicians should have a low threshold for suspecting stroke in COVID-19 patients, and close observation should be kept on such patients particularly those with clinical evidence of traditional risk factors.

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